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Article

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...

Article

Arthur J. Ness

revised by Jonas Westover

(b Sierre, Switzerland, Feb 17, 1850; d Buffalo, NY, Feb 18, 1939). Swiss composer, organist, and scholar, active in the United States. Born and trained in Europe, Bonvin served as organist and choirmaster for a German Jesuit order in Exaeten, the Netherlands. He came to the United States after being ordained as a priest in England in 1885. In 1887, Bonvin was sent by the Church to Buffalo, New York, where he lived for the remainder of his life. While there, he became a key figure in the musical life of Canisius College. He first established a choir, which he directed for nearly twenty years. He then founded and conducted the school’s orchestra, beginning in 1881. In addition to his duties at the college, Bonvin worked with a local school, the Sacred Heart Academy, in 1922.

Very active as a composer, Bonvin wrote for a variety of ensembles, even though his specialty was in sacred vocal works. In addition to several works for piano and pieces for organ, Bonvin’s catalog includes masses, motets, litanies, four children’s operas, eleven song cycles, a symphony, six tone poems, and 17 works for chamber ensembles. His first orchestral composition was a short work entitled ...

Article

Elaine Brody

revised by Pierre Guillot

(Marie Anne)

(b Rochecorbon, nr Vouvray, May 12, 1863; d Toulon, Nov 8, 1909). French music scholar, teacher and composer. He was taught composition by Franck and the piano by Marmontel and was maître de chapelle and organist at Nogent-sur-Marne from July 1887 until March 1890 when the minister of education commissioned him to assemble a collection of early Basque music (published in 1897 as the Archives de la tradition basque). In 1890 he went to Paris where, as maître de chapelle at St Gervais-St Protais, he organized (1892) the Semaines Saintes de St Gervais, a series of musical services at which the best-known works of French and Italian Renaissance composers were performed by Bordes’ singers, the Chanteurs de St Gervais. Indeed, he dedicated most of his short life (sometimes at the expense of his other creative work) to the revival of sacred and secular Renaissance polyphony, much of which had been completely neglected for centuries, and to encouraging young musicians to look to the past for inspiration....

Article

Katharine Ellis

(b Paris, May 15, 1797; d Paris, March 22, 1850). French music historian and librarian. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, thereafter receiving a degree in law. However, being of independent means, he was able to devote himself to music. An amateur cellist, he received compositional and theoretical training in music from Desvignes, Cherubini and Reicha, as a result of which he composed several pieces (none of which was published), including two string quartets, a Passion, a ballet, several masses, and an opéra comique performed c1820 at the Hôtel Lambert. Fétis claimed the credit for turning Bottée towards ‘l’archéologie musicale’ in 1827; however, Choron and Perne were also influential.

In 1826 Bottée travelled to Italy, Germany and Austria, meeting Kiesewetter in Vienna; thereafter they maintained lifelong correspondence. In 1831 he began unsalaried work as librarian at the Paris Conservatoire, restoring order after Fétis’s departure; he remained in the post until ...

Article

Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici

(b Turin, March 15, 1800; d Milan, Feb 28, 1876). Italian composer and theorist. As a composer he was largely self-taught, his musical interest having been discouraged by his father who died in 1817. After a period in Turin, where he was befriended by Bernardo Ottani, he became a music teacher in Milan and in 1822 went to Voghera as music director and conductor at the Teatro Civico (according to his pupil Edoardo Perelli he was also maestro di cappella at the church there). In 1829 he became maestro di cappella at Vigevano Cathedral and in 1842 applied for the same post, then vacant, at Milan Cathedral. He received the Milan appointment only in 1847, after having in 1844 become maestro at Casale Monferrato Cathedral, and remained there until his death.

Boucheron composed two operas (Ettore Fieramosca and Le nozze al castello) and some farces, none of them performed. Three of his songs and an organ fantasia were published by Ricordi, and four symphonies are in the Milan Cathedral archives. His ...

Article

Elaine Brody

revised by Richard Langham Smith

(Albert)

(b Nantes, Feb 2, 1840; d Vernouillet, Yvelines, July 4, 1910). French scholar and composer. He was a nephew of Billault, the famous minister of the Second Empire, and prepared for a career in law, but entered Ambroise Thomas’ class at the Conservatoire in 1859, a year after his comic opera L’atelier de Prague had been performed in Nantes. He won the Prix de Rome in 1862 with his cantata Louise de Mézières, and during his subsequent visit to Italy developed an interest in both the music of Palestrina’s time and folk music. In 1868 he moved from Nantes to Paris and shortly thereafter founded the Société Bourgault-Ducoudray, an amateur choral group which performed the works of Lassus, Palestrina, Janequin, Bach and Handel among others. He was also one of the founders of the Société Nationale de Musique. In 1874 he travelled to Greece to study ancient and popular Greek music; this journey resulted in several writings and the publication of collections of Greek folksongs, harmonized by himself. He subsequently became interested in the music of Brittany, collecting folksongs from local singers in a published collection and harmonizing them with sensitivity, adding a copious description of his methods, the modal structure of the music and its performance practice. From ...

Article

Dorothy de Val

(b Melrose, Aug 8, 1858; d Dropmore, nr Canterbury, Aug 22, 1929). English folksong collector and scholar. The great-granddaughter of John Broadwood (1732–1812), founder of the piano firm, and daughter of Henry Fowler Broadwood (1811–93), she spent her youth at the family home at Lyne, Sussex, where she developed an interest in local folksong. Inspired by her uncle, John Broadwood (1798–1864), she reissued his collection of folksongs, Old English Songs (1843) with H.F. Birch Reynardson as Sussex Songs (1890). She also travelled with Baring-Gould to Cornwall, to collect folksongs, and collaborated with J.A. Fuller Maitland to publish English County Songs (1893), thus establishing herself as a key figure in the folksong revival.

Her arrival in London (1894) precipitated a greater involvement with musical life, especially early music for which her voice was well suited. She also flourished as an amateur singer in charitable concerts. She continued her work on folksong, both arranging songs for performance by singers such as Plunket Greene, and composing some of her own in a similar style, with encouragement from Liza Lehmann and Arthur Somervell. In ...

Article

(b 1843–4; d ?1917). English translator . He was a scholar of Oriel College, Oxford (BA 1866), and was ordained in the Church of England in 1868. He was choirmaster and organist of Christ Church, Marylebone, London, from 1878 to 1882.

For the production of Così fan tutte (at that time rarely staged) by the Royal College of Music at the Savoy Theatre in 1890, he wrote an amusing and elegant English version, ‘translated and adapted from the original Italian and the German paraphrase’, in a style Richard Brinsley Sheridan would not have disdained. It was published in vocal score by Novello, with the characters Fiordiligi and Guglielmo renamed Isidora and Gratiano, presumably for the convenience of English tongues. The long survival of this version, with modifications, extended to the ENO production of 1990. Browne also translated Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad (RCM, Savoy, 1891) and Hermann Goetz’s ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, Oct 3, 1839; d Iaşi, Feb 17, 1923). Romanian writer on music, folklorist and violinist. He studied music in Iaşi (1855–60) and at the Paris Conservatoire with Reber, Clapisson and Alard (1861–5). At the Iaşi Conservatory he held posts as professor of violin (1860–61) and of music theory (1893–1903). He undertook concert tours in Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Italy, Asia Minor and elsewhere, and collected folklore material of various peoples, particularly of the Romanians in Moldavia, Dobruja and Transylvania. The published results concerned wedding and burial customs (including remarkable studies on dirges), and Romanian folk music instruments. He was a founder of Romanian musicology, and published research on music education, the musical theatre, military songs and church choirs. He was also the founder of Romanian music lexicography: he edited the first Romanian dictionary of music (Dicţionar muzical...

Article

(b Dendermonde, Aug 16, 1812; d Antwerp, Dec 8, 1889). Belgian music historian. He studied music from the age of seven under the direction of the choirmaster Troch of Onze-Lieve Vrouwkerk, Dendermonde, and was later a cello pupil of François Devigne. He completed his humanistic studies at the Royal College of Ghent and graduated as a doctor of law at Ghent University in 1832, all the while maintaining his interest in music. He began composing when he was 18, and shortly after his arrival at the university founded a symphonic society, the Lyre Académique. In 1836 his services to music brought him membership of the state jury for the Prix de Rome.

Upon his appointment as churchwarden at Onze-Lieve-Vrouwkerk, Dendermonde, he undertook a catalogue of the old church archives, and this project initiated his career of historical study. He next occupied himself with cataloguing the archives of St Lambert's Cathedral, Liège, and of Antwerp Cathedral, thus acquiring a unique source of information about the golden age of Flemish music. He wrote several valuable monographs, of which ...

Article

Malcolm Turner

(b Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], May 29, 1859; d Berlin, Sept 18, 1936). German philologist. He studied piano and music theory with Constanz Berneker, and considered musicology as a career before choosing German philology. He taught in Halle, where he became reader in 1897, became professor in Berlin in 1900 and was finally appointed general secretary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. His musical interests led him, in his chosen field of medieval humanism, to devote particular attention to the Minnesinger; in addition to his valuable work on the origin and decline of the Minnesang he was the first to place the study of Walther von der Vogelweide on a sound historical basis.

Reinmar der Alte und Walther von der Vogelweide (diss., U. of Leipzig, 1879; Leipzig, 1880, enlarged 2/1928/R) Über die musikalische Bildung der deutschen Dichter, insbesondere der Minnesinger im 13. Jahrhundert (Halle, 1884) Studentensprache und Studentenlied in Halle vor hundert Jahren...

Article

Janna Saslaw

(b Berlin, Nov 26, 1838; d Berlin, Jan 18, 1900). German music theorist and conductor. His maternal grandfather was the famous tenor Karl Bader; his father, Robert Bussler, was a painter, author and privy counsellor. Ludwig studied music with A.E. Grell, Siegfried Dehn (theory) and W.F. Wieprecht (instrumentation). From 1865 he taught theory at the Ganz School of Music (later the Schwantzer Conservatory) in Berlin. In 1874 he was nominated professor at the Mohr Conservatory and in 1877 he resumed his post at the Schwantzer Conservatory. From 1879 he taught theory at the Stern Conservatory, receiving the title of royal professor in 1898. Bussler was also active as a conductor at various Berlin theatres. In 1883 he began contributing music criticism to the Nationalzeitung, and he also wrote for other Berlin journals.

Riemann noted that the wide acceptance of Bussler's theoretical works was due to their practical focus. Bussler's texts are full of examples from 18th- and 19th-century masters, and are punctuated by many exercises. Like Riemann, Bussler wrote about a large variety of musical subjects, including harmony, counterpoint, form, melodic construction, modulation and instrumentation. Contemporary appreciation of Bussler's work is indicated by the fact that Russian editions of five of his works were completed in the mid-1880s. S.I. Taneyev personally translated ...

Article

Robert Layton

revised by Lennart Rabes

(Fredrik Bernadotte)

(b Stockholm, Oct 13, 1821; d Stockholm, July 22, 1909). Swedish composer and scholar. He followed his father in a military career, rising to the rank of captain in 1857. During the 1840s he established a reputation in Stockholm as a pianist and song composer. In the following decade he developed his creative talent in a number of chamber works, the Piano Trio in E♭ (1850), a cello duo (1851) and, more particularly, in the first of his two quartets, the Quartetto svedese (1856, rev. 1895). He was active as a teacher in the late 1850s and early 1860s; in 1866 he succeeded August Berwald as inspector of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, and in 1872 he was appointed professor. In 1871 he published a theory work for schools (Allmän musiklära, till skolornas tjenst). After a period as conductor of the Turku orchestral society (...

Article

Sergio Lattes

(b Venice, June 14, 1778; d Padua, Jan 24, 1874). Italian musicologist. A magistrate by profession, he lived in Venice until 1827, taking an active part in the city’s musical life and helping to found the Istituto Filarmonico, a concert centre and music school (1811–16). From 1827 to 1840 he was a judge of the Milan Court of Appeal and then presiding judge of the Rovigo court. Marginally compromised in the eyes of the Austrians by his part in the Revolution of 1848, he withdrew from public life in 1850.

Caffi studied music from his early youth: counterpoint under Matteo Rauzzini, Mayr and Giuseppe Scatena (a pupil of Lotti), and singing and the harpsichord under Francesco Gardi. Among his compositions, all in the Marciana library, Venice, are cantatas, an oratorio, a farce and an oboe concerto. He is mainly important, however, for his historical and scholarly research. His ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Kensington, London, Nov 20, 1766; d Bristol, May 15, 1821). English composer and theorist. Entering music as a largely self-taught amateur, he became a popular glee composer and a respected authority on music theory.

He was the son of a builder, Thomas Callcott, by his second wife, Charlotte Wall, and was educated at a private school by William Young; he was a brilliant student of classics, Hebrew and philosophy. Until he was 13 it was planned that he should become a surgeon, but he was so disgusted by witnessing an operation that he gave up this idea. He had learnt something of music from Henry Whitney, organist of Kensington parish church, and he began to practise the organ seriously while continuing to pursue, untaught, the study of languages and mathematics. He also learnt to play the clarinet and the oboe, and began to compose. In 1782 he became acquainted with Samuel Arnold and Benjamin Cooke, who encouraged him to enter the profession; the next year he became assistant organist of St George’s, Bloomsbury. Through Cooke he was admitted as a ‘supernumerary hautboy’ at the concerts of the Academy of Ancient Music. From this time onwards his efforts in composition were mainly devoted to the glee. His first glee, ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Madrid, 1845; d Madrid, Sept 9, 1904). Spanish musicologist. Although he followed a military career, he was passionately fond of music, particularly of Italian opera. His most important work was his Crónica de la ópera italiana en Madrid desde 1738 hasta nuestros días (Madrid, 1878), in which he listed, with complete details of dates and performers, all the operas (not only Italian ones, in spite of the title) which had been performed in every theatre in Madrid. The list is classified by theatres and each chapter is preceded by the history of its theatre. The introduction is a history by Barbieri of opera in Madrid before 1738. Carmena y Millán’s Crónica is still indispensable to the student of opera in Madrid. He also published numerous articles and pamphlets. Some of his articles, containing important discussions of contemporary Spanish composers, were published in Madrid in 1904 under the title ...

Article

Sylvan Suskin

(b Laigle, Normandy, June 10, 1773; d Paris, Nov 29, 1830). French composer and theorist. He went to Paris at the age of 11 to study composition with Gossec and the piano with Gobert. With the outbreak of the Revolution he joined the band of the Garde Nationale de Paris, for which he supplied new music for public functions. After a brief period in the army, he was assigned to teach solfège and harmony to the corps de musique of the National Guard. He also took on duties as répétiteur at the Opéra, a post he held till 1803; and in 1795 he was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the newly founded Conservatoire. From 1792 to 1797 he composed at least 25 works for performance at Revolutionary fêtes nationales; these included hymns, marches and military symphonies. During the late 1790s he composed a number of chamber works, including quartets and quintets for strings and wind....

Article

Bruno Cagli

(b Guastalla, March 30, 1811; d San Martino di Mugnano, Modena, Sept 5, 1866). Italian musicologist and composer. The date of his death has sometimes been given incorrectly as 15 September. He studied music in Modena and in 1831 was sent by a wealthy Modenese to the Naples Conservatory, which he left after six months, continuing his lessons with Zingarelli and Crescentini as a private pupil. He also had lessons from Donizetti. In 1834 he stopped receiving financial support and moved to Messina, where Donizetti secured him a contract for the 1835–6 season as composer and conductor at the theatre. After returning to Modena in 1837 to escape an epidemic in Sicily, he was made maestro di cappella at Reggio nell'Emilia by the Duke of Modena, but gave up the position in 1839 because of local opposition to the appointment. He wrote an opera for Modena in 1840...

Article

L.M. Butir

(L′vovich)

(b Moscow, April 27, 1861; d Moscow, May 21, 1926). Russian composer and musicologist of French descent. He was taught the piano by Klindworth, who encouraged him to study the works of Wagner; he joined the Wagner Society in 1879 and attended a festival at Bayreuth in 1885. In 1884 he graduated from the mathematics department of Moscow University, but afterwards devoted himself entirely to music. The next year he went to Berlin, where he continued his studies with Klindworth and took composition lessons with Tirsch, later with Rüfer. After a disappointing period of study with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, he returned to Moscow, where he taught himself and consulted with Arensky and Sergey Taneyev. In 1916 he was appointed professor of composition at the Moscow Conservatory, a post he held until his death; Bely, Kabalevsky, Polovinkin and Fere were among his pupils.

During his professorship Catoire began to study questions of music theory, and he was the first Russian theorist to adopt Riemann's approach for pedagogical use. In ...

Article

Malcolm Turner

(b Paris, Oct 8, 1882; d Paris, March 21, 1963). French musicologist. He was a scientist by training and civil servant by profession, and pursued his musical interests as a leading member of the Cercle Musical in Annecy (1906–14), promoting performances of unfamiliar early and modern French music. His research after 1917 dealt mainly with early 17th-century French literature, and French music of the 16th and 17th centuries, the subject of many articles in the Bulletin de la Société française de musicologie, the Revue de musicologie and Le ménestrel. He also contributed many articles on 19th-century French comic opera to Opéra-comique, of which he was editor from 1928 to 1931.

‘Les chansons à trois voix de Pierre Clérau’, Beethoven-Zentenarfeier: Vienna 1927, 175–80 ‘Maximilien Guilliaud’, Festschrift Adolph Koczirz, ed. R. Haas and J. Zuth (Vienna, 1930), 6–8 ‘Les psaumes de Janequin’, Mélanges de musicologie offerts à M. Lionel de La Laurencie...