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Masakata Kanazawa

(b Tokyo, Oct 21, 1906; d Tokyo, March 9, 1991). Japanese composer and teacher. The second son of Kyoshi Takahama, a leading haiku poet, he spent two years at Keiō University and then decided on a musical career. He went to Paris in 1927 to study at the Conservatoire with Fauchet (harmony), Caussade (fugue) and Büsser (composition). Returning to Japan in 1933 he joined the Shinkō Sakkyokuka Renmei (later the Japanese Society for Contemporary Music) and in 1934 he presented a successful concert of his own works. In 1934–6 he was again in Paris, completing his studies with Büsser and taking a first prize in harmony. He was appointed lecturer at Nihon University, Tokyo, in 1936 and professor of composition at the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1947. He has served as president of the Japanese-French Music Society and of the Japanese Musicians’ Club. He was admitted to the Légion d’Honneur (...

Article

Masakata Kanazawa

(b Wakayama, Nov 26, 1916; d Tokyo, Aug 22, 1996). Japanese composer and teacher. He studied composition with Kan′ichi Shimofusa and in 1939 graduated from the Tokyo Music School, where he was appointed lecturer in 1946. The next year he joined the Shinsei Kai, a group of composers led by Shibata and Irino, and in 1952 he was made assistant professor of composition at the Tokyo Music School (renamed the National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1949), then full professor (1968–83). His music, particularly for voices and chamber groups, reveals a personal style of lyricism, influenced both by Impressionism and Japanese traditional music. He published Gakushiki-ron (‘Musical forms’, Tokyo, 1950).

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Article

Lars Helgert

(George)

(b Vallejo, CA, Sept 30, 1954). American composer and bass player. He studied bass as a youth with Charles Manning and then under Charles Siani at San Francisco State University, where he received a BA in music. He also studied Japanese gagaku music with Togi Suenobu and has become proficient on the shō, sheng, and other Asian instruments. Izu has performed with Cecil Tayor, Steve Lacy, and James Newton, and has been an important figure in Asian American jazz. He was a founding member of the groups United Front and Anthony Brown’s Asian American Orchestra, performing on the latter’s Grammy-nominated recording of Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn’s Far East Suite (1999, Asian Improv). He has also worked with Jon Jang’s Pan Asian Arkestra. Izu has served as artistic director of the Asian American Jazz Festival and on the faculty of Stanford University’s Institute for Diversity in the Arts....

Article

Joseph S.C. Lam

(b 1907; d 1987). Chinese qin zither master . Brought up in Changshu city, Jiangsu province, he first learnt to play the pipa lute, xiao flute and other instruments of the local sizhu (silk-and-bamboo) ensemble music. Around 1930 he began to devote himself to qin music, learning from various masters. In 1936 he took part in the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region), becoming one of its leaders from 1939. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he was appointed a teacher and researcher in the Central Conservatory of Beijing in 1956, directing a number of students who subsequently became noted performers and scholars. Apart from transmitting the traditional repertory, he took part in the dapu movement to interpret early scores of pieces whose performing tradition had been lost, as well as composing some new pieces such as Shengli cao (‘Victory march’), which incorporated elements from folk music. Wu was also a maker and restorer of ...

Article

Nathan Mishori

[Shlomi]

(b Warsaw, May 19, 1909; d Beit-Alpha, Dec 29, 1995). Israeli composer and teacher of Polish origin . In his youth he studied the piano, theory and solfège in Kuybïshev, Russia (1918–21), and in 1924 in Warsaw joined the Zionist movement Hashomer Hatzair, playing the mandoline, tuba, baritone and clarinet in its folk orchestras. He graduated from the Teachers’ Seminarium in Poznań in 1928, and in 1930, following agricultural studies in Brno, Czechoslovakia, moved to Palestine, helping to establish a kibbutz in 1932. Only after 1940 did he begin to be involved with music again, at first teaching and arranging music at the kibbutz Beit-Alpha. After a period of concentrated study (1947–53), with Tal and Partos at the New Jerusalem Academy of Music, and privately with Boskovich, he devoted himself to composition and teaching at the district conservatory for kibbutzim at Beth-She‘an Valley, where he was director until ...

Article

Mary Talusan

(Sibay )

(b Datu Piang, Philippines, May 1, 1947). Master musician and teacher of kulintang, of Filipino birth. Kalanduyan is a respected artistic figure in Filipino communities around the United States and Canada for promoting Kulintang , an indigenous musical heritage predating Spanish and American colonization of the Philippines. Before settling in San Francisco, California, he was raised in the fishing village of Datu Piang, the artistic center of the Maguindanao people on the island of Mindanao, Philippines. As a young man, he won island-wide competitions on the gandingan (set of four large hanging knobbed gongs). As an undergraduate at Mindanao State University–Marawi, he toured the Far East with the Darangen Cultural Troupe. He was an artist-in-residence at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle under a Rockefeller Foundation grant in 1976, and graduated from UW with a MA in ethnomusicology in 1984. In 1995 Kalanduyan became the first artist of Filipino descent to be awarded a National Heritage Fellowship by the National Endowment for the Arts. Kalanduyan has taught and performed with nearly all of the ...

Article

Yosihiko Tokumaru

(b Otaru, April 1, 1935). Japanese musicologist. After graduating from the department of French studies at the University of Tokyo (BA 1959), he entered the department of Japanese language and literature to study Japanese music, which he had practised since childhood. After receiving a second BA in 1963, he continued to carry out research on Japanese music while working as a part-time Japanese language lecturer and a general assistant at various universities. In 1969 he joined the faculty of Tōhō Gakuen College of Music as lecturer in Japanese music, and was promoted to the rank of associate professor in 1971. After helping to form a department of musicology at the Musashino Academia Musicae (1975–84), he moved to the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1984 as associate professor; he was promoted to full professor in 1990. His administrative abilities have been a great asset to all these universities as well as to scholarly societies such as the Musicological Society of Japan and the Society for Research in Asiatic Music....

Article

Şahan Arzruni

(b Constantinople [now Istanbul], Dec 1, 1912; d Istanbul, October 19, 2008). Armenian composer. She studied at the Istanbul Conservatory with Ferdi Statzer (piano) and later took masterclasses with Lazare Lévy and Jean Roger-Ducasse but was mainly self-taught as a composer. In 1942 she joined the faculty of the Istanbul Conservatory as an assistant professor. Her compositions have been heard in cities including New York, Los Angeles, Paris and Buenos Aires. She was the recipient of the St Mesrop and St Sahak Medal from Catholicos Vazken I of Armenia. She possessed a facile melodic gift that was imbued with the spirit of traditional Armenian music. Often her work is vivid, opulent in colour and buoyant in texture; a bravura style informs much of her piano works.

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Article

Yury Gabay

(Abul′faz-oglï)

(b Baku, Feb 5, 1918; d Baku, May 25, 1982). Azerbaijani composer and teacher. The leading figure in Azerbaijani music after World War II, he studied the piano under Sharoyev at the Baku Music Technical School (1930–35) and then entered the Azerbaijan State Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Rudol′f (composition) and Hajibeyov (foundations of Azerbaijani folk music). While at the conservatory he wrote his earliest surviving compositions, made an intensive study of Azerbaijani folk art, led an expedition in 1937 to study the folklore of some regions of the republic and transcribed ashug songs, dances and mugam. In 1938 he began studies with A.N. Aleksandrov (composition) and Vasilenko (instrumentation) at the Moscow Conservatory, after which he became a composition pupil of Shostakovich (1942–6). During the war, together with Hajiyev, he also wrote the heroic-patriotic opera Veten (‘Fatherland’), which won a State Prize in ...

Article

Margaret Campbell

(b Detroit, Aug 31, 1952). American viola player and teacher of Armenian descent. She studied at the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore with Walter Trampler (1969–70) and Karen Tuttle (1970–75), and won both the Lionel Tertis and the ARD (Munich) competitions. Her career developed rapidly both as a soloist and chamber music player, and also as a teacher. She was a faculty member at the New School of Music in Philadelphia (1981–6), the Mannes College in New York (1983–6) and the University of Indiana School of Music in Bloomington (1985–7), and teaches regularly at the Lausanne Conservatoire. She has also taught at the Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg since 1989 and teaches regularly at festivals such as Marlboro, Spoleto and Lockenhaus. A fine chamber music player, she has played with the Beaux Arts Trio and the Guarneri, Galimir and Tokyo string quartets. In ...

Article

Leah Dolidze

(b Ozurgeti, western Georgia, March 27, 1939). Georgian composer. He studied composition at the Tbilisi State Conservatory with Tuskia and Toradze, graduating in 1968. He then taught in the faculty of choral conducting where, since 1980, he has occupied the position of faculty head and professor. He is secretary to the board of directors of the Union of Georgian Composers, and has been awarded many prizes and honours, including the Paliashvili Prize (1976), Honoured Artist of the Georgian SSR (1979), Prize of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR (1980) and the Sh. Rustaveli Prize (1995).

Principally a composer of choral music, he has developed the ancient traditions of Georgian choral singing and has enriched it with new stylistic tendencies from western European vocal music. He has increased contact between the composer and the audience, and has thus gained a special place in Georgian musical life. In various works attention is centred on aspects of the national disposition and character: a lavish joie-de-vivre, resistance to limitations, staunchness of spirit and optimism, epic might and will for independence and the depth and asceticism of the Orthodox Christian spirit. Despite using a terse, relatively static choral style and a limited range of expression, he succeeds in conveying his beliefs and ideals. This laconism of thinking shows itself particularly vividly in the works concerning national heroes or ethical ideals founded on historical events or folklore. He has also composed works dealing with contemporary social issues....

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(Il′ich)

(b Tbilisi, 24 May/June 6, 1903; d Moscow, May 1, 1978). Armenian composer, conductor and teacher. He is considered by some to be the central figure in 20th-century Armenian culture and, along with Prokofiev and Shostakovich, was a pillar of the Soviet school of composition. He influenced the development of composition not only in Armenia but also in Asia and South America. His name graces the Grand Concert Hall in Yerevan, a string quartet has been named after him and a prize in his name was instituted by the Armenian Ministry of Culture. His house was opened as a museum in 1978 and since 1983 the International Khachaturian Fund in Marseilles has held competitions for pianists and violinists.

Khachaturian's earliest musical impressions came from hearing folk music in Tbilisi and listening to his mother sing (he dedicated his opus one, the Pesnya stranstvuyushchego ashuga (‘The Song of the Wandering Ashugh’ to her in ...

Article

Martin Brody

revised by Greg A Steinke

[Eul ]

(b Dinuba, CA, Jan 6, 1920; d Cambridge, MA, Nov 19, 1998). American composer. Of Korean descent, he began piano lessons at age nine, and was a pupil of Homer Grun for seven years. In 1939 he studied composition and theory with arnold Schoenberg at UCLA; in 1940 he transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, where he studied with ernest Bloch , but his education was interrupted by a stint in the US Army Intelligence Service during World War II. He returned to Berkeley after the war and studied with Roger Sessions (MM 1952). He served on the faculty at Princeton University from 1952 to 1967, and from 1967 taught at Harvard University, where he was James Edward Ditson Professor of Music. He retired in 1990 and continued to live in Cambridge until his death in 1998. Throughout his career he was active as a conductor, performer, and ensemble pianist. Kim served terms as Composer-in-Residence at the Princeton Seminar in Advanced Musical Studies and at the Marlboro, Dartmouth, Tanglewood, Cape and Islands, and Aspen Music Festivals. Among his awards were those from the National Institute of Arts and Letters; the Ingram Merrill, Fromm, Guggenheim, Koussevitzky, and Naumburg foundations; Brandeis Creative Arts Medal; and Mark Horbitt Award of the Boston Symphony. Kim was active in politics, particularly in the 1980s, co-founding Musicians Against Nuclear Arms in ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Freiburg, Sept 2, 1915). German composer, teacher and conductor, active also in Brazil, India and Japan. He attended the Berlin Academy of Music (1934–6), where his teachers were Gustav Thomas and Scherchen for composition and conducting, Scheck for the flute, Martienssen for the piano and Schünemann and Seiffert for musicology; his flute studies were continued with Moyse at the Geneva Conservatoire (1936–7). In 1937 he moved to Brazil, of which he became a naturalized citizen in 1948. He taught theory and composition at the Brazilian Conservatory in Rio de Janeiro (1937–52) and the São Paulo Institute of Music (1942–4). The group Música Viva, which he founded in as early as 1939, included some of the best-known Brazilian musicians; its manifesto promoting new music experimentation was published in 1946. He directed the São Paulo Free Academy of Music (1952–5...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Vlora, Albania, 8 /April 9, 1946). Albanian composer and teacher. After early training in Vlora he studied theory, solfège, and the piano at the Jordan Misja Art Lyceum, Tirana (1960–64), and at the Tirana Conservatory (1964–9), where his teachers included Sandër Çefa, Ibrahimi, Lara, and Zadeja. From 1969, apart from one year working as a ‘free professional composer’ salaried by the state (1989), he taught at the Tirana Conservatory, where he was made professor in 1995. In 1995–6 a European Community scholarship enabled him to attend specialization courses in pedagogy and composition at the Marseilles Conservatoire. In 1991 he succeeded Ibrahimi as music secretary of the Union of Albanian Writers and Artists.

Before 1990 Kushta composed mainly in a post-Romantic idiom, which exploited chromaticism at points of dramatic emphasis—his tone poem Alarmë të pergjakura (‘Blood-Stained Alarms’, 1969) became a staple of the Albanian orchestral repertory during the socialist period. Later, however, he successfully shifted to atonality in chamber music of remarkable aural sensibility, emotional restraint, and nobility, such as his ...

Article

Leah Dolidze

(b Signagi, eastern Georgia, July 29, 1928). Georgian composer and teacher. He graduated from the Tbilisi State Conservatory in 1953 having studied composition under Andria Balanchivadze, and from 1963 taught orchestration and composition there. He was made a professor in 1987 and in 1995 became head of the composition department. The secretary of the Georgian Composers’ Union, he is an Honoured Artist of the Georgian SSR (1966), People’s Artist of the Georgian SSR (1979), and a laureate of the Paliashvili Prize (1981) and the Rustaveli State Prize (1985).

Kvernadze’s work has played a large part in the fundamental renewal of the various genres of Georgian music. The evolution of his art demonstrates the rapidity with which, during the 1950s and 60s, 20th-century Western techniques were assimilated by Georgian composers. From the start, he sought to overcome the stereotypes of the Georgian Romantic school, aligning himself with other 20th-century stylistic currents, such as that typified by Ravel, while retaining certain national traits. The poetic lyricism of Kvernadze’s music was first embodied in the ...

Article

Manana Akhmeteli

(b Bagdadi, western Georgia, July 10, 1921; d Tbilisi, Oct 16, 1981). Georgian composer. A student of Balanchivadze at the Tbilisi State Conservatory (graduating in 1948, postgraduate studies until 1950), he worked as a violinist in the Georgian Radio SO, as a music editor for documentary films (1960–62) and then was head of the music faculty of the Pushkin State Institute in Tbilisi until his death. He was awarded the Rustaveli Prize (1975), the USSR State Prize (1977) and the Paliashvili Prize (1991). A composer of Romantic and nationalist inclinations, his opera Lela represents the peak of his output and is replete with eloquent cantilena, lyrical imagination and an artistic sense of drama. As a whole, his works are regarded as a national treasure in Georgia as well as having won recognition outside that country. His language is inflected by the richness of Georgian musical dialects, many of which – such as those of ancient sacred songs, peasant songs and urban folk music – are originally reinterpreted in a style marked by nobility, emotion and poeticism. The changes which occurred in Georgian song writing in favour of a more professional approach are generally attributed to Lagidze, whose own songs, whether solo, ensemble or choral in scope, are characterized by a patriotic and ethical sensibility. His aesthetic outlook was democratic and so he sought to associate with a wide audience and win its recognition....

Article

Harrison Ryker

[Lam Ngok-pui ]

(b Macau, Aug 5, 1926). Macanese composer and teacher. Brought up in Macau, his first exposure to music was through singing in church choirs and the lessons of Salesian missionaries. Moving to Hong Kong at the age of 23, he began to study music and learn the violin privately, and though self-taught, he gained entry to the Royal Conservatory in Toronto (1954–8). He gained a composition diploma there, then moved to the University of Southern California (1960–63) to study with Rózsa. He continued to keep abreast of developments in avant-garde music, and from the mid-1960s to the early 70s he became known as Hong Kong’s first full-time native composer. In 1973 he co-founded the Asian Composers’ League, serving as its secretary-general (1980–90). He was composer-in-residence and a lecturer at Hong Kong University (1986–94); in 1988 the governor of Macau decorated him for services to the arts. In ...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Durrës, June 10, 1930). Albanian composer, pianist and teacher. After early piano lessons in Durrës, he studied at the Jordan Misja Art Lyceum, Tirana (1947–9), subsequently working as a pianist for the Ensemble of the People's Army (1950–53) and at the Opera (1953–5). He also taught the piano at the Durrës elementary music school. He then resumed his studies at the Moscow Conservatory (1959–61), and, after Albania's breach with the USSR, at the newly-founded Tirana Conservatory with Zadeja (1962–4). He was head of the music department at the Ministry of Education and Culture (1964–9), head of composition at the Tirana Conservatory (1969–74) and professor of harmony and analysis at the Durrës elementary music school (1974–8). In 1978 he returned to teach at the Tirana Conservatory. From 1992 to 1997 he served as music secretary of the Albanian Union of Artists and Writers....

Article

Meghann Wilhoite

(Anne Keng-Wai)

(b Taipei, Taiwan, Jan 14, 1953). Canadian composer, pianist, and educator of Chinese origin. She immigrated to Canada from Taiwan in 1967, studying at the Royal Conservatory of Music and the University of Toronto (BSc 1973; BMus 1978) from 1970 to 1978, and receiving her Master’s of Music from McGill University in 1981, where she studied with Brian Cherney, Bengt Hambraeus, Jon Rea, Mariano Etkin, and Alcides Lanza. During the years 1981–3 she studied with Klaus Huber at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg, Germany. Two of her early works (Dindle; Ballad of Endless Woe) won first prize in the Performing Rights Organization of Canada (PROCAN) Young Composer’s contest in 1979. She has also won the Music Today award (1985, Melboac), and the Scotia Music Festival competition (1991, Nabripamo) among others. She has been commissioned by artists such as Ensemble Resonance, Duo Solista, and Han Mei. In ...