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William Waterhouse

(b Sin-le-Noble, Nord, May 25, 1923). French bassoonist and teacher. A precocious talent, he won a premier prix at the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 17. He won a first prize at the Geneva International Competition in 1949 and was appointed to the Paris Opéra the same year. In ...

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David Fallows

(It.: ‘broadening’, ‘spreading’; gerund of allargare, ‘to spread’)

An instruction to slow down the tempo and often to develop a fuller and more majestic performing style. But this is not always intended. Verdi, for example, almost invariably accompanied allargando with a decrease in texture or volume; thus the very end of the prelude to La traviata has the successive markings ...

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Miriam Miller

(d 1634). English music printer. He printed a few musical works between 1610 and 1615, only his initials ‘E.A.’ appearing on certain imprints. He printed Thomas Ravenscroft’s A Briefe Discourse (1614) and John Amner’s Sacred Hymnes of 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts for Voyces and Vyols (1615). His address was ‘neere Christ-Church’ in London. His name appears among a list of printers granted printing monopolies by James I and his successors as ‘Edw. Alday, to print sett songs et al’, but he apparently made little use of any such privilege.

Humphries-SmithMP E. Arber, ed.: A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554–1640, 1–4 (London, 1875–7/R); v (Birmingham, 1894/R) R.B. McKerrow: ‘Edward Allde as a Typical Trade Printer’, The Library, 4th ser., 10 (1929–30), 121–62 J. Morehen: ‘A Neglected East Anglian Madrigalian Collection of the Elizabethan Period’, ...

Article

Roland Würtz and Paul Corneilson

(b Venice, 1754; d Ireland, after 1801). Italian soprano. She made her début in 1770 in Venice and in 1771 went from Florence to Mannheim, possibly on a recommendation by Casanova to the Mannheim court poet, Mattia Verazi. Holzbauer gave her singing lessons and employed her as second soubrette in the court opera (1771–5). She made her Mannheim début in 1771 in Piccinni's Gli stravaganti (Nerina) and appeared the following year at the palace theatre in Schwetzingen in Gassmann's L’amore artigiano (Angiolina) and Sacchini’s La contadina in corte (Tancia); Burney gave a glowing report of her. After 1778 she sang in Venice and Florence, in 1781 in London, making her début there in Anfossi’s I viaggiatori felici. On 20 July 1783 she was engaged by Bertholdi at a salary of 1000 ducats as prima donna buffa at the Dresden court opera, where Mozart heard her and placed her above Ferrarese (letter of ...

Article

David Fallows

(It., diminutive of allegro)

A tempo (and mood) designation, normally indicating something a little less fast, and perhaps a little more lighthearted, than Allegro. But there is some evidence that in Paris around 1800 it was understood to be faster than allegro, most specifically in J.B. Cartier's L'art du violon (Paris, 1798) and in Renaudin's Plexichronomètre readings (see B. Brook La symphonie française, Paris, 1962, i, 318). It is found occasionally in Vivaldi and Domenico Scarlatti, but hardly at all in their precursors, even though Brossard mentioned the word in his Dictionaire of 1703. During the second half of the 18th century it came into special popularity, for the idea of a fastish tempo that should on no account show any sign of hurry was peculiarly appropriate to the galant style. Leopold Mozart (1756) said it should be performed ‘prettily, frivolously and jokily’ (‘artig, tändelend und scherzhaft’). When included in graduated lists of tempo marks it was normally placed between ...

Article

Colin Timms

(b Rome, c1585; d Rome, Sept 5, 1629). Italian composer. He was brought up in Rome. He was a private pupil of G.B. Nanino from April 1594 and a choirboy at S Luigi dei Francesi from October 1595; by February 1596 he was learning to compose. He left S Luigi in January 1602, after his voice had broken, but returned as an alto in December and remained until May 1603. He is next heard of at the collegiate church of S Maria Maggiore at Spello, where he was maestro di cappella from at least June 1608 (possibly from 1606) to January 1609. He then moved back to Rome and was maestro di cappella of S Maria in Trastevere from September 1609 to March 1610 and of S Maria Maggiore from then to his death. He married in 1616 and had five children. Allegri was one of the first to write independent instrumental accompaniments in vocal chamber music: his ...

Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Noel O’Regan

(b Rome, 1582; d Rome, Feb 7, 1652). Italian composer and singer, brother of Domenico Allegri. From 1591 to 1596 he was a boy chorister and from 1601 to 1604 a tenor at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, where the maestro di cappella was G.B. Nanino. According to Allegri’s obituary he studied with G.M. Nanino (see Lionnet). He was active as a singer and composer at the cathedrals of Fermo (1607–21) and Tivoli, and by August 1628 he was maestro di cappella of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He joined the papal choir as an alto on 6 December 1629, under Urban VIII, and was elected its maestro di cappella for the jubilee year of 1650. In 1640 his fellow singers elected him to revise Palestrina’s hymns (necessitated by Urban VIII’s revision of the texts), which were published in Antwerp in 1644. His contemporaries clearly saw him as a worthy successor to Palestrina and a guardian of the ...

Article

Edmond Strainchamps

(b Florence, Nov 16, 1567; d Florence, July 15, 1648). Italian composer and lutenist. Cesare Tinghi, the Medici court diarist, called him (in Solerti) ‘Lorenzo [or Lorenzino] todesco del liuto’, which has encouraged the notion that he may have been German, but his baptismal record confirms that he was from Florence. He entered the ranks of salaried musicians at the Medici court on 15 April 1604 as a lutenist; during the period 1636–7 he was referred to as maestro di liuto. In January 1622 he was appointed guardaroba della musica, and in due course he was also placed in charge of the pages who played, sang and danced in court entertainments. He continued to serve the court until his death. He seems chiefly to have written instrumental music. Only two vocal pieces by him are known: Tu piangi, a madrigal for solo voice and continuo published in Antonio Brunelli's ...

Article

Terence J. O’Grady

revised by Bryan Proksch

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 31, 1935). American trumpeter, composer, bandleader, and record company executive. He studied trumpet as a child and left college to play in the army for a two-year period. After three years of producing records on his own, he launched A&M Records with Jerry Moss in 1962. A&M’s first issue was also Alpert’s first recording as a trumpeter and bandleader, The Lonely Bull (A&M, 1962). The title track included sounds from the bullring in Tijuana, Mexico, so Alpert dubbed his band the Tijuana Brass. His music exploited a distinctive combination of Mexican mariachi-style brass with jazz rhythms, which was dubbed Ameriachi. A string of hits including “Mexican Shuffle” (A&M, 1964) and “Tijuana Taxi” (A&M, 1965) followed. In 1966 Alpert had five recordings simultaneously listed on the Billboard Top 20. His cover of “This guy’s in love with you” reached no.1 in ...

Article

Alsbach  

Henri Vanhulst

Dutch firm of music publishers. Carl Georg Alsbach (b Koblenz, Jan 20, 1830; d Rotterdam, Jan 3, 1906) founded the firm in Rotterdam on 15 March 1866 and it became one of the most important music publishing firms in the Netherlands in the first half of the 20th century. In 1898 the business moved to Amsterdam where the founder's son Johann Adam Alsbach (b Rotterdam, 12 April 1873; d Amsterdam, 20 May 1961) directed it from 1903 until his death, when the firm was taken over by Editions Basart. By purchasing the stock of several publishing houses, including Brix von Wahlberg (1898), Stumpf & Koning (1898), J.W.L. Seyffardt and A.A. Noske, Alsbach became the publishers for the majority of Dutch composers (e.g. Julius Röntgen, Diepenbrock, Sigtenhorst Meyer and Badings). From 1910 to 1960 the firm produced the publications of the Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis. It also issued a large number of works concerned with music teaching and practical music-making, both vocal and instrumental. Until ...

Article

Thomas W. Bridges

(fl Venice, 1572–1621). Italian printer. In February 1572 he witnessed a codicil to the will of Girolamo Scotto, in which he is described as a printer, not a bookseller, suggesting that he may have worked in Scotto’s shop in Venice at the time. After a brief attempt in printing music on his own in 1579, he resumed as a partner of Giacomo Vincenti, with whom he printed, between 1583 and 1586, about 80 books. A few were reprints of popular volumes by Arcadelt, Lassus, Marenzio, Palestrina, and Bernardino Lupacchino and Gioan Maria Tasso, but most were first editions of works by some 33 composers, of whom the best known are Asola, Bassano, Caimo, Gioseffo Guami, Marenzio, Stivori and Virchi, as well as anthologies. For their printer’s mark Vincenti & Amadino used a woodcut of a pine-cone, with the motto ‘Aeque bonum atque tutum’. When they began to print separately (from ...

Image

Disc jockey Dick Clark, at podium at upper left, is surrounded by teen-age fans on his nationally televised dance show "American Bandstand" in Philadelphia, Pa. on June 30, 1958. Clark, the show's 28-year-old host, plays rock and roll records during the show that features dancing.

(AP Photo)

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Jeremy Drake

French firm of music publishers. It was founded in 1943 in Grenoble by Hervé Dugardin (1910–69). At first Dugardin published works of composers whom he knew (Arrieu, Pierre Auclert, Barraud, Daniel-Lesur, Mihalovici, Sauguet and Wissmer). In 1946 the firm was transferred to Paris, and a shop was opened in the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. In the early 1950s Dugardin published some highly significant contemporary works including Boulez's First Piano Sonata (1951) and his Sonatine for flute and piano (1954), as well as Dutilleux's First Symphony (1954). In the 1960s Amphion published works by Ohana and Marius Constant. After Dugardin's death, Isabelle Berthou, the current director, took over, and in the course of the 1960s and 70s added several notable younger composers to the catalogue including Aperghis, André Bon, Antoine Bonnet, Fenelon, Thierry Lancino, Mâche, Manoury and Risset, alongside Amy, Eloy and Tona Scherchen-Hsiao. In ...

Article

Andrew Flory

American record company. In 1973, Neil Bogart, Cecil Holmes, Larry Harris, and Buck Reingold founded Casablanca, an independent label based in Los Angeles that specialized in rock, funk, and disco. With Bogart as figurehead, the company released music by some of the most important and successful artists of the 1970s, including the theatrical rock-band Kiss, best-selling disco artist Donna Summer, gay icons the Village People and Cher, and funk acts Parliament and Chic. The producer Giorgio Moroder, known for his extended disco arrangements, was associated closely with Casablanca during the latter half of the 1970s. After the company’s acquisition by Polygram in ...

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Angel  

David Mermelstein

American record company. It was created by EMI in 1953 to distribute its English Columbia label in the United States. Under the astute leadership of Dario Sario in New York, and with the full support of the powerful producer Walter Legge, the firm quickly established a reputation for excellent recorded sound and high standards of album packaging. The label augmented its catalogue with material from Pathé Marconi and Electrola, and in 1957 it acquired the HMV catalogue for North America, consolidating its vital position within EMI's international network. Later that year Angel moved its operations to Los Angeles, affiliating with Capitol Records, in which EMI had gained a controlling interest two years earlier. Angel expanded during the 1960s under the direction of Brown Meggs, acquiring Capitol's classical catalogue, distributing numerous Russian recordings under the Melodiya/Angel banner and (in 1966) introducing Seraphim, a low-priced reissue label. Angel also established its own contracts with artists, including André Watts, Christopher Parkening and Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg. In ...

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Richard J. Agee

In 

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Repositories for the permanent retention, preservation, and access of sound recordings (e.g., CDs, LPs, audio cassettes, cylinders, digital audio files) and moving image media (e.g., motion-picture film, kinescope, videotape, digital video files); often included along side of these collections are the mechanical playback devices for such media. The history of archives of this kind in the United States reveals trends towards the amalgamation of sound and moving image materials into single units based either on format (e.g., Library of Congress’ Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division) or academic discipline (UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive). Traditionally the distinction between a library and an archive is essentially one of purpose and a material’s publication status: whereas libraries collect published materials for use by general patrons within and outside the library, archives generally accession and preserve unpublished materials, allowing restricted access for research purposes. However, with the development of the Internet, digitization technologies, and online modes of distribution, the distinction between library and archive hosted sound recording and moving image collections has become more fluid with both kinds of institutions posting published and unpublished audio and video files online with varying degrees of accessibility. Parallel advances in preservation technologies have also enabled archivists to digitize analog sound recordings and moving image recordings that is thought to ensure long-term, if not permanent, access to the content housed on the original analog carriers....