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(b Memphis, TN, Feb 3, 1898; d Chicago, IL, Aug 27, 1971). American jazz pianist, singer, bandleader, and composer. She studied keyboard privately from an early age and had hopes of becoming a concert pianist. While she was enrolled at Fisk University, her mother and stepfather moved to Chicago, where in 1917 she took a job as a sheet music demonstrator, which led to her joining the Original Creole Jazz Band as its pianist. It was her first job playing jazz and she decided not to return to Fisk. She subsequently worked with several bands, including King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band, with which she performed in San Francisco in 1921 and made her recording debut in 1923. By this time the band included louis Armstrong, whom she married in 1924. Armstrong’s place in jazz history was assured by her participation on Oliver’s Gennett recordings and Louis’ Hot Five sessions for Okeh. She played an important role in Louis’ move into a brighter spotlight before their separation in ...


Almonte Howell

(b southern France; fl 1609–14). Spanish liturgist of French birth. A Dominican friar, educated at the monastery at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence, he served as cantor in a number of houses of his order in France, Aragon and Castile, including S Pablo at Valladolid and finally S María de Atocha in Madrid. He was commissioned to prepare a new simplified processional for the Spanish Dominicans, Processionarium secundum morem almi ordinis Praedicatorum S.P.N. Dominici (Madrid, 1609), which contains information on past chant manuals of the order, and the rubrics and music for the special services involving processions. Its music was badly garbled by the printer. Artufel’s second work, Modo de rezar las horas canónicas conforme al rezo de los Frayles Predicadores … con un Arte de canto llano y con la entonación de los hymnos y sus rúbricas (Valladolid, 1614), is in three parts with separate paginations. The first, a ceremonial for the Office, is chiefly an extract in translation from the Dominican Ordinary but with some interesting added material on the use of the organ; the second part contains the hymn intonations; the third is a manual on chant consisting of 23 chapters on the rudiments of music (notation, solmization, intervals, modes) and a collection of examples. The bulk of the technical material is taken verbatim from the ...


Abdel-Hamid Hamam

(b Jan 17, 1929). Jordanian traditional composer, singer and buzuq player of Palestinian Gypsy origin. At an early age he joined a group of Gypsy musicians as a singer and player of the ‘ūd (short-necked lute) and the buzuq (long-necked lute), and performed at weddings and other celebrations in Jerusalem and the neighbouring villages. He began to learn religious chants and Qur’anic recitation at the age of nine. In 1949 he joined the choir of the broadcasting service in Ramallah, and in 1959 he joined the music section of the newly established radio station in Amman. In 1963 he was appointed leader of the radio station’s music ensemble; he held this position for several years, during which he performed many of his songs and also had the opportunity to join a group of researchers making a field survey of folk heritage including Jordanian folk singing and music in an area covering both banks of the river Jordan. As a ...


Viorel Cosma

[Asaky, Héléne; Tayber; Teyber, Eleonora]

( b Vienna, Oct 30, 1789; d Iaşi, May 9, 1877). Romanian composer, pianist and singer , daughter of (3) Anton Teyber. She began musical studies in Dresden with her father, and continued in Vienna (1822–4) under the guidance of the opera singer Domenico Donzelli. She was subsequently appointed professor of music at Iaşi Conservatory, where she was also prominent as a pianist and composer (1827–63); she gave recitals and accompanied Romanian and foreign musicians on tours throughout Moldavia. She adapted the music of Bellini, Auber, Mercadante, Spontini, Verdi and others for a series of Romanian plays. She was married to the writer Gheorghe Asachi, with whom she collaborated on various didactic publications.

(selective list)


William Waterhouse

(b Bath; d Bath, after 1834). English singer, composer and bassoonist. He was called John Ashley of Bath to distinguish him from his London namesake. He received his musical training from his elder brother Josiah, who was a well-known flautist and oboist. From about 1780 to 1830 he was active in Bath both as a bassoonist and singer. He wrote words and music to a number of songs and ballads, many of which acquired considerable popularity. He also published two pamphlets on ...


Dan Sharp

(b Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Feb 9, 1978). American Brazilian composer, arranger, pianist, and vocalist. Clarice Assad is a member of one of Brazil’s most acclaimed musical families. Daughter of guitarist and composer Sergio Assad, and niece of Odair and Badi Assad, she began performing with her family when she was seven years old. Assad skillfully traverses the worlds of jazz and classical music in her performances and compositions. As a composer and arranger, she has written commissioned works and arrangements for violin, symphony orchestra, string quartets, and guitar quartets. She has also written original compositions for the ballet Step to Grace by Lou Fancher and the play The Anatomy Lesson by Carlus Mathus. Some of her notable compositions include Pole to Pole, O Curupira, Bluezilian, and Ratchenitsa. As a pianist, she performs her own compositions and also arranges popular Brazilian songs and jazz standards. As a vocalist, Assad sings in Portuguese, French, Italian, and English, and is known for her precise intonation, even when performing improvised scatting....


Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b al-Qrayya, Syria, Oct 18, 1915; d Beirut, Dec 26, 1974). Syrian singer, composer, ‘ūd player and film actor and producer. In 1924 political circumstances forced his family to move to Egypt. His mother, the noted singer ‘Aliyya al-Munther, taught him singing in the Syrian style. He studied the ‘ūd (lute) at the Cairo Institute for Arab Music. His professional work began as an ‘ūd player and singer at the national radio station and in Badī ‘a Maṣabnī's variety show saloon.

In 1941, through his sister Asmahān , he entered the cinema industry, and for the rest of his life was involved in films as a composer, singer actor, and producer. His singing of Syrian mawwāl (popular songs), tangos and rumbas achieved great popularity, and his work laid the foundations for Arab variety show films, cinematic operetta, orchestral musical overtures and comic and sad songs. His 31 films are mostly autobiographical and provide valuable insight into the role of the musician in society....



Manolis Seiragakis

[Triantafyllou (Triandafyllou), Cleon (Kleon)]

(b Athens, 1885; d Athens 1944). Greek singer, pianist, and composer. He attended Émile Pessard’s classes at the Paris Conservatoire. Under the alias Cleon Triandaphyl, he wrote songs for Montmartre’s music halls (1907–13), some of them in the atmosphere of the Chanson réaliste, performed by significant singers like Polaire (Émille Marie Bouchaud) and Damia (Louise-Marie Damien). In addition, some short operettas of his were presented. After touring Europe for a decade he settled in Athens and later founded (13 Aug 1930) a peculiar musical literary cabaret named Mandra (Pen). Combining satire, poetry, theatre, improvisation, and anything that could provoke the audience’s vivid reaction, he created a special show where the borderline between stage and stalls did not exist, as was the case in the light musical theatre of his time. Furthermore, he was maximizing the participation of the audience in the co-creation of the show which was the most significant achievement of the Interwar period’s theatre. Thus, a large series of artists took their first step on the stage of Mandra and soon became significant professional entertainers. His tenuous financial circumstances forced him to endlessly continue this search because the new talents he was discovering soon departed for more prosperous troupes. He even succumbed to tempting proposals by the most important theater manager of the time (A. Makedos) and appeared in the latter’s theatre, closing Mandra for a while. The film ...


Jefferey Wanser

[Lucas, Lemuel Eugene]

(b Gainesville, TX, June 24, 1900; d Palm Springs, CA, Jan 24, 1972). American singer, composer, and pianist. He received his stage name from his stepfather. He began his career by joining the circus at the age of 15 and soon thereafter reached New Orleans where he played piano in parlor houses. After military service in World War I, he met Roy Bergere, with whom he subsequently toured in a vaudeville duo. Austin began writing songs and moved on to work for Mills Music in New York as a demo singer. After he made his first recording for Victor Records (1924), his crooning style, influenced by African American work songs and cowboy singers, came to the attention of the producer Nat Shilkret, who teamed him with Aileen Stanley for a duet, “When my Sugar Walks down the Street” (Vic., 1925). Within months Austin became a star in his own right with hit songs such as “Ain’t she Sweet” and “Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue,” and continued this streak throughout the 1920s with “My Blue Heaven” and “Girl of My Dreams,” among others. Austin then started his own music company, recorded with Fats Waller, and performed extensively on radio and in concert. In the early 1930s he also appeared in several Hollywood films as a singing cowboy. His singing style soon became outdated, and he began other ventures, including starting nightclubs in New Orleans, Hollywood, and Las Vegas, as well as traveling shows. He revived his singing career in the 1950s, when he appeared on television and in nightclubs. Austin composed or copyrighted 85 songs. His last appearance was at a New Year’s Eve concert in Miami in ...



(b ?Amiens, c1590; d Paris, c1656). French composer and singer. Although his birthplace is not known, there were families bearing this name in Amiens; a member of one, a relative of the composer, served as mayor of the town. Aux-Cousteaux studied under Jean de Bournonville at the choir school of the collegiate church at Saint Quentin. From 1613 to 1627 he sang haute-contre in Louis XIII's chapel. A period at Noyon followed about which little is known. He succeeded Bournonville as maître de musique both at Saint Quentin (1631) and Amiens (c 1632–4). On 24 June 1634 he relinquished this more lucrative post for that of a ‘clerk’ haute-contre at the Ste Chapelle in Paris. In spite of a recalcitrant and quarrelsome nature (‘scandalous, insolent and disrespectful acts committed daily during the Office’), Aux-Cousteaux advanced rapidly and by 1643 was maître de musique...


Jelena Jovanović

(b Vranje, Serbia, June 11, 1897; d Feb 21, 1969). Serbian singer (pesmopojka) and song writer. She was one of the most prominent performers of the 20th-century Serbian and Balkan urban vocal tradition. Widely known as a veseljak (lively character), she was respected for her fidelity to local traditions, for her intensely expressive and nuanced vocal style, and for her dedication to bring out the meaning of the texts she sang. She started singing at a very early age; as a young girl she was paid for her singing. She sang in her own home on everyday occasions, to guests, and at family and public celebrations. Her repertory encompassed love, family, and narrative songs, mainly concerning specific events, places, and personalities of Vranje. She is the author of the song ‘Dimitrijo, sine Mitre’, one of the hallmarks of Vranje vocal tradition, which traces its roots in tradition found in written sources from the late 19th century onwards and still practiced today....


Alma Kunanbayeva

(b Maty-Bulak, Semirechye [now Krasnogorsk], 1884; d Almata, 1976). Kazakh traditional composer, singer, narrator and dömbra player. He was born to the family of a poor herder and lost his mother when he was seven years old. His family was musically talented and Azerbayev gained the nickname Bala-aqyn (‘Child-singer’) early in his life. At the age of ten or 11 he wrote the songs Ri qoyïm (‘Shoo, my Sheep’, a shepherds' cry) and Boz torgai (‘Sparrow’), which revealed his outstanding talent and became widely popular. Kazakh and Kyrgyz musicians often met in the region of Semirechye, and Azerbayev became famous as a performer of Kyrgyz songs and the Manas epic as well as the Kazakh traditional repertory; his songs also became popular in Kyrgyzstan. More than 200 of his works were recorded by the folklorists B. Erzakovich and A. Serikbayeva. Azerbayev's songs are stylistically linked with aqyn genres of recitation in their melodic construction, which follow the rhythm and meaning of the verse. He composed many songs in response to important events in Kazakhstan; songs such as ...


Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...


Javier F. León


(b Chorrillos, Lima, Peru, May 24, 1944). Peruvian singer, composer, and music researcher. Although brought up in a family with close connections to criollo and Afro-Peruvian musical traditions, from early in her career Baca was attracted to vanguardist poetry. Since then she has explored various ways of setting poems to music, drawing from Afro-Peruvian traditions and also from nueva canción, jazz, and world music. She and her husband, Ricardo Pereira, are also known for their efforts in researching and promoting Afro-Peruvian musical traditions. Until recently, the experimental character of her music was not favored by Peruvian audiences so she mainly pursued a performing career abroad. In 1995 her inclusion in the David Byrne compilation The Soul of Black Peru launched Baca into the international spotlight. While outside of Peru her sound has become synonymous with that of Afro-Peruvian music, it is only since Baca won a Latin Grammy in ...


Pierre M. Tagmann

revised by Giovanni Maria Bacchini

[Fra Teodoro del Carmine]

(b Mantua; fl 1588–1607). Italian singer, composer and theorist. Canal erroneously gave his first name as Girolamo. He was a Carmelite priest. While at the Mantuan court, he wrote a treatise, De musica, now lost. In 1588 he published a madrigal, Più che Diana, in Alfonso Preti’s L’amoroso caccia (RISM 1588¹4), a collection consisting of compositions by Mantuan musicians primarily associated with the church. He also published a book of masses, the Missarum quinque et sex vocum, liber primus (Venice, 1589). In a letter dated 26 November 1594 to the vicar-general of the Carmelite order, Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga requested that Bacchini, a ‘musico castrato’, be exempt from wearing his monk’s habit while singing in the court chamber. In 1594 he accompanied the duke to the Reichstag in Regensburg and in the following year, along with Monteverdi, G.B. Marinone, Serafino Terzi and other musicians from the Gonzaga court, took part in the duke’s military expedition to southern Hungary. A Mantuan court secretary, Fortunato Cardi, described musical performances directed by Monteverdi, in which Bacchini took part, on the eve of the Battle of Visegrad. It has been suggested that Bacchini sang the part of Euridice in the first performances of Monteverdi’s ...


Michael J. Budds

(b Kansas City, MO, May 12, 1928). American composer and pianist. He learnt the cello, drums and piano from an early age and developed a particular interest in jazz. He played as a night club pianist, and then served in the army, touring as a pianist (1950–52). He went on to study music at the Mannes College of Music, New York, the New School of Social Research, McGill University, Montreal and gained a scholarship to the Music Academy of the West, Santa Barbara, California. His composition teachers included Milhaud, Martinů and Cowell. Bacharach became an accompanist for Vic Damone, subsequently working with such performers as Polly Bergen, Steve Lawrence, the Ames Brothers and Paula Stewart, to whom he was married from 1953 to 1958. From 1958 to 1961 he toured internationally with Marlene Dietrich. Bacharach began writing arrangements and composing songs in the mid-1950s, working at the Brill Building and collaborating with the lyricist Hal David (...


Percy M. Young

(b c1727; d London, bur. May 2, 1774). English composer and singer. He was for some time a lay clerk in Westminster Abbey and in 1754, 1758 and 1759 took part in the Foundling Hospital performances of Messiah under Handel. He was described in the subsequent list of Boyce’s Cathedral Music (1760) as organist of St Luke’s, Old Street, and All Saints, Fulham. Baildon’s best songs rival those of T.A. Arne and his music for ‘When is it best’, with which he won the Catch Club prize in 1763, was occasionally borrowed for the theatre by Arne and Stephen Storace (ii). In accordance with the spirit of the age Baildon sometimes parodied Handel, as for example with the extravagant figuration in ‘A Complaint’. The songs in the final version of The Laurel almost constitute a song cycle.

His brother Thomas Baildon (d London, 1 Oct 1762...


Siegfried Gmeinwieser

(b Crevalcuore, nr Bologna, c1650; d Rome, Dec 22, 1714). Italian composer and singer. He is first heard of on 20 October 1670 as an alto in the Cappella Giulia at S Pietro, Rome, which he served for the rest of his life. The account books from 1696 to 1713 list him as a tenor; he may have become a tenor shortly before this, but the account books for 1693–5 are missing. His long experience as a singer under such renowned directors as Benevoli, Ercole Bernabei, Masini and Lorenzani stimulated him to compose, and it may have been because of this that on 19 November 1713, shortly before Lorenzani died, he was himself appointed maestro di cappella, a post that he held for the 13 months until his own death. He was best known for his famous nine-part Miserere in falsobordone style. Except in 1768 and 1777...


William E. Boswell

(b Wenham, MA, July 10, 1811; d Boston, MA, March 11, 1889). American teacher, singer, and composer. He sang, directed choirs, and taught music in Salem, Massachusetts, and in 1833 toured the country with a concert company. He then settled in Bangor, Maine, as a businessman, but moved to Boston in 1837 to study music with John Paddon. He was director of music at W.E. Channing’s church for eight years, and succeeded Lowell Mason as superintendent of musical instruction in the Boston public schools in 1841. Also in that year he began holding “musical conventions,” which led to many appearances as soloist with the Handel and Haydn Society, of which he later became vice-president. He founded the Boston Music School and served as principal and head of the singing department until 1868, when he retired and the school closed. He was editor of the Boston Musical Journal for several years. Baker collaborated in compiling over 25 collections of songs, hymns, anthems, and glees, including ...


(b before 1560; d London, Aug 28, 1615). English singer, composer and music copyist. He was appointed a tenor lay clerk at St George’s Chapel, Windsor, in 1575. He became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal on 20 August 1598, and appears to have left Windsor by 1600. He sang in the Chapel Royal at the funeral of Elizabeth I, the coronation of James I and the funeral of Prince Henry.

Baldwin was the copyist of several important music manuscripts. He preserved much pre-Reformation English church music in the partbooks GB-Och 979–83, copied about 1575–81 with later additions (the Tenor part is lacking). His so-called Commonplace Book ( Lbl R.M.24.d.2; facs. in RMF, viii, 1987), begun about 1586 and largely complete by 25 July 1591 (with additions up to c1606), contains a wide variety of music. Baldwin had access to Marenzio’s Madrigali a quattro, cinque e sei voci...