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Paula Morgan

(b London, Jan 28, 1916; d London, April 27, 2001). English ethnomusicologist and composer. After reading medicine at Oxford, he studied composition at the RCM (1937–9) with Ireland (who had earlier given him private lessons) and returned to Oxford to take the BMus (1943). He later studied composition privately with Seiber, Rubbra and Julius Harrison and carried out postgraduate work in Indian music at the London School of Oriental and African Studies. He was successively a regional director of the Arts Council (1943–5), a member of the music division of the BBC (1948–63) and an assistant director of the Institute of Comparative Music Studies and Documentation, Berlin (1964–6), he was also editor of the Journal of the International Folk Music Council (1965–8). He joined the faculty of the UCLA in 1969 and was appointed professor of music there in ...


Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...


(b London, June 29, 1895; d Woking, March 3, 1984). English musicologist, composer and pianist. Her music studies were pursued privately with York Bowen and Fanny Davies for piano and with Benjamin Dale (whom she later married) for composition. Active as a pianist in the early part of her career, she broadcast frequently during the period 1927–31. From 1926 to 1928 she studied Swedish language and literature at University College, London, and later published translations from that and other languages (e.g. Redlich's Claudio Monteverdi and Reifling's Piano Pedalling). She taught theoretical subjects at the Matthay School (1925–31) and taught and lectured for the Workers' Educational Association (1945–50, 1957). She served on the council of the Society of Women Musicians (1920–25, 1946–9) and acted as Ethel Smyth's musical executor in 1944. Kathleen Dale's work was mainly in the field of keyboard music, though she also wrote a biography of Brahms and personal reminiscences of Ethel Smyth and Marion Scott. She edited Schubert's E minor Piano Sonata ...


Mark Miller

(Arthur )

(b Moose Jaw, Canada, Oct 27, 1918; d Toronto, Jan 16, 1981). Canadian theorist, teacher, and composer. He led dance bands and played trumpet in Toronto (1939–49) before he ended his career as a performer for reasons of health and turned to teaching (1950). He wrote texts on arranging, harmony, counterpoint, 12-tone music, and melody (New York, 1965–76) that became widely used, and he taught many leading jazz musicians in Canada in the 1950s and 1960s. He also composed several works in the third-stream idiom, of which he was an enthusiastic advocate; these include Collage no.3 and Song and Dance, both of which were recorded by Duke Ellington with the Ron Collier Orchestra on Duke Ellington: North of the Border (1967, Decca 75069). His Three Entertainments for Saxophone Quartet (1969) was recorded by the New York Saxophone Quartet. (EMC2...


Martin Brody


(b Boston, Dec 13, 1949). American composer, theorist and teacher. The son of a pianist, he first studied the piano and flute and later worked as a jazz and rock musician. He began composing while a student of John Ronsheim at Antioch College. After further study in composition at the Ecole Normale de Musique, and with the Schoenbergian Max Deutch, in Paris, and with the avant-garde jazz pianist Cecil Taylor, he moved to New York, where he worked with Bulent Arel at SUNY-Stony Brook. He was awarded the doctorate (1980) at Princeton, where his principal teacher was Babbitt. He has taught at Princeton, Bates and Dartmouth, and became professor of music at the University of Wisconsin.

Dembski's music, founded upon both tonal polyphonic models and twelve-note pitch structures, but reducible to neither, yields a broad range of musical surfaces, colours and sensibilities. Spectra (1985) reveals his characteristically deft and innovative orchestral writing, and a dramatic continuity at once vivid and subtle. The monodrama ...


Svetlana Kujumdzieva

(b Kumanichevo, Macedonia, July 14, 1889; d Sofia, July 2, 1980). Bulgarian composer, teacher, conductor, and musicologist. He was born in the village of Kumanichevo (now in Greece). He graduated from the Theological Seminary in Istanbul and later from the Conservatory in St. Petersburg, where he studied composition and Eastern Orthodox music. Dinev also graduated from the University of St. Petersburg with a degree in Law. In 1919 he was appointed as a teacher of Eastern Orthodox music at the Conservatory of Kazan. In 1922 Dinev returned to Bulgaria and taught music in different high schools until 1924. From 1925 to 1934 he taught church music at the Sofia State Academy of Music. From 1926 to 1944, Dinev also taught church music at the Sofia Theological Academy. During this time he conducted the choir of the Theological Faculty and the choir at the church of Sts. Cyril and Methodios. After ...


(b Saratov,? 23 Oct/Nov 4, 1883; d Moscow, Sept 10, 1950). Russian composer and musicologist. Drozdov was mostly not mentioned in the USSR so information on him is contradictory and indefinite; even his year of birth is unsure, though early sources give 1883. He apparently studied at the Ecole de Droit in Paris (1902–4) and then simultaneously at the law faculty and the conservatory in St Petersburg. In 1905 he took part in the revolutionary unrest at the conservatory, from which he graduated in 1909 as a piano pupil of Nikolay Dubasov. He graduated from the university in 1910. From that year he worked as a lecturer and writer on music, holding appointments as director and piano teacher at the Ekaterinodar Music Institute (1911–16), teacher of the theory of musical expression at the Petrograd Conservatory (1916–17), professor of history at the Saratov Conservatory (...


Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...


Martin Ruhnke

(b Brandenburg an der Havel, 1561; d Stargard, Pomerania, June 12, 1623). German music theorist, teacher and composer. He is a direct ancestor of the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler. He taught at the town school at Stargard from 1588, and by 1596 he was Kantor there. Both in their subject matter and in the treatment of it, his two treatises on music are superior to the usual German song manuals for schools. In Oratio de divina origine atque utilitate multiplici … artis musicae (Stettin, 1600) he set out to demonstrate the divine origins and miraculous properties of music, drawing on biblical evidence and the writings of Boethius.

Eichmann was also concerned with improving the effectiveness of new music. Music, he maintained, could fulfil its purpose, stirring the emotions, bringing order into people’s lives and heightening their awareness of God, only when it was well performed. Singers must therefore master the foundations of music theory and performing practice. ...


George J. Buelow


(b Augsburg, May 23, 1644; d Kempten, nr Mainz, Nov 4, 1702). German composer, teacher and theorist. He probably received his early education at the Jesuit Gymnasium, Augsburg. In 1664 he became a novice at the monastery of St Georg, Augsburg, taking the name Thomas in place of his baptismal name, Tobias. After ordination he became director of the choir as well as music instructor to the boys in his charge. With a change of abbot he was deprived of these duties. In 1677, however, he was called to the princely abbey of Kempten, where he became Kapellmeister as well as teacher and composer; he retained these positions until his death. He was made canonicus regularis at St Georg in 1674 but never returned to participate actively in affairs there. His treatise, Musicalisches Fundament, is an elementary text reflecting his work as a teacher of boys. It is in two parts. In the first he discussed such basic matters as notation, the church modes and simple vocal exercises, and he stressed the need to practise solmization; the second part indeed consists entirely of exercises in solmization. He stated that he had assembled all this material ‘from the most famous and valuable authors’ and that he had adapted it ‘to avoid all annoying prolixity and injurious hindrance to the pupils’ progress’....


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Toronto, Canada, Aug 25, 1948). Canadian music educator, composer, arranger, and scholar. Elliott graduated from the University of Toronto in music education (MusB 1971, MusM 1972, BEd 1973) and continued his studies at Case Western Reserve University (PhD 1983). After teaching secondary school in Toronto he was appointed to the music education faculty of the University of Toronto, where he became an assistant (1977), associate (1983), and full professor (1989). During this time, he also held visiting professorships at other universities, including Indiana University, Northwestern University, University of North Texas, the Irish World Academy of Music, University of Limerick, and the Puerto Rico Conservatory. He was appointed professor of music education at New York University in 2002. Music Matters: a New Philosophy of Music Education (1995), in which Elliott introduced the praxial philosophy of music education, has long been an important international text. He subsequently edited a series of essays on praxialism: ...


(b Darmstadt, Sept 8, 1921; d Darmstadt, January 8, 2011). German composer and theorist. He studied composition with Fortner, Leibowitz and Krenek (from 1947), philosophy with Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, among others, and musicology (DPhil 1952) at Frankfurt University. Following a stay in Iceland (1953–4), he worked as music adviser and composer at the Hessisches Landestheater, Darmstadt (1954–61), the Nationaltheater, Mannheim (1961–9) and the Städtische Bühnen, Bonn (1972–3). From 1969 to 1986 he taught composition as professor at the Frankfurt Musikhochschule. He lectured on contemporary music at festivals and universities internationally. His honours included a scholarship from Harvard University (1949), the Confederation of German Industry prize (1955), the Lidice Prize of Radio Prague (1960), scholarships from the Villa Massimo, Rome (1960, 1967, 1983), the Stereo Prize of the German broadcasting industry (...


Friedrich Baser


(b Pforzheim, April 23, 1891; d Stuttgart, Oct 17, 1969). German musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied under Philipp Wolfrum at Heidelberg (1909–11) and under Riemann at Leipzig (1911–13), where he took the doctorate in 1913 with a dissertation on musical form. In 1914 he studied composition with Bodanzki in Mannheim, and after war service he taught at the Röhmeyer Conservatory, Pforzheim (1919–23). He was lecturer in music theory at Gurlitt’s musicology institute at Freiburg University (1923–5), deputy director of the Academy for Speech and Music, Münster (1925–7), director of the music department of the Folkwang-Schule at Essen (1927–35) and director of the Folkwangschulen for Speech, Dance and Music (1935–43). His final post was as director of the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Stuttgart (1943–5, 1952–6), where he taught composition. His works include several large-scale choral pieces, folksong cantatas, string quartets, violin sonatas, songs and choruses. His writings, mostly designed for teaching purposes, have had a more lasting influence and show, in his dissertation as in his final book, a penetrating understanding of form. His practical gifts, which he was able to develop in Münster, are reflected in his textbooks on harmony and orchestration....


Clement A. Miller

[Lichtenfels, Hainrich]

(b Lichtenfels, before 1500; d Oelsnitz, Feb 26, 1552). German music theorist and composer . Under the name of Hainrich Lichtenfels he may have been a singer from 1515 to 1524 in Copenhagen at the court of King Christian II of Denmark (see Peters-Marquardt). In 1538 he was a teacher at the Benedictine monastery of St George in Naumburg. He entered the University of Wittenberg in 1542 and three years later received the Master of Arts degree. Meanwhile he became rector of the cathedral school of Naumburg in 1544, but his advocacy of Lutheran doctrines brought him into conflict with Catholic authorities and in about 1549 he left the city. He lectured on music in 1551 at Wittenberg, and at the time of his death he was rector at Oelsnitz.

Faber’s musical renown rests on three theoretical works. His Compendiolum musicae (Brunswick, 1548), a textbook for beginners in music, was the most popular music treatise in Lutheran schools during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had more than 30 editions, the last appearing in ...


F.E. Kirby

(b Pirna, March 21, 1527; d Wittenberg, Dec 29, 1558). German theorist, composer, teacher and organist. He was the great-nephew of the composer Heinrich Finck. After early training, presumably in Pirna, it is thought that he joined the chapel of King Ferdinand I of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1545 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, where in 1554 he became a teacher of music. Three years later he was appointed organist in Wittenberg. He does not appear ever to have lived in Poland, as has been suggested on the basis of the dedication of his most important work, the treatise Practica musica, to members of the Gorca family (Polish nobility prominent in Wittenberg).

Finck was involved with the intellectual life of Wittenberg, then a centre of Lutheranism and humanism. In particular he gained the support of Melanchthon, two of whose poems he set to music and whose Epistola complectens commendationem musicae...


Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....


Jorge Luis Acevedo Vargas

(b San José, July 28, 1937). Costa Rican composer, musicologist and teacher. His first music teacher was Carlos Enrique Vargas. He trained at the Eastman School of Music in New York (1951–64; BM, 1961, MM, 1962, PhD in composition, 1964). At the Eastman School he studied the piano with José Echániz and composition with Wayne Barlow, Bernard Rogers and Howard Hanson. After graduating he went on a research tour in Central America, and from 1965 to 1966 he taught at the Castella Conservatory of the University of Costa Rica. He taught theory at the Eastman School of Music (1966–7), then returned to Costa Rica to teach at the Castella Conservatory, the Escuela Superior de Música and the University of Costa Rica. At the university he carried out a large-scale institutional reforms and in 1971 set up degree courses in musical science and composition. He also set up the School of Musical Arts of the Rodrigo Facio University (inaugurated in ...


Dennis Libby

revised by John Rosselli

(b San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct 12, 1800; d Naples, Dec 18, 1888). Italian librarian, musicologist, teacher and composer. The varied activities of his career were dominated by a single theme: the preservation and glorification of the Neapolitan musical tradition. At 12 (or 15) he entered the Naples Conservatory, where he was a fellow student of Bellini, who became his closest friend and the object of his intense devotion. He was made archivist-librarian there in 1826 and (perhaps his most important achievement) acquired a large part of the library’s rich holdings. He also served as director of vocal concerts and singing teacher there. His widely praised Metodo di canto (Naples, ?1840; Milan, 1841–3, enlarged 3/?1861) was conservative in tendency, claiming to be based on the precepts of the castrato Crescentini, then director of the conservatory’s singing school, and intended to restore the ‘antico bello’ of ‘the only true tradition of Italian song’, that of Scarlatti, Porpora and Durante, which had been displaced by ‘la moda barocca’ of the present age. Florimo composed in all genres except the dramatic, but apart from a ...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Claude V. Palisca

[Vincentio, Vincenzio]

(b S Maria a Monte, Tuscany, probably in the late 1520s; d Florence, bur. July 2, 1591). Italian theorist, composer, lutenist, singer and teacher. He was the leader of the movement to revive through monody the ancient Greek ideal of the union of music and poetry.

Galilei was probably born later than his traditionally accepted date of birth of about 1520. As a youth he studied the lute. It was probably his playing that attracted the attention of Giovanni de' Bardi, his principal patron, who facilitated his theoretical studies with Zarlino in Venice, probably about 1563. By that time he had settled in Pisa, where in 1562 he married a member of a local noble family. The scientist Galileo (who was born in 1564) was the first of his six or seven children; another was the lutenist Michelagnolo Galilei (b 18 Dec 1575; d 3 Jan 1631...