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Article

Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[grail](from Lat. gradale, graduale, liber gradualis)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the chants for the Proper of the Mass and, secondarily, in more recent times, those of the Ordinary (i.e. those of the kyriale).

The majority of graduals have no title; some ancient graduals, however, bear the title Incipit antefonarius ordinatus a Sancto Gregorio ( B-Br 10127–44, 8th century; see Hesbert, 1935, p.2; see also Antiphoner, §1). The term ‘antiphonale’ is here (and in some other instances) applied to a book containing only chants for the Mass, but at this early date it could refer equally well to the antiphons of the Divine Office. In the ‘antiphonaries’ of the non-Roman liturgies (Milan and Spain) and in the Lucca fragments ( I-Lc 490, 8th century) the chants for the Mass alternate Sunday by Sunday or feast by feast with those of the Office. According to Amalarius of Metz (see edn. with commentary by Hucke, ‘Graduale’, ...

Article

James W. McKinnon

[Responsorium graduale]

Chant following the Epistle in the Roman Mass.

The gradual, a chant of great melodic elaboration, is so named because it was sung on one of the higher steps – gradus – of the ambo (the same step on which the subdeacon read the Epistle, one below that on which the deacon read the Gospel). It was sung at every Mass throughout the year except during Paschal Time (the Sunday after Easter to the Saturday after Pentecost), when it was replaced by an Alleluia (two alleluias were sung then rather than the more typical gradual and alleluia, the arrangement for the rest of the year; on penitential occasions the alleluia was omitted entirely).

The gradual is a responsorial chant, that is, it bears some resemblance in its manner of performance to a responsorial psalm, where the psalm verses are chanted by a soloist and answered by a choral response. The medieval gradual consisted of a response and single verse. In the later Middle Ages the response was intoned by a cantor until its final phrase, which was sung by the chorus. This is apparently not the original arrangement. It is widely believed that at first a fourfold pattern was observed: the singing of the response by a cantor; its repetition by the chorus; the singing of the verse by a cantor; and a final choral repetition of the reponse. Such a format is plausible in view of the exigencies of oral transmission and the workings of responsorial psalmody, but it is not given explicit support (neither is it denied) in the sources. The following passage from ...

Article

James W. McKinnon

A term conventionally applied to the central branch of Western Plainchant. Though not entirely appropriate, it has for practical reasons continued in use. Gregorian chant originated as a reworking of Roman ecclesiastical song by Frankish cantors during the Carolingian period; it came to be sung almost universally in medieval western and central Europe, with the diocese of Milan the sole significant exception. The pivotal event in its history was the visit of Pope Stephen II (752–7) to King Pippin III (751–68) in 754. Pope Stephen, together with a considerable retinue of Roman clergy, including, presumably, the Schola Cantorum, remained for several months at St Denis and other Carolingian centres. King Pippin is reported to have ordered the imposition of the cantus romanus at the time and to have called for the suppression of the indigenous Gallican liturgy. Subsequently Pippin's son Charlemagne (768–814) issued numerous edicts endorsing his father's policy.

The association of the chant with the name of Gregory took place during this earlier period of Frankish assimilation of the Roman chant. The earliest Frankish chant books – unnotated ...

Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on 17 December 1024 to the Madonna.

Among those libraries of Western Europe that house extensive collections of Greek manuscripts, the library of the Badia occupies a special place, rivalled only by the smaller collection from the monastery of S Salvatore di Messina, today a part of the Messina University library. It is a genuinely monastic library, and as such reflects the needs and interests of a particular monastic community. The founders of that community had come from Calabria, bringing with them the tradition of the Greek-speaking settlements of southern Italy and Sicily. And that tradition, being peripheral, not only tended to lag behind the tradition of the Eastern Empire proper, it eventually lost all contact with it. The Latin occupation of Constantinople in ...

Article

Halil  

Article

Miloš Velimirović

[hirmologion](Gk., from heirmos: ‘stanza’)

A liturgical book containing the heirmoi for the ōdai (odes) of the kanōnes (see Kanōn), used at the Byzantine Office of Orthros. The heirmoi texts are invariably paraphrases of the biblical canticles, which the kanōn had supplanted in Orthros as celebrated in Byzantium by the end of the 7th century.

A heirmologion contains only the first stanza (i.e. the heirmos) of each ode and is thus a handbook to remind the singers of the melodies of the heirmoi: these melodies, in full performances of the kanōn, would be repeated during the singing of the additional stanzas (troparia) of each ode. The mēnaia contain the troparia for the immovable feasts of the church year, and the triōdion and pentēkostarion those for the movable feasts. Since, therefore, heirmologia were auxiliary manuscripts containing only model stanzas, they were well suited to serve a didactic purpose; the chanters would use them to learn the basic melodies necessary for performing the ...

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

Article

[Barmherzige Brüder; Milosrdní bratří]

Religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, sometimes incorrectly termed ‘Brothers of Mercy’ (a different 19th-century order). Founded by St John of God in Spain in 1537, they were recognized by Pope Pius V in 1572 and adopted the Rule of St Augustine. However, only a few Hospitallers were ordained priest: their work was primarily medical. They were prominent in missionary work, and dozens of hospitals were established in South America in the 17th century. They achieved their greatest expansion in the 18th century, with thousands of brothers serving some 300 hospitals. After the French Revolution, many hospitals were secularized, but during the first half of the 20th century there was again a notable expansion of the order worldwide, once more with a missionary emphasis.

In the Habsburg Empire in the second half of the 18th century, the Hospitallers were committed to church music of a high standard but did not buy in the services of outside ...

Article

Article

James W. McKinnon

(from Lat. introitus)

The first of the Proper or variable chants of the Mass. It is sung, as its name suggests, during the entrance of the celebrant and his ministers at the beginning of the Mass.

The 8th-century Ordines romani describe the introit as an antiphon and psalm that was sung by the Schola Cantorum as the pope moved in procession down the centre of the basilica from the secretarium (a room near the entrance where he vested) to a position before the main altar. According to Ordo romanus I, when the pope arrived at the altar he nodded to the singers, who then broke off chanting the psalm to conclude with the Gloria Patri and a final repetition of the antiphon. Outside Rome, in subsequent centuries, the practice of singing a full psalm was replaced by the singing of a single verse, the probable reason being that the celebrant approached the altar from a sacristy in the vicinity of the sanctuary rather than from the secretarium at the church's entrance as at Rome. The verse sung was generally the first available from the relevant psalm, for example, the second verse if the antiphon itself derived its text from the first verse, or the first verse if the antiphon used a later verse or a text from some other source. A frequently encountered peculiarity in the early history of the introit is the ...

Article

Ruth Steiner

revised by Keith Falconer

(from Lat. invitatio: ‘invitation’)

A fixed psalm opening a service of the Divine Office. In the Roman rite the term is used only for the opening chant of Matins: Psalm xciv (Vulgate numbering; Psalm xcv, Hebrew numbering) sung in alternation with an antiphon. The term has also been used occasionally by modern liturgical scholars to refer to any opening chant of the Divine Office, regardless of its character and without reference to fixed or variable characteristics.

In the early Church, an invitatory was included at the beginning of Vigils (later known as Matins), at Lauds, Vespers and elsewhere. The text seems to have varied from one region to another, and perhaps also varied according to the particular service, among other factors. St John Chrysostom, describing the state of the liturgy in Antioch before 397, mentioned an invitatory consisting of Psalm cxxxiii (Hebrew numbering) and Isaiah xxvi.9ff, both of which have an ‘invitatory’ character resembling that of Psalm xcv. A similar diversity of usage, presumably deriving directly from these early traditions, appears in the services of the Christian East. Thus the texts mentioned by Chrysostom were subsequently also sung in the Byzantine cathedral vigil and in many other Eastern liturgies....

Article

Richard Sherr

The formal dismissal of the Mass consisting of the words ‘Ite missa est’ (‘Go, you are dismissed’) answered by ‘Deo gratias’ (‘Thanks be to God’). The use of ‘missa’ in the sense of dismissal is quite ancient: by the early Middle Ages this meaning had been lost. Jungmann was thus of the opinion that ‘this formula is as old as the Latin Mass itself’; it certainly dates from at least the 4th century. In fact the very term ‘Mass’ (missa), which replaced the earlier ‘eucharistia’, is taken from this phrase. The Ite missa est is an element of the Ordinary and was originally sung or chanted at the end of every Mass. In the 11th century, however, a change took place that resulted in the inclusion of the Ite only in masses with a Gloria; on other occasions the Benedicamus Domino replaced it.

A number of melodies have survived (see Robertson for those in the service books of the abbey of St Denis), and there are 28 troped forms of the ...

Article

Jesuits  

T. Frank Kennedy

[Society of Jesus]

A Roman Catholic religious order of priests and brothers that grew out of an association of men who formed themselves around Ignatius Loyola (1491–1556), a minor Basque nobleman. Dedicated to ‘the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine and to the propagation of the faith’, the order was inaugurated by Pope Paul III in a bull of 1540. Jesuit history falls into two periods: 1540 to 1773 and 1814 to the present (the intervening years represent the period of suppression). This article focusses on the first period, the more significant as regards the musical involvement of the order.

Jesuit spirituality is rooted in the experience of the gospels as reflected upon in the Ejercicios espirituales, a manual of spiritual exercises developed by Ignatius. These exercises gave rise to a new kind of ministry, that of the retreat or time set apart for private prayer, which further generated an outward, missionary concern for service to others. The early works of the order consisted of preaching, hearing confessions, teaching Christian doctrine to children, visiting the sick and imprisoned, and guiding persons in the practice of the exercises. To ensure the flexibility of this vocation and its itinerant nature, Ignatius and his first followers stipulated that the common recitation or chanting of the liturgical hours, hitherto an integral part of the daily life of a religious order, would not be required. The members were therefore able to be out in the world at the service of the gospel, ministering to the people, rather than bound together in the common recitation of the psalms....

Article

Job (i)  

James W. McKinnon

Subject of the Old Testament book of Job, a symbol of patience in adversity, and patron of music in the 15th and 16th centuries. The book of Job, arguably the most penetratingly philosophical of the Old Testament books, was composed by an unknown author probably in the post-exilic period. Traditionally it has been read as the story of Job, a just man visited by extreme misfortunes that his friends interpret as punishments for sin, but who is eventually vindicated by the appearance of God. Modern scholarship sees Job as more querulous and God’s punishments as more mysterious, and the poetic epilogue in which Job’s vindication takes place as being incompatible with the prose body of the text.

The only references to music appear in xxi.2: ‘They sing to the timbrel and harp, Revel to the tune of flute’ and xxx.31: ‘My harp is turned to mourning, My flute to the sound of weepers’. There is nothing in these lines to account for Job’s becoming a patron of music. Each of the passages merely refers to music as one among many amenities in the life of a wealthy Middle Eastern landowner in ancient times. In the first, Job is referring to the prosperity of unjust men not afflicted by God as he is, and in the second he alludes to his own fall from prosperity. Accordingly, neither the early Christian centuries nor the Middle Ages looked upon Job as a patron of music even though he was a much venerated figure. He is the subject of Gregory the Great’s often copied and much imitated ...

Article

Jubilus  

James W. McKinnon

Term describing an ancient wordless chant sung by labourers that in modern times came to be associated with the melismatic vocalization of the alleluia of the Mass (see Alleluia, §I). The nouns jubilus and jubilatio, and more often the verbal form jubilare, appear with some frequency in Latin literature, where they refer to a sort of wordless call or chant. Wiora has traced the Latin word jubilus to a common linguistic root, io, that has a peculiar acoustical force, and he associates the phenomenon of the Latin jubilus with similar cries heard in other cultures – the Alpine yodel, for example, and the call of the Volga boatmen. In Latin literature the jubilus could figure as a primitive whoop or shout, as when Apuleius speaks of a group of farm labourers who set their dogs upon intruders with ‘the accustomed jubilations [iubilationibus solitis] and other kinds of shouts’ (...

Article

Alejandro Enrique Planchart

Benedictine abbey in northern France. St Pierre de Jumièges was founded in 654 by St Philibert (c616–85), its first abbot. By the 8th century it ranked with Fontenelle and St Taurin d’Evreux as one of the most important monasteries in Neustria. The first half of the 9th century, however, brought a series of disasters, above all the Norman raids. The raid of 851 left the cloister in ruins; the monks fled, most of them to Haspres near Cambrai and some to St Denis. According to the preface of Notker’s Liber hymnorum, one of the fleeing monks eventually found his way to St Gallen (c860), carrying with him an antiphoner (probably an antiphonale missarum) containing proses (versus ad sequentias) that inspired Notker’s own work.

Refounded in 934, the cloister regained its wealth throughout the 11th and 12th centuries, particularly under William the Conqueror, and extended its influence to England. After a period of prosperity lasting until the 14th century, the Hundred Years War brought renewed hardships to Jumièges. The 16th century was a period of relative stability for the abbey despite the sack by the Huguenots in ...

Article

Article

Dimitri Conomos

(from Gk.: ‘beautiful sound’)

A genre of ornate liturgical chant found in post-14th-century Byzantine Akolouthiai and other musical manuscripts. The kalophonic technique of embellishment was applied to traditional melodies, which from the 14th century onwards were regarded as ‘ancient’, and in newly composed florid settings. Kalophonic chants gradually replaced the more limited centonate asmatikon chants of the 13th century.

Two types of text are generally interwoven within a kalophonic chant: one or more lines from a Greek liturgical text combined with teretismata (passages of meaningless syllables). In those chants with texts drawn from the psalms, composers would often juxtapose lines and edit verses to suit their own purposes (anagrammatismoi). The chant melodies are melismatically embellished and frequently amplified by kratēmata (independent melodic units made up of teretismata), resulting in a rhapsodic assemblage of melodic fragments linked sequentially. A characteristic of the kalophonic style, occurring particularly in the highly prolix kratēmata, is the use of series of repeated pitches – a repercussive vocal effect often accompanied by rapid changes of pitch at the interval of a 4th or 5th. The performance of the kalophonic repertory would have required not only a professional cathedral or monastic choir but also highly trained soloists; that singers existed who possessed the necessary vocal abilities is evidence of the flowering of Byzantine chant during the late empire....

Article

Kanōn  

Miloš Velimirović

(Gk.: ‘rule’)

A liturgical poem chanted at Orthros in the Byzantine rite, in the position once occupied by the biblical canticles. It is one of the two most important poetic forms in medieval Byzantine religious poetry, the other being the kontakion.

The codification of a series of nine ōdai (odes, or biblical canticles) consisting of the ‘Psalms outside the Psalter’ gave rise to the poetic form of the kanōn. In its complete form the kanōn consists of a series of nine odes, each paraphrasing one of the biblical canticles. Within a kanōn each ode is assigned a number that refers to the canticle being paraphrased; the theme of an ode is taken from the subject of the corresponding canticle. Each ode consists of a model stanza (heirmos) and three, four or sometimes more further stanzas called troparia (see Troparion. The first stanza of an ode, its heirmos, establishes the basic rhythmic and accentual pattern followed in the ...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

(Gk.: ‘compunction’)

A penetential Stichēron or kathisma (see Hesperinos, §2) sung in the Byzantine Office. Four of each type are set in each of the eight modes. Two stichēra katanyktika are sung as antiphons to psalm verses at Hesperinos on Sunday and Monday and the other two at Orthros (...