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Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Henry Roche

(Isaac)

(b Prague, May 23, 1794; d Leipzig, March 10, 1870). Bohemian pianist and composer. He was of Jewish descent: the extra Hebrew forename Isaac, occasionally added in modern publications, was of purely religious significance and was never used by him professionally. His date of birth is given incorrectly as 30 May in many earlier works of reference. His piano lessons began early, and from 1804 to 1808 he was taught by B.D. Weber, director of the Prague Conservatory, who insisted on an exclusive study of Bach, Mozart and Clementi. But already Moscheles had discovered the ‘Pathétique’ Sonata, and was keen to explore every new Beethoven piano work. In 1808 he moved to Vienna, where he could come closer personally and musically to Beethoven, while studying counterpoint with Albrechtsberger and composition with Salieri. By 1814, when the publisher Artaria commissioned him to prepare a piano reduction of Beethoven’s Fidelio...

Article

Martin Eastick

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 23, 1854; d Paris, March 4, 1925). German pianist, composer and conductor of Polish descent. Born into a wealthy Jewish family, he received his first musical tuition at home, showing exceptional talent from an early age. In 1865 the family moved to Dresden, where Moszkowski was accepted at the conservatory. Moving to Berlin in 1869, he studied at the Stern Conservatory with Eduard Frank (piano) and Friedrich Kiel (composition), and subsequently at Theodore Kullak's Neue Akademie der Tonkunst with Kullak himself (piano) and Richard Wuerst (composition). While still only 17 he accepted Kullak's invitation to join the staff at his academy, where he taught for over 25 years. In 1873 he made his successful début in Berlin as a pianist, and quickly acquired a reputation not only as a brilliant virtuoso but also as a fine interpreter of the Classical and Romantic repertory. He was also a competent violinist, sometimes playing first violin in the academy orchestra. Among his early compositions were several substantial orchestral works, most of which have been lost. These included a piano concerto, first performed in Berlin in ...

Article

Elizabeth Wood

(b Canterbury, 1790; d Sydney, Jan 15, 1864). Australian composer of Polish descent and English birth. Educated at Cambridge by Solomon Lyon from 1805, he was apprenticed by his father to Domenico Corri in London (1809) for training in singing and composition. His introduction to Lord Byron in 1814 led to their collaboration in the Hebrew Melodies (1815–19), for which Nathan adapted ancient Jewish chants to Byron’s poems; the songs were first sung in London by John Braham and were an instant success, remaining in print until 1861. They were at once the basis and highlight of Nathan’s English career, which was fostered by his association with Lady Caroline Lamb, his pupil the Princess Charlotte and the court circles of George IV, to whom he was music librarian and perhaps secret agent. He supported himself with writing, teaching and running a music warehouse and publishing business; he also made an undistinguished stage appearance as Bertram in Henry Bishop’s ...

Article

Ramona H. Matthews

( b Hohenelbe [now Vrchlabí], Bohemia, Jan 10, 1889; d Bloomington, IN, Jan 8, 1972. American musicologist) of Czech-German descent , father of Bruno Nettl . He was educated at the German University in Prague, where he studied law (JurD 1913), musicology with Heinrich Rietsch (PhD 1915) and theory with Gerhard von Keussler. After military service in World War I he worked in Vienna under Adler. In 1920 he returned to Prague, where he taught at the German University and served temporarily as head of the musicological institute. In 1930, when it became clear that his Jewish origins would prevent permanent academic advancement, he became more active in journalism, and became music director for German radio in Czechoslovakia (1933). After the German occupation in 1939 he made his way to the USA, where he taught at the Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey, and in New York and Philadelphia. He was professor of musicology at Indiana University in Bloomington (...

Article

O.W. Neighbour

(b Pressburg [now Bratislava], 1882; d Vienna, 1966). Austro-Hungarian writer and librettist . She came from a prosperous Jewish family and studied medicine, qualifying as a specialist in skin diseases in 1910. She married a psychiatrist, Hermann Frischauf. A convinced socialist by 1930, she joined the outlawed Austrian communist party but emigrated to Paris before the Anschluss and escaped to Mexico in 1940. In 1947 she returned to Vienna, where she continued to practise medicine until 1952.

As early as 1906 Pappenheim had published verses in Karl Kraus’s journal Die Fackel. Her importance in music is as the librettist of Schoenberg’s monodrama Erwartung (1909). After this collaboration she remained in touch with Schoenberg’s circle. She published a novel (1946) and a volume of poetry (1962).

E. Weissweiler: ‘“Schreiben Sie mir doch einen Operntext, Fräulein!”: Marie Pappenheims Text zu Arnold Schönbergs “Erwartung”’, NZM , Jg.145 (1984), no.6, pp.4–8...

Article

Marc Moskovitz

(b Prague, June 18, 1843; d Baden, Vienna, Aug 7, 1913). Austrian cellist and composer. He was born in the Prague ghetto, the son of Angelus Popper, cantor at two local synagogues. Having auditioned for the Prague Conservatory at the age of 12 as a violinist, he matriculated as a cellist because of the shortage of cello students, and became a pupil of Julius Goltermann. He made such rapid progress that within six years he presided over the cello class when Goltermann was on tour. At the age of 18 he was appointed assistant principal cellist of the Löwenberg Court Orchestra, and the following year assumed the post of principal. During this time he was engaged by Bülow and the Berlin Philharmonic as soloist in Robert Volkmann’s newly composed concerto. In 1868 he secured the position of principal in the Vienna Hofoper and the Vienna PO (the youngest player to hold such a post) and later joined the Hellmesberger Quartet. In ...

Article

Mikaela Minga

[Qerime Baki]

(b Korça, Albania, 1898?; d Korça, 1968). Singer and dajre (frame drum) player . Qerimeja performed in the city of Korça from the early 1920s up to the early 1960s. A Roma musician, whose voice ranged between mezzosoprano and alto registers, she was hired to play and sing for female guests for wedding celebrations and in local festivities. She performed women’s songs and love songs, both solo and with saze accompaniment, a typical musical ensemble of her time, usually consisting of clarinet, violin, laouto, baglama, and frame drum. These performances made her popular in the musical life of the city. In the early 1930s her saze renderings of traditional songs from the area were recorded by His Master’s Voice. Qerimeja’s descendants have been musicians as well. The most acclaimed was her grandson, Novruz Nure-Lulushi (1954–90). He played different instruments including accordion, dajre, kaval, and laouto, but was best recognized as a clarinet performer (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Shlomo]

(b Riga, March 27, 1878; d New York, July 31, 1962). Russian-Latvian musician and scholar of Hebrew Bible cantillation. His father was the noted Jewish cantor Baruch Leib Rosowsky (1841–1919). He studied composition under Rimsky-Korsakov, Glazunov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Imperial Conservatory and conducting under Nikisch at the Leipzig Konservatorium. After studying law in Kiev he returned to music; he was a co-founder of the St Petersburg Jewish Folk Music Society (1908) and started collecting and editing Jewish folksong and liturgical music. He served as music director at the Jewish Art Theatre in Petrograd (1917–19). In 1920 he left the Soviet Union for independent Latvia, where he directed music at a Riga theatre, was active as a music critic, and founded the Riga Jewish Conservatory of Music (1920). From 1925 to 1947 he lived in Palestine. He wrote incidental music for the Hebrew theatre, some chamber music, and popular songs, and emerged as a leading authority on the chanting of the Hebrew Bible. He initiated courses on Bible cantillation at the Palestine Conservatory of Music, Jerusalem (now the Rubin Academy of Music). In ...

Article

(b Balassagyarmat, 1789; d Pest, Jan 23, 1848). Hungarian composer and violinist. The son of a poor Jewish tradesman named Rosenthal, he began studying the violin at the age of eight. After a time in Nyitra (now Nitra, Slovakia) and Pozsony (now Bratislava) he went to Prague, where he studied both music and calligraphy. In 1808 he moved to Pest, first working as a bookkeeper for a wholesaler. In the same year he gave a violin recital there, playing works by Kreutzer and compositions of his own in the Hungarian style; after this concert he decided to devote himself exclusively to music. In 1809 he joined the second Hungarian theatrical company in Pest as a violinist, later becoming its musical director; on 12 April 1812 this company performed the play Angyal Bandi with his music. He lived in Baja from 1813 to 1819, when a fire destroyed all his possessions, including his manuscripts. From ...

Article

Robert Snarrenberg

(b Wisniowczyki, Galicia, June 19, 1868; d Vienna, Jan 13, 1935). Austrian theorist. While at the Gymnasium in Lemberg (now L’viv), he studied piano with Karol Mikuli, a pupil of Chopin. Following the wishes of his father, a Jewish physician, he went to Vienna to study law at the university (1884–8). While completing his law degree he enrolled in the conservatory (1887–9), where he studied the piano with Ernst Ludwig and harmony with Bruckner. After withdrawing from the conservatory to support his widowed mother and sister and brother, he met with modest success in Vienna as an accompanist, composer, critic and editor. He regularly accompanied the Dutch baritone Johannes Messchaert. After the turn of the century, however, he focussed on writing, editing and private piano teaching. This work attracted the attention of musicians and students: Wilhelm Furtwängler, impressed by Schenker’s treatise on Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony (...

Article

Irena Poniatowska

(b Kalisz, 1849; d ?Berlin, after 1890). Polish synagogue cantor and later operatic baritone. He went to Warsaw in 1867 and studied under L. Sterling for two years; he then moved to Vienna, where he studied at the conservatory under Salvatore Marchesi. He made his début as Don Basilio in Il barbiere di Siviglia in 1874 in Vienna. He then sang in Italy (Mantua, Novara, Venice, Turin, Milan and Ancona) and for a season at Covent Garden. His next engagement was in South America, where he sang at Caracas; on returning to Europe he sang at Bucharest, then for three years at Dresden, with guest appearances in Vienna, Leipzig, Wiesbaden and Munich. Under contract to the impresario Maini, he concentrated on the Italian repertory and sang in Warsaw from 1882; there he scored successes not only in Italian works but in Lohengrin, Tannhäuser, Robert le diable, Les Huguenots...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Aladar]

(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...

Article

Edward Garden and Stuart Campbell

(b St Petersburg, 11/Jan 23, 1820; d St Petersburg, 20 Jan/Feb 1, 1871). Russian composer and critic. Although he never occupied any official position, never taught, and belonged to no organized group or faction, Serov was one of the most significant and, except for Anton Rubinstein, the most influential Russian musician of the 1860s. His critical writings are unrivalled in his country’s literature for breadth and weight. Many of his essays have been reprinted numerous times and have continued to exert a strong authority. His operas were the outstanding contributions to the Russian musical stage between Dargomïzhsky’s Rusalka and the early works of Tchaikovsky and The Five. They have not survived in the repertory.

Serov’s mother was of German-Jewish origin, his father a distinguished civil servant. He was educated at the School of Jurisprudence, where music was encouraged. There he became friendly with fellow student Vladimir Stasov, four years his junior, with whom he later quarrelled irrevocably. He left the school in ...

Article

Harold Love

(b Jan 30, 1830; d Melbourne, Nov 29, 1899). Australian impresario. A violinist of German-Jewish descent, he went to Australia in 1865 as a touring concert artist with his French wife Fannie (née Dehaes, 1835–96), a soprano. In 1866 the couple joined W. S. Lyster’s opera company, in which Fannie had great success as Sélika in L’Africaine and Martin a less shining stint as conductor. In 1876, after alternating for some years between Australia and Europe, the couple formed a touring opéra bouffe company whose chief production was Maillart’s Les dragons de Villars. When, after Lyster’s death in 1880, his successor George Musgrove withdrew from the promotion of grand opera, Simonsen seized the opportunity to recruit a large Italian company, which toured with great success in 1886–7. A second Simonsen Italian company (1888) was of lesser calibre. Depressed by encroaching deafness and blindness, he died by his own hand. Three of his daughters by Fannie became professional singers, the best known being Frances Saville (...

Article

Roksanda Pejović

(b Sombor, 1794; d Belgrade, 1870). Serbian composer and conductor of Jewish origin. He taught music in Šabac and held a conducting post in Novi Sad. Invited in 1831 to the court of Prince Miloš Obrenović, he founded and directed the prince’s Serbian Orchestra, which played in his Serbian Theatre in Kragujevac and Belgrade. In 1840 he moved with the court to Belgrade, where he was active until 1864. He was the outstanding figure of early Serbian stage life and composed and arranged music for several plays, containing overtures and vocal and instrumental numbers: many of the songs were influenced by Serbian or oriental folktunes and achieved wide popularity. Owing to its musical richness Ženidba cara Dušana (‘The Marriage of Tsar Dušan’; 1840, Kragujevac) is regarded as an opera, although Šlezinger conceived the music to accompany Atanasije Nikolić’s play.

S. Ðurić-Klajn: ‘Razvoj muzičke umetnosti u Srbiji’ [The Development of the Art of Music in Serbia], in ...

Article

Alexander Knapp

(b Hohenems, March 30, 1804; d Vienna, Jan 17, 1890). Austrian cantor and composer. He was the first musician since Salamone Rossi to raise the standards of composition and performance in the synagogue. Three outstanding qualities made him legendary among Jews of the western world. First, his baritone-tenor voice drew admiration not only from the Viennese community whom he served as Obercantor from 1826 until 1881, but also from scholars, musicians (including Meyerbeer, Schubert, Schumann and Liszt), and even the aristocracy; in 1868 he became Knight of the Order of Franz Joseph. Second, his fiery temperament created a vogue among contemporary cantors, who tried to imitate both his singing style and his everyday deportment. Third, and most significant in the development of Jewish music, his compositions became the models upon which almost every newly emancipated congregation based its synagogue ritual covering the entire year. Schir Zion (music for the synagogue service), published in two separate volumes (...

Article

David Charlton

(b Berlin, Sept 1, 1768; d Potsdam, July 11, 1826). German composer. He came from a cultured Jewish family whose circle included Lessing, Moses Mendelssohn and K.W. Ramler. After studying music with J.A.P. Schultz he went to Hamburg to produce his cantata (on Ramler's text) for the coronation of Friedrich Wilhelm II in 1787; Ramler also wrote the text for Sulamith und Eusebia, Wessely's cantata on the death of Mendelssohn the previous year. Wessely was appointed second music director of the Berlin Nationaltheater in 1788 and eight years later Prince Heinrich of Prussia made him Kapellmeister at Rheinsberg. When the prince died in 1802 Wessely abandoned his musical career for family reasons and became a government official at Potsdam, where in 1814 he was co-founder of a society for classical music, which he conducted until his death. He was recognized by his contemporaries as an able pianist and composer. His works, according to Härtwig, were endeared to a wide public by having the clarity of Gluck or Mozart. He published a comparison of these composers in ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Łódź, April 16, 1893; d New York, Sept 6, 1981). American musicologist of Polish birth . After studying the piano with Jacob Weinberg in Moscow, he attended the Imperial School of Commerce (graduating in 1912) and the Moscow Conservatory (MA 1917), where he studied the piano with Alexander Goedicke, organ with Leonid Sabaneyev and theory with M. Morozov. While directing the conservatory's organ department (1918–20), he served as organist for the Bol′shoy and occasionally performed at the Moscow Art Theatre; he then worked as a lecturer for the Siberian Board of Education (1920–21) and music director of the Shanghai Songsters’ Choral Society (1921–2). He emigrated to the USA in 1923 and, following a concert tour, he settled in New York, working as organist at the Free Synagogue (1927–8), Temple Emanu-El (1928–9) and as organist and choirmaster at Temple Rodeph Sholem (...