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John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Christopher Fifield

(Dorius Johannes)

(b Potsdam, Oct 22, 1838; d Danzig, Aug 27, 1922). German critic, pianist, conductor and composer. The son of an organist, he studied music from an early age. In 1859 he enrolled at the University of Berlin, studying theology and later philosophy; during this time he took piano lessons from Hans von Bülow. For a time he was torn between his interests in philosophy and music; having decided upon the latter he studied thoroughbass with Carl Friedrich Weitzmann and composition with Friedrich Kiel. For two and a half years he taught the piano privately in Berlin before accepting a position at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst in 1868. With the singer Clara Werner (whom he married in 1870) he gave concerts in Berlin, Pomerania and Silesia and became organist at the Nikolaikirche in Stralsund in 1869. In his dissertation Praeliminarien zu einer Kritik der Tonkunst (University of Greifswald, ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Brooklyn, NY, Feb 22, 1921; d Baltimore, May 24, 1990). American music critic and conductor. He attended Brooklyn College (BA 1943), took conducting diplomas in Paris at the Conservatoire and the Ecole Normale de Musique (1946–9) and studied musicology at Cornell University (MA 1950), where he took the doctorate in 1960 with a dissertation on orchestral conducting which he later revised and published as A History of Orchestral Conducting in Theory and Practice (New York, 1988). As a Fulbright Fellow he attended the university and the music academy of Vienna and became apprentice conductor at the Staatsoper (1955–6). He then worked at Goucher College (from 1956; from 1964 as professor), and in 1957 was appointed to the staff of the Peabody Conservatory, where he was conductor from 1957, and chairman of the department of music history and literature from 1964...

Article

John Snelson

(Friedrich) [Gallas, Brian Roy]

(b Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 15, 1946). New Zealand writer on musical theatre. He studied law and classics at Canterbury University, New Zealand, subsequently joining the New Zealand Opera company as a bass singer. After moving to London he became a casting director and then a theatrical agent in musical theatre; from 1990 he devoted himself to writing and broadcasting on this subject. His pioneering two-volume study The British Musical Theatre (London, 1986), won several awards: its thorough survey of performances has ensured its place as an essential reference work. His later Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre (Oxford, 1994) is ambitious in its scope, displaying both the breadth of Gänzl’s interest and, through its selections and judgments, his characteristically personal view of the subject. His other books include Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (with Andrew Lamb; London, 1988), a companion guide in the manner of Kobbé, ...

Article

George J. Grella

(b Arlington, MA, Dec 17, 1954). American composer, singer, broadcaster, and journalist. He taught himself to play drums, piano, and guitar as a teenager, after seeing Soft Machine open for Jimi Hendrix when he was 13. He attended the Rhode Island School of Design (BA 1976), where he played jazz piano, sang, composed chamber music, and organized free-jazz ensembles. He moved to New York and worked as a graphic designer and illustrator, producing work for Paul Bley’s label Improvising Artists and for composer La Monte Young, while making music on the side. Garland followed the twin paths of piano improvisation and composition for chamber ensembles in the minimalist style and later joined Nigel Rollings’s band Ad Hoc Rock; with Rollings he sang and played drums, guitar, and keyboards and appeared at The Kitchen, Carnegie Hall, and in the Noise Fest at White Columns (1981). In ...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b Paris, April 2, 1908; d Paris, Oct 24, 1981). French critic, writer on music and organist. He studied the organ and harmony at the Paris Conservatoire (1934–7) under Marcel Dupré and Georges Caussade, and took a degree in literature at the Sorbonne. He was in charge of the Jeunesses Musicales de France and in 1942 was appointed resident organist at St Louis-des-Invalides in Paris, the great organ of which he inaugurated after its reconstruction in 1957. He was music critic for the Figaro under the pseudonym of Clarendon from 1945 until his death. He was also a radio and television producer at the ORTF from 1948.

Many of Gavoty’s works are enthusiastic biographies of organists (Vierne, Jehan Alain) and other famous musicians whom he knew personally; he was author of Les Grands Interprètes, a popular series of biographies of contemporary musicians illustrated by the photographer Roger Hauert (Geneva, ...

Article

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

[Matteo]

(b Warsaw, April 6, 1892; d Welland, ON, Jan 3, 1976). Polish music journalist, conductor and composer. While a law student at Warsaw University, he studied music with Stanisław Barcewicz (violin), Roman Statkowski (composition) and Mieczysław Surzyński (theory) at the Institute of Music in Warsaw (1909–13). He continued his musical education under Max Reger (composition), Arthur Nikisch and Hans Sitt (conducting) at the Leipzig Conservatory, at the same time studying musicology at the university with Hugo Riemann and Arnold Schering (1913–14). He completed his study of conducting and composition with Nikolay Tcherepnin, Aleksandr Glazunov and Maximilian Steinberg at the Petrograd Conservatory (1914–15) and stayed in Russia (Petrograd, Kiev) as conductor and music critic until 1918, when he returned to Poland. He lived in Warsaw until 1939, dividing his time between his profession as a lawyer and his work as a music journalist and critic. In ...

Article

Peter Heyworth

(b London, May 3, 1908; d Oxford, June 28, 2000). English music administrator, pianist, educationist and critic. He was educated at Christ’s Hospital and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he was an organ scholar, and studied with Artur Schnabel in Berlin (1930–33). But though he developed into a fine pianist and made some successful concert appearances, notably in chamber music and in a series of Mozart concertos, which he performed with impeccable technique and style, he at first became a music critic. After a brief period on the Daily Telegraph he joined The Observer (1934–45), succeeding A.H. Fox Strangways as chief critic (1939). He began a new phase of his career as a musical educationist in 1948, when he founded the Summer School of Music at Bryanston, Dorset; it moved in 1953 to Dartington Hall, Devon, and Glock remained its music director until ...

Article

Jacquelyn Sholes

(b Shenandoah, IA, June 2, 1898; d Memphis, TN, Feb 4, 1990). American music critic, conductor, and pianist. He studied at the University of Nebraska (1915–16), Chicago Music College (1920–22, subsequently incorporated into Roosevelt University), and the Gunn School in Chicago (MM 1923). He worked as a music critic for the Chicago Herald and Examiner between 1925 and 1936 and for the Chicago Tribune from 1943 to 1947. Between 1935 and 1943 he served as the Illinois state director of the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Music Project and as a co-conductor of the Illinois SO. In 1947 he became the first full-time music critic for the Los Angeles Times, a position from which he officially retired in 1965. He subsequently contributed to the LA Times as a staff writer and, from 1966 until shortly before his death, as Critic Emeritus. Goldberg was known for his emphatic support of conductors Zubin Mehta and Georg Solti and also for his recollections of such figures as Percy Grainger, Josef Hofmann, Vladimir Horowitz, Lauritz Melchior, and Artur Rubinstein. Trained as a pianist, he was especially knowledgeable about pianists and piano repertory....

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse

(b Faenza, Sept 12, 1890; d Rome, June 14, 1965). Italian composer, conductor and critic. He studied at the Bologna Liceo Musicale with Torchi and Busoni. After teaching in Bologna (1920–24) and Parma (1925–8), he became the director of the Florence Conservatory (1928–47), the Bologna Conservatory (1947–9) and the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (1950–60). His earlier music combines high seriousness, at times somewhat academic, with luxuriant chromatic harmony reminiscent of Bax or, more significantly, Alfano. The textures and orchestration sometimes suggest Strauss, as does Guerrini’s interest, around 1920, in the symphonic poem; and there are indications, too, of Ravel's influence. The most substantial and imaginative of his early works is his second published work in the genre, L’ultimo viaggio d’Odisseo, which shows his harmony and orchestration at their most evocative. Also notable, in this early period, are the chamber compositions: the Violin Sonata is typical, combining succulent chromaticism with reiterative thematic developments. In time Guerrini’s academicism grew more pronounced, while his tendency to romantic indulgence was tempered by a new, architectonic sobriety. His best work after ...

Article

Severine Neff

(b Topeka, KS, Oct 2, 1874; d Washington, DC, Nov 22, 1963). American music critic, conductor, and pianist. In 1893 he entered the Leipzig Conservatory, where he studied piano with Carl Reinecke. From 1901 to 1905 he taught piano at the Chicago Musical College and studied theory privately with Ziehn. He gave a number of recitals in Chicago that included works by Debussy, Ravel, MacDowell, and Ferruccio Busoni; his playing was described in the Music News as that of a “thinker and experimenter.” From 1910 to 1915, as music critic of the Chicago Tribune, he reviewed works by such composers as De Lamarter, Freer, Clarence Loomis, and Adolph Weidig. Between 1914 and 1916 he taught Ernst Bacon, on whom he exerted a profound influence. He left the Tribune to form the American SO, and became its conductor; the orchestra’s inaugural program (14 November 1915) included works by De Lamarter, Loomis, MacDowell, and Cecil Burleigh. He founded the Glenn Dillard Gunn School of Music and Dramatic Art in ...

Article

Jean Mary Allan

revised by Ruzena Wood

(b Banchory-Ternan, Kincardine, Sept 9, 1861; d Edinburgh, May 2, 1914). Scottish organist and writer on music. His first post, with Routledge, the publisher, gave him the opportunity to study music in his spare time, in particular the organ. Returning to Aberdeen by 1882, he held appointments there, then in Crieff (1884) and finally at St John's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh (1889), where he was one of the first organists in Scotland to hold special musical services on Sunday evenings.

He was a naturally gifted writer, with a clear, vigorous style, and was a sound scholar. His first two biographies, of Handel and Mendelssohn (both 1888), were favourably received. Other books followed, notably those on Haydn and Chopin, commissioned by Dent for the first series of the Master Musicians. His outstanding work, likely to be the most long-lived, is George Thomson, the Friend of Burns...

Article

(b Göteborg, Dec 22, 1846; d Stockholm, March 11, 1925). Swedish conductor, composer, teacher and critic. Between 1866 and 1871 he studied in Leipzig with Reinecke, in Munich with Rheinberger and in Dresden with Rietz. He then returned to Göteborg, where he became conductor of the music society (1872–8); he later taught singing in Berlin (1879–83). Back in Sweden he was conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Stockholm (1885–95) and of the Royal Opera (1892–7), as well as founder and conductor of the South Swedish Philharmonic Society (1902–7). From 1909 to 1919 he taught composition at the Stockholm Conservatory.

Hallén’s compositions show an accomplished handling of formal elements and contain stylistic reminiscences of Swedish folk music and the works of other Swedish composers like Söderman. The salient feature of his style, however, and the one which strongly affected contemporary reaction, is its close, almost derivative relationship to German music. Wagner’s works and aesthetic ideas had a particularly strong and lasting influence on Hallén; his operas, although conceived with considerable dramatic skill, are largely dependent on Wagnerian models. As an enterprising and versatile conductor, he gave sympathetic performances of the Wagner operas and brought about performances of many choral masterpieces then almost unknown in Sweden, including the first Swedish performance of Bach's ...

Article

Michael Russ

(Alexander)

(b Belfast, May 5, 1951). Northern Ireland composer, pianist and critic. At Queen's University, Belfast (BMus 1973, MA 1974), he studied composition with Raymond Warren and Adrian Thomas. He also studied the piano with Rhona Marshall at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, Dublin. In 1988, after a period of school and university teaching he became Music Director and subsequently Performing Arts Director of the Arts Council of Northern Ireland.

Hammond has written for a wide range of media and performers from school children to professionals. His music is direct in expression and tends to eschew excessive complexity. He describes himself as a romantic; the dark side of this comes through in Thanatos (1977), a pioneering work by a Northern Ireland composer in the field of electro-acoustic composition, and the introspective Narcissus (1981). Echoes of Schoenberg and Berg may be felt in his works of the early and mid-1980s, and Hammond's usually strong contact with tonality is here at its most tenuous. German poetry, particularly that of Hesse, has been an important influence. ...

Article

Clive T. Probyn

(b Salisbury, July 20, 1709; d Salisbury, Dec 22, 1780). English writer and musical amateur. He was the eldest son of James Harris by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Ashley Cooper, sister of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury. He studied at Oxford and at Lincoln’s Inn, and was MP for Christchurch from 1761, holding various government offices. He wrote on many subjects, including music. He patronized Salisbury musicians and brought London performers to Salisbury through his association with the Salisbury Subscription Concerts (also known as the Society of Lovers of Musick), and from the mid-1740s was consultant and occasional manager of the Annual Musical Festival, for which he directed from the harpsichord and supplied music, some of it of his own composition. His library contained much music, including Italian and Elizabethan works. Handel and Sacchini (his daughter Louisa’s teacher) visited him, and he may also have known Pepusch. His ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Egham, April 3, 1838; d London, Jan 29, 1901). English clergyman, lecturer and writer. Haweis showed great aptitude for music and studied the violin with Antonio James Oury. At Cambridge University he formed a quartet society and became solo violinist of the Cambridge University Musical Society. Graduating in 1859, two years later he passed the Cambridge examination in theology and was ordained deacon, then priest in 1862. After some short-term curateships, he was appointed perpetual curate of St James's, Marylebone, in 1866, a position he held until his death.

Haweis was a Broad Churchman with powers of dynamic extempore preaching that drew packed congregations to St James's, where his Sunday evening services unconventionally included orchestral music and oratorio performances. In 1867 he married Mary Eliza Joy (1848–98), who gained prominence through her writings on household decoration. In 1884 Haweis supplanted J.A. Fuller Maitland as music critic of the ...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b London, Dec 24, 1786; d London, Aug 7, 1853). English writer and musician. He served in the British Army retiring from active service in 1813. Although he is remembered chiefly as a writer on sport and an improver of firearms, he deserves notice as a music enthusiast, who studied the piano in England and on the Continent and whose several English residences were frequented by musicians. In 1818 he spent three months studying harmony and composition in the London academy of J.B. Logier; in 1821 he was a piano student of H.J. Bertini in Paris and, at an unspecified date, of F.W.M. Kalkbrenner. Hawker promoted Logier and his system of musical education in an anonymous publication, Advice to a Nobleman on the Manner in which his Children should be instructed on the Pianoforte (London, 1818, 5/1840). In 1819 Hawker’s invention of hand moulds ‘for running over the keys of a pianoforte in a mathematically true position’ was accepted for manufacture by Chappell in London and Pleyel in Paris. The hand moulds, similar to those invented by Logier, were patented on ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Reading, PA, Dec 18, 1932). American writer. He learned clarinet from the age of 12 and taught himself to play alto saxophone. After studying music theory at Florida State University (BA 1961) he played with the pianist John Benson Brooks (c1961–3), whose trio explored 12-tone composition and improvisation. From the early 1960s Heckman contributed to Down Beat, Metronome, and Jazz Review, and in the process he wrote a number of musical analyses of jazz performances (notably “Miles Davis Times Three,” DB, xxix/23 (1962), 16), which was an unusual practice at the time. Around the same period he played occasionally with Don Ellis, broadcast a jazz radio show on WBAI-FM in New York (1963–4), and performed in the October Revolution in Jazz (1964). From 1964 to 1972, with the tenor saxophonist Ed Summerlin, he co-led the ensemble Improvisational Jazz Workshop, in which Steve Kuhn, Ron Carter, Steve Swallow, Ed Shaugnessy, and Charli Persip were among their sidemen; the group recorded an eponymous album in ...

Article

(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In 1083, as the result of a conspiracy, Henricus was expelled from Augsburg at the same time as his bishop, Wigold. He sought refuge in the monastery of St Mang in Füssen, where he died and was buried. There is insufficient evidence to confirm his identification with Honorius Augustodunensis (see Flint).

Henricus's teachings on music are assembled in a treatise entitled De musica. This survives only in a south German manuscript ( A-Wn cpv 51), which has a lacuna at the end of the treatise. The work is set out in the form of a dialogue between pupil and teacher, a very popular literary technique used two centuries earlier by the author of the ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(d Glaucha, nr Halle, 1744). German organist and writer on music. His only known position was as Kantor at St Georg, Glaucha, from 1732 (he should not be confused with the organist of the same name at the Johanniskirche in Leipzig, 1747–66). Hille was acquainted with J.S. Bach, whom he visited in Leipzig some time about 1739; Bach returned the visit to Hille in Glaucha early in 1740. Both trips are confirmed by a letter to Hille from Bach’s cousin Johann Elias (see David and Mendel, eds.), who asked Hille to sell him as a gift for Anna Magdalena Bach a linnet which had been trained to sing beautifully and which Bach had admired during his stay with Hille. As a composer Hille has been credited with the chorales in Einige neue und zur Zeit noch nicht durchgängig bekante Melodeyen zu dem neuen Cöthenischen Gesangbüchlein, dieselbe mit und ohne Generalbass gebrauchen zu können...