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Article

David Trippett

(b Créteil, France, Nov 30, 1907; d San Antonio, TX, October 25, 2012). Cultural historian, critic, and teacher of French birth. Born into the artistic environs of French modernism, he wrote widely on Western culture and its documents, founding the discipline of cultural history at Columbia University, where he spent his academic career.

After leaving France for America in 1920, he attended Columbia University (BA 1927, PhD 1932) where he lectured on contemporary civilization from 1927, becoming assistant professor (1937), professor (1945), Seth Low Professor of History (1955), Provost (1958–67), and University Professor (1967–75). He also served as president of the American Academy of Arts (1972–5, 1977–8), and was made an Extraordinary Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge University in 1960.

Barzun regarded culture as a fabric of interwoven ideas which historians should trace through time, and between which exist a series of links: “because culture is a web of many strands; none is spun by itself, nor is any cut off at a fixed date.” He viewed music through the prism of a broader culture, typified in the scope of ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(Allen)

(b Marinette, WI, March 10, 1948). American musicologist. He studied at the University of California, Berkeley under Daniel Heartz and others, gaining the PhD in 1977 with a dissertation on music and drama. He has taught at the University of Pennsylvania (1977–84), Stanford University (1984–9) and the University of Washington, Seattle. He is currently coordinator of the musicology programme in the Northwestern University School of Music. He has also been an Andrew Mellon Faculty Fellow at Harvard University. His research interests include German opera in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, cultural studies and Mahler.

Music and Drama in Germany: a Traveling Company and its Repertory, 1767–1781 (diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1977) ‘The Music Reviews in the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek’, AcM, 49 (1977), 69–85 ‘Benda, the Germans, and Simple Recitative’, JAMS, 34 (1981), 119–31 North German Opera in the Age of Goethe...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b Beauvais, Oise, Dec 30, 1899; d Paris, Jan 11, 1985). French aesthetician. He studied in Paris (1917) and, after the war, in Strasbourg (1921–4), where he prepared his agrégation in German (1925). While holding a musicological post (1925–9) at the Centre Français d'Etudes Supérieures in Vienna (now the Institut Français) he gave a series of lecture-recitals in Vienna and Budapest on contemporary music and French folk music, and made contact with the Second Viennese School. On his return to France he taught in the Lycée Pasteur (1931–65) while also working on his doctorate (1942) and writing his first literary essays. In 1947 he was appointed professor of aesthetics at the Paris Conservatoire, where he taught until 1971; he succeeded Claude Rostand as vice-president of the Académie Charles Cros in 1970.

Beaufils specialized in German studies, particularly in German poetry and music. He was a philosopher rather than a musicologist, his approach to music being an aesthetic one: going beyond a strictly literary, musical, historical or sociological point of view, he attempted, for instance, to discover the basic meaning of drama (notably in Mozart and Wagner), and the essential difference in origin between the German lied and the French ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, Sept 2, 1906; d Brattleboro, VT, April 7, 2001). American music scholar and librarian. He was educated at the College of the City of New York, New York University, the Institute of Musical Art and the Mannes College of Music; his studies included the violin and chamber music with Louis Sveçenski, composition with Bernard Wagenaar and Hans Weisse, and musicology with Sachs and Reese. From 1931 to 1968 he worked in the music division of the New York Public Library as head of the Rare Book and Manuscript Collections, editor of music publications and curator of the Toscanini Memorial Archives; from 1950 to 1968 he taught at the Mannes College of Music. In 1968 he became director of libraries and a member of the faculty at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. He retired in 1976.

Beck’s principal fields of study were early string techniques and performing practice, textual analyses and criticism (see his ...

Article

Cynthia M. Gessele and Jean Gribenski

[Antoine]

(b Dauendorf, Bas-Rhin, March 26, 1739; d London, after 1808). French theorist and teacher. After obtaining degrees in philosophy (1760) and law (1762) from the University of Strasbourg, he established himself in Paris in 1766 and began to study music. In 1769 he met Diderot, whose daughter became his harpsichord and harmony student. His first work, Leçons de clavecin, et principes d’harmonie, was a tremendously successful dialogue-form treatise, which was edited and endorsed by Diderot. He continued publishing pedagogical works in French until he left Paris in 1781, moving to London, where he taught music and expanded, re-edited and translated his earlier works. He also wrote on music education, mathematics, philosophy and ethics.

In his writings Bemetzrieder emphasized the importance of improvisatory skills in combination with contemporary continuo practice. In his later works he developed these ideas in a four-stage pedagogical process which comprised the art of reading music, accompaniment, virtuoso performance and composition. He saw composition as the creative application of an analytical process of ‘decomposition’, which used grammatical models for phrase structure and a reductive harmonic signifier called the ...

Article

Murray Campbell

(Henry)

(b Chicago, Jan 2, 1925; d Cleveland, Aug 4, 1987). American acoustician. His parents being missionaries, he spent much of his childhood in Lahore. After returning to the USA to study at Washington University, St Louis (AB 1948, PhD 1952), Benade was appointed in 1952 to the physics faculty at Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, which later became Case Western Reserve University. Promoted to a full professorship in 1969, he continued in that post until shortly before his death. A skilled woodwind player, he had an exceptional ability to relate the results of acoustical research to the practical requirements of musicians and musical instrument makers. Benade established a research programme which made many fundamental contributions to the understanding of the operation of wind instruments. Also active in string instrument research, he was a founding member of the Catgut Acoustical Society and its president between 1969 and 1972...

Article

Sanja Majer-Bobetko

(b Celje, Slovenia, July 28, 1937). Slovenian-Croatian musicologist. With Nikola Hercigonja she studied musicology (1957–61) and gained the master’s degree (1963) at the Belgrade Music Academy. She took the PhD at the Ljubljana Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences with Dragotin Cvetko, with a dissertation on the expressionistic elements in Serbian music between the two world wars (1973). In Belgrade she worked as a secondary music school teacher (1964–9), then as assistant at the Music Academy (1969–72). In Vienna she was an associate (1973–6) and a head (1976–1983) of the Universal Edition music editorial board. In Ljubljana she was a professor at the Department for Musicology at the Ljubljana Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences (1981–1998, emeritus since 2006). She used to be on editorial boards of several music journals in the former Yugoslavia. Since the 1980s she has been living in Ljubljana and Zagreb, doing research of Slovenian and Croatian music....

Article

Sigurd Berg

(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1801; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1880). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer. He began composing and playing the flute while still in school. After his matriculation he studied law for a time, but influenced by the composer C.E.F. Weyse he soon dedicated himself to music and attracted attention in 1823 with a cantata for the 200th anniversary of Regensen, the students' college in Copenhagen. Over the next few years he composed several more cantatas as well as incidental music for the Royal Theatre. From 1838 he was organist at the Trinitatis Kirke, and from 1843 singing master at the metropolitan school. He held both posts until his death; they led him to an intensive occupation with church and school singing. He composed a notable set of hymn melodies, many of which are still used in the Danish Church, and edited many collections of partsongs for schools, containing several of his own compositions. He also made an important collection of Danish and foreign folksongs and melodies. In ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, March 25, 1939). American musicologist. He graduated from Hofstra University with the BS in 1960. At New York University he studied with LaRue, Martin Bernstein and with Reese, who also supervised his dissertation; he received the PhD there in 1969. He taught at the University of Chicago from 1965 to 1970. He then joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was chairman of the music department (1974–7) and professor from 1981. He was named Karen and Gary Rose Term Professor of Music in 1996, and he has been visiting professor at Rutgers University (1982–3) and New York University (1992). He was also editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Musicological Society (1975–7), a member of the editorial board of the new Josquin Des Prez collected edition (1982–95) and has been general editor of the series Masters and Monuments of the Renaissance (from ...

Article

F.E. Kirby

(b Immecke, nr Meinerzhagen, 1536; d Dortmund, Aug 6, 1609). German theorist, teacher and Kantor. He was educated first in Münster and Dortmund, and later at Cologne University where he received the MA in 1560. After serving as teacher, Kantor and administrator for several years in various schools, mainly in Dortmund, he took up a post in 1567 as Kantor at the famous Reinoldi School there; he became Rektor in 1582 in succession to his former teacher and long-standing friend and colleague, Johann Lambach. His work in this post was widely acclaimed and in 1587 he was made Comes Palatinus by Emperor Rudolf II.

He is important for his treatise Erotematum musicae, originally published in 1573 under the title Musicae erotematum, and subsequently reprinted three times. The treatise, of the musica practica type, presents the fundamentals of music in question and answer form. For his formulations Beurhaus borrowed considerably, as was customary in a treatise of this kind, from other German theorists of the time, notably Agricola, Faber (both Gregor and Heinrich), Figulus, Galliculus, Ornithoparchus, Wilfflingseder and Zanger....

Article

Vilena Vrbanić

(b Zadar, Sept 11, 1963). Croatian musicologist. She studied musicology with Eva Sedak at the Zagreb Academy of Music (1988) and librarianship at the Zagreb Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences (1992), and gained the master’s degree in musicology with Eva Sedak (1996) and PhD with a dissertation on the musical topography of Zagreb with Vjera Katalinić and Cornelia Szabó-Knotik at the Zagreb Music Academy (2011). Since 1988 she has been working as head of the library of the Zagreb Croatian Music Institute. She was an associate with the international research project Cultural Traditions in Central Europe: Musical Life between Centralism and Regional Specificity (1994–2002). In 1998 she received a three-month fellowship at the Library of Congress. She was president of the Section for Music Libraries of the Croatian Library Association (1998–2002), on the board of the Croatian Musicological Society (...

Article

(b early 17th century; d London, bur. May 14, 1681). English theorist, composer and teacher. He seems to have been a younger son of Sir Ralph Birchensha, who in 1598 was sent to Ireland as Comptroller of the Musters and Cheques. According to Anthony Wood ( GB-Ob Wood D 19 [4], f.19) he resided in Ireland with the Earl of Kildare until the rebellion of 1641 forced him to quit Dublin for London. In A Musicall Banquet (1651) he is listed among teachers of the viol active in London; but it was as a teacher of the rudiments of composition that he made his name. He boasted that by means of his rules ‘not only those, who skillfully can sing or play on some Instrument, may learn to compose but also those, who can neither sing nor play’ (letter to the Royal Society, 26 April 1664...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Albany, NY, July 15, 1939). American musicologist. She graduated from Wellesley College (BA 1961) and studied with Edward Lowinsky and Howard Mayer Brown at the University of Chicago (MA 1963, PhD 1970). She was a lecturer at the School of Music, Northwestern University (1987) and served as a visiting faculty member at the University of Chicago (1986) and SUNY, Buffalo (1989–90). In 1990 she moved to Oxford and became a freelance editor; in 1993 she became general editor of the series Monuments of Renaissance Music.

Blackburn studies 15th- and 16th-century music and music theory, with a special interest in lost sources. Her dissertation on the Lupus problem was followed by an article on the subject and the edition of Johannes Lupi’s works. She has researched both written and musical documents, and she frequently collaborated as author and editor of these sources with her husband, Lowinsky; some of these publications appeared after his death in ...

Article

Rudolf Klein

(b Czernowitz [now Chernovtsy, Ukraine], Feb 15, 1914; d Vienna, June 14 1999). Austrian music sociologist and writer on music. He studied music theory with Stefan Wolpe and conducting with Hermann Scherchen in Vienna (1932–7), and music theory with Josef Tal and music history with Edith Gerson-Kiwi in Jerusalem (1940–2). When he returned to Vienna he edited the periodical Phono (1954–65) and collaborated with the German periodical Hifi Stereophonie (1965–83). He was appointed lecturer (1962), and subsequently professor (1963) in music sociology at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik; he also directed the Institute for Music Sociology (1965–84) and the UNESCO institute Media cult (1969–89). In 1976 he became chairman of the ISME commission on music in education and mass media, and in 1992 he was put in charge of an interdisciplinary investigation into the relationship between scientific conceptual models and the arts, whose findings are being published as a series (see Blaukopf, ...

Article

Jan Trojan

(b Žarošice, Hodonín district, May 24, 1905; d Brno, June 20, 1988). Czech composer, teacher and music theorist. He studied with Petrželka at the Brno Conservatory and with Helfert at the university, from which he received the PhD in 1933 for a dissertation on Smetana. He completed his education in Suk’s masterclasses at the Prague Conservatory (1933–5). His first appointment was with Czech Radio in Brno; he then taught theory and composition at the Brno Conservatory and was later its director for many years. At Brno University he completed the Habilitation (1961) and became professor of music theory in 1968. In his music he remained faithful to the late Romantic, nationalist Suk–Novák tradition. Contemporary musical developments hardly touched his style, which remained essentially homophonic. Though he wrote piano and chamber pieces, many of his works are vocal, and his songs and choruses achieve considerable expressiveness through harmonic subtlety....

Article

John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...

Article

Gwynne Kuhner Brown

(Holden)

(b Oakland, CA, May 7, 1948). American musicologist. He received the BA in music history and literature from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1970. He studied music history and theory at Harvard University (MA 1973, PhD 1979). His dissertation, on compositional process in Beethoven’s first and second piano concertos, was aided by manuscript research in Germany as a Fulbright Fellow (1975–6). He joined the faculty of the University of Puget Sound in 1980, attaining the rank of Professor in 1993, and was named Distinguished Professor of Music History in 2008.

A prolific and wide-ranging scholar, Block has published extensively on American musical theater, particularly the life and work of Richard Rodgers, and on the music of Charles Ives. He was the first to publish research on the compositional process of Broadway musicals (“Frank Loesser’s Sketchbooks” and Enchanted Evenings). He has served as General Editor of the Yale Broadway Masters Series since ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Lorenz Welker

(b Amsterdam, Feb 25, 1930). German musicologist. He received practical musical training at Heidelberg University from 1950 and studied musicology with Georgiades, philosophy with H.-G. Gadamer and K. Jaspers and ecclesiastical history; he also studied musicology with Handschin in Basle (1952–3). He took the doctorate at Heidelberg in 1960 with a dissertation on the early masses of Du Fay. From 1960 to 1963 he carried out research on medieval music at the Heidelberg and Bavarian Academies of Sciences, and from 1962 he also lectured at Munich University, where he completed his Habilitation in musicology in 1970 with studies on Berlioz; he taught there from that year as a lecturer in musicology and was appointed professor in 1977. He retired in 1995. His research, which is concerned with source material (palaeography as well as analysis), covers music of the late Middle Ages, the Viennese Classics, the 19th and early 20th centuries, and musical-textual relationships....

Article

(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...