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Robert J. Bruce and Ian Bartlett

(b London, bap. Sept 11, 1711; d London, Feb 7, 1779 ). English composer, organist and editor. Though formerly best known for some of his anthems and his editing of Cathedral Music (1760–73), the significant contribution he made to instrumental music, song, secular choral and theatre music in England is now widely recognized.

Ian Bartlett

Boyce’s family came from Warwickshire, where his grandfather was a farmer. His father, John, the youngest of five sons, came to London in 1691 to be apprenticed to a joiner. He settled in the City of London, as a joiner and cabinetmaker, and married Elizabeth Cordwell in 1703. They were living in Maiden Lane (now Skinners Lane) when William, the last of their four children, was born. In 1723 John Boyce was appointed resident beadle for the Joiners’ Company, whose headquarters were situated close to his house. Joiners’ Hall became William’s home for the next 30 years or so....


(b York Co., ME, Oct 6, 1816; d Montclair, NJ, Jan 7, 1868). American composer, teacher, organist, publisher, and piano manufacturer. In 1830 his family moved to Boston, where he studied music with Sumner Hill and attended Lowell Mason’s Academy of Music; he also sang in Mason’s Bowdoin Street church choir and later became organist there. From 1836 he taught music classes and gave private piano lessons in Machias, Maine, then in 1838 became a singing-school teacher in St. John’s, New Brunswick. Bradbury moved to New York in 1840 as choir leader of the First Baptist Church, Brooklyn, and the following year he accepted a position as organist at the Baptist Tabernacle in New York. He established singing classes for children similar to those of Mason in Boston; his annual music festivals with as many as 1000 children led to the introduction of music in New York’s public schools. He also published his first collection, ...


Ann Willison Lemke

[Bettine, Elisabeth]

(b Frankfurt, April 4, 1785; d Berlin, Jan 20, 1859). German writer, editor, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist and patron of young artists. Although known today primarily for her writing and her illustrious associates, Bettine was also a talented musician. She composed songs in a simple folk style, choosing texts by poets she knew and loved, including Goethe, Achim von Armin, and her brother, Clemens Brentano. She helped gather songs for Armin and Brentano’s influential collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1806–8) and decades later published a fourth volume based on their notes (ed. Ludwig Erk, 1854). From 1808 to 1809 she studied singing and composition with Peter von Winter and the piano with Sebastian Bopp in Munich. Her first two songs appeared under the pseudonym ‘Beans Beor’ (‘blessing I am blessed’) with Arnim’s literary works. After her crucial meeting with Beethoven in Vienna (May, 1810), she mediated between him and Goethe....


Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...


Ruth M. Wilson

(b Bolton, CT, May 13, 1746; d Smithfield, NY, 1815). American composer, singing master, and printer. He was prominent among the Connecticut composers who contributed many psalm and fuging-tunes to the repertory of 18th-century choral music. Brownson taught in several parts of Connecticut, and from 1775 to 1797 was mostly in Litchfield, Simsbury, West Simsbury, and New Hartford. He was associated with Asahel Benham, Timothy Swan, and Alexander Ely in the sale of music books. He settled in Peterboro, New York, sometime between 1797 and 1800.

Brownson’s compositions were first published in Law’s Select Harmony (Cheshire, CT, 1779). Brownson’s own Select Harmony, issued in four editions (probably in Hartford, CT) between 1783 and 1791, contained a large number of new pieces by Americans with “Author’s Names set over the tunes,” as well as 22 original works. The title page, engraved by Isaac Sanford, depicts a church choir arranged around three sides of the gallery, the leader at the center with a pitchpipe in hand. Brownson also published ...


H.C. Colles

revised by Malcolm Turner


(b London, March 25, 1871; d London, Oct 3, 1947). English writer on music, music editor, teacher, organist and composer. He studied at the Royal College of Music under Parratt, C.H. Lloyd and Parry (1888–92). He held posts as organist of Worcester College, Oxford (1891–4), Wells Cathedral (1896–9) and Bristol Cathedral (1899–1901), and was then appointed director of music at Harrow School, a post that he held until 1927. In 1910 he succeeded Prout as professor of music at Trinity College, Dublin, occupying the chair until 1920. In 1925 he was appointed King Edward Professor of Music in the University of London and had meanwhile begun to teach at the RCM. When he left Harrow he became music adviser to the London County Council (1927–36). In August 1937, on his retirement from the London professorship, he received a knighthood....


Ruth M. Wilson

revised by Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Enfield, CT, Feb 9, 1744; d Hartford, CT, Aug 20, 1825). American singing master, composer, and tunebook compiler. He grew up in Enfield and Farmington and lived most of his life in central Connecticut. Bull married five times and had several children; he probably received his musical training in a singing-school. In 1766, he advertised for subscribers to a tunebook, The New Universal Psalmodist, in the New Haven Connecticut Gazette. (This book was never published.) Bull lived in New York City during the Revolutionary War years, where he taught singing schools and became parish clerk and master of the Charity School of Trinity Church from 1778 to 1782. He returned to Connecticut where he bought a house in Hartford in 1788 (now a state landmark), remaining there until his death in 1825. He ran a dry-goods store, hardware store, and evening school, and formed a private literary academy. Although he joined the Hartford Episcopal Church in ...


(b Erie, PA, Dec 2, 1866; d Stamford, CT, Sept 12, 1949). American singer, composer, arranger, and music editor. His early music study included piano, voice, guitar, and bass viol. In January 1892 he won a scholarship at the National Conservatory of Music in New York. Among Conservatory faculty who influenced his career were Victor Herbert and Antonín Dvořák, director of the conservatory from September 1892 to April 1895. Burleigh became Dvořák’s copyist and librarian of the Conservatory orchestra, in which he played timpani and bass viol. He sang plantation songs and spirituals for Dvořák that he had learned from his grandfather, a former slave. Dvořák’s Symphony no.9 in E minor, “From the New World,” was written and premiered while Burleigh was at the Conservatory.

In New York Burleigh took his place among prominent African American singers such as soprano Sissieretta Jones (known as the Black Patti). In the years ...


Harry Eskew

(fl Maryville, TN, 1834–7). American composer and tune book compiler. He is known to have been associated with Ananias Davisson, at least through his use of Kentucky Harmony (1816) and A Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony (1820), from both of which he borrowed extensively for his own compilation, Union Harmony: or Family Musician (Maryville, TN, 1837). Union Harmony in turn influenced later Tennessee tune books, such as John B. Jackson’s Knoxville Harmony (1838), Andrew W. Johnson’s American Harmony (1839), and W.H. and M.L. Swan’s Harp of Columbia (1848). Caldwell claimed 42 tunes in Union Harmony, which he indicated were ‘not entirely original’ but carried his harmonizations. These tunes are predominantly in the American folk-hymn idiom.

See also Shape-note hymnody §2.

G.P. Jackson: White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933/R) G.E. Webb, jr: ...


(b Naples; fl 1645–53). Italian music editor and composer. He was a Franciscan monk and on a title-page of 1653 is called ‘maestro di musica’. He edited a small volume of five-part sacred music (RISM 1645¹), which had gone into a fourth impression by 1650 (1650...


Harry Eskew

(b Lebanon, VA, Feb 15, 1787; d Lebanon, Oct 28, 1854). American composer and tune book compiler. He was a Methodist minister. Records indicate that his compilation Songs of Zion was printed by Ananias Davisson in 1820 in Harrisonburg, Virginia, but no copies have been located. His more important tune book, compiled with the Presbyterian elder David Little Clayton (b Marion Co., VA, 15 Jan 1801; d Frederick Co., VA, 17 Sept 1854), was The Virginia Harmony (Winchester, VA, 1831, 2/1836), in which he claimed 25 settings. Although The Virginia Harmony tends to reflect a more northern urban orientation than did Davisson’s tune books, it has the distinction of including one of the earliest known printings of the anonymous pentatonic folk melody ‘Harmony Grove’ now associated with Amazing Grace.

G.P. Jackson: White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933/R) H. Eskew...


Antonio Delfino

(b Milan, c1550; d after 1615). Italian composer and editor. He was a monk in the order of S Basilio degli Armeni, and was at the monastery of SS Cosma e Damiano in Milan when Cardinal Borromeo visited the house in 1583. He had links with the church of S Maria della Scala, and the many points in common between his first book of Nova Metamorfosi (RISM 1600¹¹) and Orfeo Vecchi’s posthumous Scielta de madrigali (1604¹¹) show that he was regularly in contact with that church. From 1603 he was in Genoa, where his increasing collaboration with Simone Molinaro culminated in 1616 with the publication of the Madrigali de diversi autori (16168), in Loano, near Savona.

Cavaglieri is the compiler of five collections of Latin contrafacta of Italian madrigals, including three in the series Nova Metamorfosi (1600¹¹, 16056/...



(b Beaufort, Anjou, Feb 2, 1538; d c1580). French music editor and ?composer. A contemporary document records that Jehan Chardavoine, who rented a house near the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine at Paris on 6 July 1571 was ‘praticien’. On 20 August 1573 ‘Maistre Jean Chardavoyne’ was granted a royal privilege to publish, with a printer and bookseller of his choice, a collection of chansons ‘en forme de voix de ville’ with simple melodies that he had adapted or composed. The title-page of Le recueil des plus excellentes chansons en forme de voix de ville tirées de divers autheurs et poètes françois tant anciens que modernes (Paris, 1576/R) indicates that the ‘common tunes had been arranged so that they might be sung or played anywhere’. Chardavoine's preface, signed from Paris on 10 November 1575, mentions various dances as different types of voix de ville, notably ‘la pavane double, à la simple, et de la commune, rondoyante, moyenne ou héroïque; le bransle gay, le bransle simple, le bransle rondoyante, le tourdion’, and other songs ordinarily danced and sung in the streets....


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Arthur Hutchings

revised by Hervé Audéon

(b Caen, Oct 21, 1771: d Paris, June 29, 1834). French writer on music, instructor, publisher and composer. While still a boy, he taught himself Hebrew and German and acquired a permanent interest in scientific experiment and a fascination for music theory and the techniques of composition. Although he reached the age of 16 before taking music lessons, he had already attained elementary skill on keyboard and other instruments. He greatly valued a friendship with Grétry which began in his 20th year and which suggests that he moved to Paris after his father’s death.

Choron’s earliest publications, the three-volume Principes d’accompagnement des écoles d’Italie (1804) and Principes de composition des écoles d’Italie (whose publication was announced for 1806 even though it did not appear until the end of 1808 or early 1809 - the preface is dated 9 December 1808), include courses in thoroughbass together with instruction in counterpoint and fugue, implemented by exercises from Sala, Martini, Marpurg and Fux. In ...


Rodney Slatford and Marita P. McClymonds

[Giovanni Battista; J.B.

(b Venice, 1761; d Bath, Feb 27, 1805). Italian composer, singer, violinist and music publisher. Born of a noble family, he studied the violin, cello and piano. In 1789 his Ati e Cibele, a favola per musica in two short scenes, was performed in Venice. This was soon followed by Pimmalione, a monodrama after Rousseau for tenor and orchestra with a small part for soprano, and Il ratto di Proserpina. Choron and Fayolle reported that, dissatisfied with Pimmalione, Cimador burnt the score and renounced composition. Artaria, however, advertised publication of the full score in 1791 in Vienna and excerpts were published later in London. The work achieved considerable popularity throughout Europe as a concert piece for both male and female singers, being revived as late as 1836. While still in Venice he wrote a double bass concerto for the young virtuoso Dragonetti; the manuscript survives, together with Dragonetti's additional variations on the final Rondo, which he evidently considered too short....


Leon Plantinga

revised by Luca Lévi Sala

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and virtuoso, teacher, music publisher, entrepreneur, and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicola Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena (née Kaiser), Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90), and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Washington, DC, May 13, 1874; d Wollaston, MA, Sept 15, 1956). American music editor and composer. He studied organ with George William Walter and held various positions in Washington as a church organist. After moving to Providence in 1899 and then to Boston in 1901, he was a music editor for the firm of Ditson (...


Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...


Richard Crawford

(bap. Tewkesbury, June 24, 1774; d Baltimore, Aug 17, 1855). American composer, tunebook compiler and publisher of English birth. He moved to the USA with his family in 1785 and settled in Baltimore. Cole’s reputed attendance there at singing schools conducted by Andrew Law, Thomas Atwill and Ishmael Spicer during the years 1789–92 has not been verified. In the preface to The Devotional Harmony (1814), he wrote of his training: ‘The authour has never had what is called a musical education … he is a self taught genius, scarcely able to finger his own compositions on a keyed instrument’. He nevertheless seems at one time to have held the post of organist and choirmaster of St Paul’s Episcopal Church in Baltimore.

Cole’s career as a compiler of sacred tunebooks spanned almost half a century; he produced nearly 30 different collections, from Sacred Harmony (1799), adapted to the Methodist hymnbook, to ...