(b Bologna, April 24, 1706; d Bologna, Aug 3, 1784). Italian writer on music, teacher and composer. Referred to at his death as ‘Dio della musica de’ nostri tempi’, he is one of the most famous figures in 18th-century music. He had his first music lessons from his father Antonio Maria, a violinist and cellist; subsequent teachers were Angelo Predieri, Giovanni Antonio Ricieri, Francesco Antonio Pistocchi (singing) and Giacomo Antonio Perti (composition). In 1721, after indicating his wish to become a monk, Martini was sent to the Franciscan Conventual monastery in Lugo di Romagna. He returned to Bologna towards the end of 1722 and played the organ at S Francesco. In 1725 he succeeded Padre Ferdinando Gridi as maestro di cappella of S Francesco. He occupied that post until the last years of his life, and lived in the convent attached to the church. Martini received minor orders in ...
revised by Sergio Durante
( fl 1624–43). Scottish musician . He graduated MA from Edinburgh University in 1624 and probably subsequently taught music in Edinburgh. His manuscript collection of psalm settings dated 1626 was known and described by Cowan, but has since disappeared. After Charles I’s Scottish coronation at Holyrood in 1633, regular choral services were re-established at the Scottish Chapel Royal; Millar was appointed Master of the Choristers in 1634 and in 1635 his fine edition of psalm settings was printed in Edinburgh. In this collection the 104 anonymous settings of the Proper Tunes are by Scottish composers of the late 16th century. Millar wrote in his preface: ‘I acknowledge sinceerely the whole compositions of the parts to belong to the primest Musicians that ever this kingdome had, as Deane John Angus, Blackhall Smith, Peebles, Sharp, Black, Buchan and others famous for their skill in this kind’. Some of these settings can be identified from other sources as wholly the work of Peebles, Buchan and Kemp. In many cases, however, Millar seems to have made ‘composite’ pieces by taking phrases from different settings and fitting them together (sometimes even transposing the parts) to form a more or less pleasing whole. This perhaps helps to explain Millar’s further comment in the preface: ‘collecting all the sets I could find on the Psalmes, after painfull tryall thereof, I selected the best for this work, according to my simple judgement’. In other sections of the book, certain settings of Common Tunes and psalms ‘in reports’, new to the ...
(b 1698; d Versailles, Sept 12, 1775). French composer and teacher. He was a great-nephew of Michel-Richard de Lalande, and his professional life focussed on the court. He was named as a singer in the royal chapel in 1727, and taught singing to Mme de Pompadour whose protection he enjoyed. With his opéra-balletL’année galante (1747), Mion received an annual royal pension of 2000 livres and by 1750 was named compositeur du ballets du roi. On 24 January 1755 he became music master to the children of the royal family, but by 1765 he was unable to write owing to paralysis. From then onwards his name is absent from the pension lists, though he was still described as a royal pensioner at his death. He is buried in Notre Dame de Versailles.
Mion had three motets performed at the Concert Spirituel, but the stage works, which dominate his output, were almost all intended for the court circle where he spent his working life. Notably, the ballet ...
(b Piedmont, ?c1725; d Paris, c1785). Italian composer, violin and viola teacher and music publisher, active in France. He called himself ‘le cadet’ or ‘le jeune’ until 1763–4, when his elder brother probably died. Three of his first four published works were dedicated to Parisians who apparently were his patrons or pupils. In 1765 he began an enterprise which was to be much more important than his compositions or teaching: he and the German painter Johann Anton de Peters (1725–95) founded the first Parisian musical subscription and lending establishment, the Bureau d’Abonnement de Musique. For two years La Chevardière and other publishers fought the new Bureau in court, involving hundreds of musicians on either side; the decision in 1767 was in favour of the Bureau, which continued to operate until at least 1789. Miroglio was listed in periodicals as a composer and teacher up to ...
James R. Anthony
(b Andelot, Haute-Marne, bap. Dec 4, 1667; d Aumont, 22 [not 27] Sept 1737). French composer, theorist and teacher. Michel Pignolet was the youngest of seven children born to the weaver Adrien Pignolet and Suzanne Galliot. On 27 January 1676 he entered the choir school at Langres Cathedral where he studied under Jean-Baptiste Moreau, director of the choir from October 1681 to February 1682. He added the name of ‘Montéclair’ (a fortress in Andelot) to his own some time after his arrival in Paris in 1687, but signed himself ‘Pignolet dit Montéclair’ as late as 1724. From the title-page of his Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre la musique (1709), we learn that he was ‘formerly maître de la musique for the Prince of Vaudémont’, whom he followed to Italy. Details of his Italian sojourn are unknown.
Montéclair performed on the basse de violon in the Paris Opéra orchestra as early as ...
Jane M. Bowers
(bc? 1690; d Paris, Nov 26, 1762). French composer, flautist and teacher. He is sometimes erroneously referred to as Jean-Jacques. First identified as a ‘master of music’ in a marriage document of 1719, Naudot published his first compositions in 1726 and, according to Quantz’s autobiography, was among the several flautists active in Paris in 1726–7. In 1732 he was described by Walther as a ‘flourishing’ French flautist, and in 1739 was one of three flautists (with Lucas and Michel Blavet) whose ‘rare talent’ for the flute caused the poet Denesle to dedicate his poem Syrinx, ou L’origine de la flûte to them. Although it seems clear that Naudot was well known in Paris as a player, it is not known where he played; perhaps it was mainly in private salons, for the dedications to many of his works show that he had a number of aristocratic and bourgeois pupils and patrons. Between ...
( bc 1690; d Augsburg, Nov 15, 1764). German composer, organist and teacher . He went as a young man to Augsburg, where he was twice married, in 1718 and 1742. He was an organist at the collegiate church of St Georg until 1727 and thereafter worked as a teacher until his appointment in 1734 as organist of Augsburg Cathedral. Two of his most important compositions are listed in the 1753 catalogue of the Augsburg publishing firm, J.J. Lotter. Die spielende Muse, welche die Jugend in leichten Praeludien nach den Kirchen-Tönen eingerichteten Versetten, Fugen und Arien auf dem Clavier nach der kurtzen Octave übet, a collection of easy pieces for beginners, was published in five parts by various firms, Lotter producing the last two (1748, 1752); in 1751 the same publisher issued a teaching manual by Nauss, Gründlicher Unterricht den General-Bass recht zu erlernen.EitnerQ MGG1 (A. Layer...
( b Bernstadt, c 1685; d Königsberg, 1739). German theorist and composer . After early training at Altdorf and Wittenberg, Neidhardt matriculated as a theology student at Jena, where he produced his first treatise on temperament and apparently continued his musical training. It is likely that he studied with the university organist, J.N. Bach, who knew him well enough to allow him to try one of his temperaments on the new organ at the city’s central church; Bach’s tuning, however, was found more singable. Between 1710 and 1720, when he was appointed Kapellmeister at Königsberg, Neidhardt was again in Bernstadt as well as in Breslau, where he is known to have lectured on composition. He then remained at Königsberg until his death, teaching organ and versification to the university students in addition to his writing and official duties.
Along with Werckmeister, Neidhardt perfected the art of practical temperaments in the early 18th century. An advocate of circulating temperaments (those intended to be most consonant in the more frequently used keys, and progressively less so in the remoter ones), he wanted his more than two dozen temperaments to be flexibly applied, as may be judged from his recommendation of specific temperaments for a village, a town, a city, and the court (the last assigned an equal temperament). He was apparently an active composer throughout his life; his few extant works include chorale settings (...
H. Joseph Butler
Member of Pachelbel family
(b Stuttgart, bap. Nov 24, 1690; d Charleston, SC, bur. Sept 15, 1750). Organist, harpsichordist, composer and teacher, son of (1) Johann Pachelbel. He settled in Boston some time before 1734 (perhaps after a stay in England). In 1734 he was hired by Trinity Church in Newport, Rhode Island, to assemble an organ given to the church by the eminent philosopher George Berkeley; he served as organist there for a year. From 1734 to 1743 he taught the organist and composer Peter Pelham. He performed harpsichord and chamber music in a private benefit concert in New York in 1736, and later that year he moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where in November 1737 he gave a St Cecilia’s Day concert. In February 1740 he succeeded John Salter as organist of St Philip’s Church. On 29 March 1749 he advertised that he would be opening a singing school, but his health failed soon after this notice (according to the vestry of St Philip’s he was ‘afflicted with a lameness in his hands’, 18 September)....
Donald C. Sanders
(b Naples, ca. 1707; d Venice, Aug 25, 1791). Italian composer, harpsichordist, and teacher. He is believed to have studied with Nicola Porpora in Naples, but little is known about his early life. The first documented performance of his music was of the opera Alessandro in Persia (Lucca, 1738), on a libretto of the Florentine Francesco Vanneschi. The poor reception of this work marked the beginning of a generally unsuccessful career as a composer for the stage. During the 1739–40 season Paradies moved to Venice, where he was employed by the Conservatorio dei Mendicanti, one of the city’s four famous schools for orphaned girls. There his reputation as an opera composer suffered further when his serenata of 1740, Il decreto del fato, proved unpopular. During this period, however, he was exposed to the vibrant Venetian musical life of the era and the progressive keyboard music of composers such as his contemporary Baldassare Galuppi....
H. Joseph Butler
(b London, Dec 9, 1721; d Richmond, VA, April 28, 1805). American organist, harpsichordist, teacher and composer of English birth . He was the son of Peter Pelham, a mezzotint portrait engraver who settled in Boston in 1726. The earliest recorded public concert of secular music in the New World was held at the family's house on 30 December 1731, and the family also supported other musical activities in the city. Pelham studied with Charles Theodore Pachelbel for nine years from the age of 12, first in Newport, Rhode Island and later in Charleston, South Carolina. There Pelham taught the spinet and the harpsichord, his students describing him as ‘a Genteel Clever young man’ and ‘verey chomical and entertaining’. He was the first organist at Trinity Church, Boston (1744–9), and was organist of Bruton Parish Church in Williamsburg, Virginia, from 1755 to 1802; his evening performances (...
(b Modena, c1680; d Munich, 1740/45). Italian composer and teacher. Nothing is known of his early years. From 1708 to 1731 he was chamber composer to Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena, and in 1720 he was described as a citizen of Modena, where he is thought to have directed a highly regarded singing school from 1715. In 1731 he may have been in Brno, where his oratorio L'ultima persecuzione di Saule contro Davidde was performed for Cardinal Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach, Bishop of Olmütz. On 6 November 1734 Peli arrived at the court of Elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria in Munich with three Italian-trained female singers, including his own pupil Christina Monchicca. In the same year he was appointed music teacher to Crown Prince Maximilian Joseph, who succeeded as elector in 1745. Peli composed operas for the Munich court for the carnivals of 1736 and ...
Kurt Markstrom and Michael F. Robinson
(b Naples, Aug 17, 1686; d Naples, March 3, 1768). Italian musician. He was internationally famous during his lifetime both as a composer (particularly of vocal music and opera) and as a singing teacher.
He was the son of Caterina and Carlo Porpora, the latter a Neapolitan bookseller. On 29 September 1696 he was enrolled at the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo, where Greco is assumed to have been his composition teacher. His fees were waived after the first three years; presumably by 1699 he was earning his keep as a student teacher. His first commission was for an opera, L’Agrippina (1708), which was successful, although it was several years before he obtained another commission. The libretto of his second opera Flavio Anicio Olibrio, performed during Carnival 1711, describes him as maestro di cappella to Prince Philipp of Hesse-Darmstadt, the general of the Austrian army in Naples. By the time of the prince’s departure from Naples in ...
Lawrence E. Bennett
(b Naples, May 5, 1680; d Vienna, May 29, 1750). Italian composer and singing master. He was the son of the musician Carlo Porsile, whose opera Nerone was produced, according to Burney, at Naples in 1686. Giuseppe was a pupil of Ursino, Giordano and Greco at the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo in Naples. Sommer-Mathis has corrected many biographical inaccuracies and added new details. Thus, for example, he did not assume the post of vice-maestro de capilla in Naples immediately following his musical education at the Conservatorio in Naples. Nor was he called to Barcelona by King Charles II of Spain in 1695 to organize the court music chapel in Madrid. Only one composition from the early period in Naples is known, the dramma per musica entitled Il ritorno d’Ulisse alla patria. It was performed in 1707 at the Nuovo Teatro di S Giovanni de’ Fiorentini, not long before Porsile received an appointment that year as vice-...
(b England, c1669; d Strasbourg, after 1742). French performer, composer, teacher and dancing-master. He was taught the trumpet marine by an English teacher and by his father, a French émigré bookdealer in England. His father must have been the M Prin that Samuel Pepys mentioned having heard at Charing Cross on 24 October 1667.
Jean-Baptiste is known to have been married in Lyons in January 1689. After 1698 he was a dancer in Paris as well as a performer on the trumpet marine. In 1704 he returned to Lyons, where he married again. Until his retirement to Strasbourg in 1737 he found employment as a teacher and player of the trumpet marine in Lyons, noting in his memoirs that he had caused more than 150 of the instruments to be constructed during these years. Church records show the baptism of a child of his third marriage in ...
Alfred E. Lemmon
(dGuatemala, 1765). Guatemalan composer, teacher and collector. He was appointed maestro de capilla of Guatemala City Cathedral on 7 March 1738, and served there until his death. His 28 extant compositions, which survive only in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano ‘Francisco de Paula García Peláez’, Guatemala City, are mainly Spanish villancicos which reveal his interest in local colour and ethnic texts. There are also a few compositions in Latin, including a double-choir motet, Parce mihi, Domine. Most works are for two or four voices, some for as many as seven; all have instrumental accompaniment.
Quiros was also active as a teacher and collector of music. His pupils included his nephew Rafael Antonio Castellanos, who succeeded him as maestro de capilla in Guatemala. His interest in Italian music was encouraged by the Italian-born maestro de capilla of Mexico City, Ignacio Jerusalem, and he acquired works by several Italian composers of the period, including Galuppi, Leo, Pergolesi, Porpora and Vinci. He also collected music by contemporary Spanish composers such as Sebastián Durón, José Nebra and José de Torres y Martínez Bravo, and by composers from elsewhere in the New World, for example Manuel de Zumaya. Through his efforts, copies were made of 16th-century polyphonic music by Iberian composers such as Gaspar Fernandes and Pedro Bermúdez, and also of works by Palestrina and Victoria. The music collected and copied remains in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano....
(fl Paris, c1700). French harpsichordist, pedagogue and composer. Remarks in his Principes suggest that he worked as a harpsichord teacher, primarily in Paris. The first name ‘Michel’, frequently attributed to him, derives from the conflation of Saint Lambert with the singer and composer Michel Lambert, an error that goes back at least as far as Walther’s Musicalisches Lexicon (1732).
Les principes du clavecin was, as its author claimed, the first method book for the harpsichord, antedating François Couperin's L’art de toucher le clavecin by 14 years. Its first 18 chapters, devoted primarily to fundamentals of music, contain significant information regarding the range of the harpsichord, the performance practice of the slur (of particular value for the performance of préludes non mesurés) and a chapter on metre and tempo. Of the remaining chapters, one is devoted to fingering (including a fully fingered minuet and gavotte) and the other nine to ornamentation. By reproducing and commenting on the ornament symbols of four 17th-century keyboard composers – Chambonnières, Nivers, Lebègue and especially D’Anglebert – Saint Lambert provided a useful comparative perspective on the performance practices of his day....
(b Hohenstein, nr Chemnitz, 1709; d Berlin, Feb 17, 1763). German harpsichordist, composer and teacher. One of the earliest references to him was in 1733, when he applied for the position of organist at the Sophienkirche, Dresden. In his application he stated that for the past three years he had been ‘harpsichordist to the king’ and the Polish Prince Sangusko. Although one of three candidates short-listed, Schaffrath was unsuccessful and the post went to Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. By the following year, however, he was in the service of Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick the Great). He was among those who moved with the prince’s establishment from Ruppin to Rheinsberg in 1736, and on Frederick’s accession in 1740 was installed as harpsichordist in the court Kapelle at Berlin. In 1741 he was appointed musician to the king’s sister, Princess Amalia, a title which appears on contemporary publications of his music and which he was still using in the 1760s. Although he remained at Berlin until his death his name is not included in Marpurg’s register of the Kapelle (...
(b Ülleben, nr Gotha, 1660; d Gotha, April 1715). German composer and teacher. After working in Ichtershausen he became court Kantor in Gotha in 1685 and was a respected if not specially important music teacher. He had connections with the court Kapellmeisters Wolfgang Mylius and Christian Witt, and with the traditional musical institutions of Gotha, which were linked with the names of Pachelbel, Telemann and, in music education, Andreas Reyher. His Tyrocinium musices is related to Reyher’s Gothaer Schulmethodus and is dedicated to ‘enthusiastic and music-loving youth’, following the model of the textbooks by Schneegass, Dedekind and others. His compositions, many of them in the traditional form of the motet for two choirs, show a marked personal touch in their rhythmic and dynamic subtlety.
(fl London, 1739–48). Italian editor and music teacher. He is known through two publications that appeared in London in the mid-18th century. The first, Essercizi per gravicembalo di Don Domenico Scarlatti, a handsome edition mostly engraved by Fortier, with an ornate frontispiece by Jacopo Amigoni, carries this warning: ‘Beware of incorrect printed Editions, a Scandal in this great Nation, and let not its fundamental Principles of Liberty and Prosperity be abus'd by vile Worms that gnaw the Fruit of others ingenious Labour and Expence’. Scola's other piece of work, published by Walsh, is Venetian Ballad's Compos'd by Sigr Hasse and all the Celebrated Italian Masters; it appeared in three volumes, 1742–8, and is introduced by Scola's dedication in Italian to ‘Carlo Sackvill Conte di Middlesex’. In 1744 Scola was a governor of the Fund for the Support of Decay'd Musicians and their Families. The only record of his being a performer himself appears in the advertisement for the Scarlatti ...