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Article

G. Kraft

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Gotha, 1550–55; d Gotha, after 1633). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was related to Luther. He was educated at the famous grammar schools of Schulpforta and Gotha and in 1568 he enrolled at Jena University. For many years he was Kantor at Gotha. On 1 January 1598, probably referring to his work in this post, he described himself as being in his 27th year as an employee of Duke Johann Casimir of Saxony, whose service he must thus have entered in 1572, the year in which the regency of Gotha had been transferred to the duke from the house of Saxe-Coburg. He evidently played an active part in the musical life of Gotha. He communicated with a number of other musicians, among them Philipp Avenarius, Melchior Franck and Bartholomäus Helder. As late as 1634 he was a member of the town council. His work as a musician and teacher enhanced the social standing of music in the area, to the undoubted benefit of several of his younger contemporaries, especially Michael Altenburg. He also did much to foster in Thuringia an interest in recent Italian music. He may have studied in Italy; certainly he had contacts there, in particular with Gastoldi. His most important work is ...

Article

Kurt Gudewill

(b Plauen, between 1581 and 1584; d Eisleben, 1611, after 10 April). German composer, music editor and schoolmaster. He was appointed a teacher at the Gymnasium at Eisleben and Kantor of St Nicolai there on 10 April 1611, but he died later that year. On the title page of his Brautgesang aus dem Hohenlied (1610) he was still referred to as a student of theology; it is not known where he studied or for how long. His two eight-part settings from the Song of Songs (1610) are his only works to survive complete. The texts of the songs in his two collections Venus Glöcklein and Sales venereae musicales (both 1610), which also contain dances and of which only one or two partbooks survive, show that he was inspired by Hans Leo Hassler’s Lustgarten (1601). He is of greater interest as an editor of Italian madrigals with German texts, an activity to which he may well have been stimulated by Valentin Haussmann. His ...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

( b Stoughton [now Canton], MA, May 8, 1750; d Northampton, MA, May 12, 1825). American composer, tune book compiler and singing master . A carpenter by trade, Mann taught singing schools in Massachusetts and composed sacred music as well as a few secular songs. He probably helped Isaiah Thomas compile early editions of The Worcester Collection (1786–1794), and he published two tune books of his own: The Northampton Collection (Northampton, 1797, 2/1802) and The Massachusetts Collection (Boston, 1807). An undistinguished melodist, Mann allied himself with the movement to reform New England’s psalmody in the 1800s, condemning fuging tunes and favouring European compositions in his second tune book. His complete works have been edited by D.C.L. Jones (New York and London, 1996).

F.J. Metcalf: American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music (New York, 1925/R), 81–2 D.C.L. Jones:: Elias Mann (1750–1825): Massachusetts Composer, Compiler, and Singing Master...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Italy?; d Washington, DC, Feb 14, 1853). American organist, music teacher, publisher, and composer of Italian birth. He was active in Boston between 1807 and 1818, together with his brother Vincent and other relatives, all of whom played and sang at dances and assemblies. The earliest documentary evidence of his activity in the United States is an advertisement in the Columbian Centinel (28 Nov 1807), in which he describes himself as “Music Master of the Italian Band, teacher Piano Forte, Clarinet, Violoncello, Violin, French Horn, Trumpet, Flute, French Guitar, &c. Produces certificates from Church of St. Peter in Rome.” He also played organ for the First Church, and according to Barbara Owen was responsible in part for the musical education of Boston organ-builder Ebenezer Goodrich from 1804 to 1807. In December of 1814, he gave an organ concert at Boylston Hall, Boston, and in the years ...

Article

Harry Eskew

( b Maury County, TN, April 3, 1836; d Atlanta, GA, July 2, 1899). American composer and arranger of Sunday-school and gospel hymns, and hymnbook compiler . He received his musical training under L.C. and Asa B. Everett, with whom he was associated for several years in teaching and publishing. In the 1860s he became music editor for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Nashville, a position he held for 30 years. In 1875 he joined the faculty of Vanderbilt University, leaving two years later for an appointment at Emory and Henry College, Oxford, Georgia. He established the R.M. McIntosh Publishing Company, publishing at least 20 collections for church and Sunday-school use. McIntosh is best known as the arranger of the camp-meeting tune ‘Promised Land’, which he changed into a major key to fit the gospel hymn style. (L.E. Oswalt: Rigdon McCoy McIntosh: Teacher, Composer, Editor, and Publisher, diss., New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, ...

Article

(b Brussels, May 28, 1777; d Paris, Dec 18, 1858). Flemish composer, conductor, publisher and teacher. He was the son of Henri Mees (b Brussels, 1757; d Warsaw, 31 Jan 1820), principal baritone of the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels, and of Anne-Marie Vitzthumb, a singer. He showed precocious musical talent: at the age of five he sang in a church choir, at seven he began to study the violin and at ten he played in the orchestra of the Monnaie. He had further violin studies with J.-E. Pauwels and lessons in harmony and counterpoint with his grandfather Ignaz Vitzthumb. In 1794, during the second French occupation, the family emigrated to Hamburg, where Henri Mees and other Brussels artists established a theatre for the Comédie-Française; Joseph-Henri occasionally sang secondary roles and conducted the orchestra there. He also opened a music shop, from which he published works from the Parisian repertory....

Article

Richard Jackson

[?Richard ]

(fl c1806–36). Pianist, teacher, publisher, and composer, probably of French origin. He was one of the many musicians in New York in the early 19th century who dabbled in several musical activities in order to earn a living. Meetz was listed as a music teacher in New York directories from 1810 to 1836 (he claimed in newspaper advertisements to have been a pupil of Mozart). He also appeared as a pianist, sold pianos, and sold and published music. Meetz was primarily the New York agent for the Philadelphia music publisher George E. Blake, though he did publish a few titles under his own name; two of his works for piano, General Lafayette’s Grand March and Quick Step (1824) and General Montgomery’s Dead March (?1818), bear a Philadelphia imprint. He was probably related to the pianist Cesarine Meetz and the pianist and singer Julius Metz...

Article

Joanne Swenson-Eldridge

(b 1793; d Philadelphia, June 4, 1873). American conductor, composer, publisher and teacher of French birth . He was a bandmaster in Napoleon’s army before emigrating to the USA, where he settled in Philadelphia (1828). In 1833 he was elected a member of the Musical Fund Society; that same year he founded the Philharmonic Society, an amateur orchestra in Philadelphia. His transcriptions of operatic excerpts and popular songs for the guitar date from as early as 1832. In 1835 he joined the music publisher Augustus Fiot in establishing the firm of Fiot and Meignen. After their partnership was dissolved in 1839, Meignen continued in the music publishing business until 1842. He succeeded Charles Hupfeld as conductor of the Musical Fund Society Orchestra during the 1844–5 season and held the post until 1857; his Grand Military Symphony was first performed under his direction on 17 April 1845. He also conducted the première of William Henry Fry’s ...

Article

Denise Launay and Georgie Durosoir

(b Bar-sur-Aube, c?1610; d after 1663). French composer, organist, teacher and music publisher. He was living in Paris by 1631, when he was referred to as a ‘maître compositeur de musique’. In 1642 he was organist of St Nicolas-des-Champs. He was highly thought of as a teacher: in 1643 Gantez spoke of ‘Vincent, Métru and Massé, the three most celebrated teachers in Paris’; he also stated that Métru was maître de musique to the Jesuits. A document of 1692 (Mémoire des compositeurs), corroborated by La Borde, states that, together with Roberday and Gigault, he was one of Lully's teachers. He also tried his hand at music publishing: on 21 June 1633 he obtained official permission ‘to print, sell and distribute, through any printer or bookseller he may choose, every kind of music he has produced or may produce in the future’. To this end he took on a printer from Pierre Ballard, who at the time had a monopoly of music publishing and now used his influence in high places to suppress his rival. On ...

Article

Peggy Daub

(b Piedmont, ?c1725; d Paris, c1785). Italian composer, violin and viola teacher and music publisher, active in France. He called himself ‘le cadet’ or ‘le jeune’ until 1763–4, when his elder brother probably died. Three of his first four published works were dedicated to Parisians who apparently were his patrons or pupils. In 1765 he began an enterprise which was to be much more important than his compositions or teaching: he and the German painter Johann Anton de Peters (1725–95) founded the first Parisian musical subscription and lending establishment, the Bureau d’Abonnement de Musique. For two years La Chevardière and other publishers fought the new Bureau in court, involving hundreds of musicians on either side; the decision in 1767 was in favour of the Bureau, which continued to operate until at least 1789. Miroglio was listed in periodicals as a composer and teacher up to ...

Article

Franz Krautwurst

(b Neustadt an der Orla, Thuringia, c1540; d 1595–7). German music editor, composer and schoolmaster. He was most probably the ‘Balthasar Meuslin a Neapoli ad Orlam’ who matriculated at the University of Jena in the summer of 1557. He first worked in his native town, whence in 1575 he sent several songs (probably his lost print of that year) to the town councillors of Amberg and Nördlingen and in 1579 some partbooks to Naumburg an der Saale. Later, he was headmaster of the school at Ziegenrück, Thuringia, until 1595. Since his publication of 1597 was edited for him he was probably dead by then. The four-part songs that make up the 40 schöne geistliche Gesenglein, which from 1597 always appeared alongside pieces by Jacob Meiland, Orazio Vecchi and other composers, are anonymous settings of German texts, partly in the expressive polyphonic style of the late Netherlands motet, partly in a simple homophonic song style that shows the influence of the Italian villanella and canzonetta. Since they exhibit such a variety of styles and are of such differing quality, it must be assumed that only a few were composed by Musculus himself; some indeed are known to be by Jacob Meiland, Georg Körber, Antonio Scandello and Gallus Dressler. The popularity of the collection and its widespread use in Protestant grammar schools is demonstrated by the large number of editions and by the frequency with which individual pieces were reprinted. Further work needs to be done on the sources; five editions have been established....

Article

Franz Krautwurst

(b Wiebelsheim, nr Windsheim, Franconia, 1563; d Windsheim, Jan 9, 1621). German composer, music editor, poet and schoolmaster. From 1585 he studied at Wittenberg University. In 1588 he became teacher at the grammer school of the imperial town of Windsheim and in 1608 was promoted Kantor. In this post he produced numerous German and Latin school plays, which gained wide recognition. He edited a hymnal for the town of Windsheim, Geistliche Lieder aus dem Catechismo … zugericht (Giessen, 1614), which is lost, but the posthumous second edition, Ein recht christlich Gesangbüchlein (Rothenburg ober der Tauber, 1623), survives. Alongside many hymns then in general use, it contains texts and unharmonized melodies by Oesterreicher himself. Several of these melodies appear too in the Ansbach, Rothenburg and Heilbronn hymnbooks of that period. Oesterreicher also composed the music for the funeral service of Margarethe Barbara Seubold at Ansbach in 1620...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by David W. Music

(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1759; d Phoenix, Oswego Co., NY, Aug 15, 1848). American composer, tune book compiler, singing master and fifer. During the Revolutionary War he served as a fifer (1775–6) and played in a regimental band (1777–80). After the war he apparently settled in Connecticut and worked as a singing master. He served in the War of 1812, and in his later years lived in Whitestown, New York.

Olmstead compiled The Musical Olio (Northampton, MA, 1805, 2/1811), which was devoted mostly to European pieces and favoured the Methodist style, but also contained 25 of his own compositions. Drawing on his experience as a bandsman he also compiled Martial Music (Albany, NY, 1807), a collection of instrumental marches and dances, including nearly a dozen of his own. Olmstead’s range as a musician was unusual for Americans of his generation. As a psalmodist, he composed in both the indigenous New England idiom and a more Europeanized style, and he also wrote with some skill for instruments....

Article

Richard Crawford

(b Medway, MA, Feb 27, 1784; d Brookline, MA, 1864). American composer, compiler, teacher, and organ builder. He worked from 1806 to 1820 as a music teacher in New York City, though he spent some time in Albany in 1819. In September 1820 he performed at Boston’s Columbian Museum on the Apollino, a panharmonicon that he claimed to have invented (announced in The Euterpeiad, i/23 (1820), 91). He later built reed organs and in 1836 exhibited an eight-stop instrument of his own design at Boston’s Mechanic’s Fair. He compiled The Washington Choir (Boston, 1843), a collection of temperance music that identifies him on its title-page as “pupil of Dr. G.K. Jackson,” who was active in New York between 1802 and 1812. Plimpton’s few surviving compositions include eight marches, an air, a waltz, and a minuet in The Universal Repository of Music (a collection now in the New York Public Library, which he copyrighted on ...

Article

William Osborne

(b Fair Haven, CT, Feb 7, 1857; d Pasadena, CA, Nov 28, 1940). American organist, composer, teacher, music publisher, and music critic. Rogers studied with organ virtuoso Clarence Eddy in Chicago, followed by further study in Berlin and Paris, 1875–82. He worked for a year in Burlington, Iowa, before establishing himself in Cleveland as an organist of various churches, as well as the Euclid Avenue Temple, which he served for 50 years. He was a prolific composer, a teacher at the Cleveland School of Music, a critic at the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1915–32), and a publisher of his own works and those of others. He wrote about 550 pieces, and his more than 130 songs (issued between 1878 and 1933), organ pieces, and church music were widely performed in their time. For the organ he left three sonatas, two sonatinas, three suites, and many one-movement genre pieces. He also wrote secular partsongs, cantatas for both Christmas and Easter, several settings of the Latin Mass, and both a ...

Article

(b Braunau, Upper Austria, c1525; d Nuremberg, bur. July 15, 1586). German music editor, ?composer and schoolmaster. He was originally called Haunreuter; it is not known how he came to be called Rotenbucher. He probably attended the school of the monastery of St Nikola, just outside Passau, where Leonhard Paminger was headmaster; he enjoyed a lifelong friendship with Paminger’s son Sophonias and wrote an elegy on Paminger's death in 1567. In 1542 he began his studies at the University of Ingolstadt, moving to Wittenberg University in 1543. It was there, encouraged by Georg Rhau, that he decided to edit collections of music. Soon after Rhau’s death, probably in 1548, Rotenbucher joined the staff of the St Egidien school at Nuremberg, where he eventually became supremus (i.e. ranking third, after the Rektor and Kantor). He may have taught Hans Leo Hassler. With the arrival of Friedrich Lindner as Kantor in the late autumn of ...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Edinburgh, June 1, 1776; d Philadelphia, Dec 11, 1831). American cellist, teacher, composer and music publisher of Scottish birth. He was the son of the Edinburgh cellist and composer J.G.C. Schetky and a nephew of Alexander Reinagle. Schetky emigrated to the USA in 1787 and became active as a performer and music teacher in Philadelphia, where he lived with the musicians Benjamin Carr and Joseph C. Taws. With Carr he was co-editor of The Musical Journal for the Piano Forte (vols.iii–v) and published music from about 1802 to 1811. Between 1812 and 1818 he apparently visited Britain, for he published piano compositions by his father and himself in London and Edinburgh. He was a co-founder in 1820 of the Musical Fund Society in Philadelphia, which owns a portrait of him.

Article

Bruce Degen

(b Middleborough, MA, March 13, 1779; d Providence, RI, Dec 31, 1848). American composer, compiler, teacher, singer, organist and publisher. After accidental eye damage leading to blindness, he undertook musical studies with John L. Berkenhead, Gottlieb Graupner and Thomas Granger about 1800. In 1805 he established himself as a teacher of the piano and organ in Dedham, Massachusetts, where he began to issue his music in collaboration with Herman Mann. Moving to Providence in 1807, Shaw became a central figure in the city’s musical life as organist, organizer of bands and composer of songs, odes, anthems and marches for patriotic and civic occasions. His ‘Military Divertimento’, Welcome the Nation’s Guest, celebrated the visit of Lafayette to Providence in 1824.

Shaw sought to improve the quality of local sacred music, co-founding the Psallonian Society, and provided inspiration to the founding of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society in 1815...

Article

Joel F. Reed

revised by Harry Eskew

(b Cherry Grove, VA, May 1, 1858; d Chattanooga, TN, Sept 24, 1924). American music educator, publisher, and composer. He grew up in a part of the Shenandoah Valley with a rich shape-note singing tradition. His first music teacher was his father, John, who later sent him to the Virginia Normal Music School. He became a singing school teacher and an agent for the Ruebush-Kieffer Company. In 1884 he was sent to open a branch office in Dalton, Georgia, and a year later he started his own company there. The A.J. Showalter Company became the largest music publishing company south of Cincinnati. By the time it stopped publishing music in 1940, the company had sold six million copies of Showalter’s songbooks, hymn collections, and theory books. About 1885 Showalter established the Southern Normal Musical Institute, a school held in a dozen or more states that was attended by every gospel music teacher of prominence in the South and Southwest. Among his students were Jesse R. Baxter Jr., who, in ...

Article

Daniel Jay Grimminger

[John B.]

(b Kirchenberg, Switzerland, May 25, 1848; d Milwaukee, May 29, 1924). American teacher, composer, author, editor, and organist, born in Switzerland. Singenberger enrolled at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, to study composition with Carl Geith (cathedral musician at St Gallen). After accepting a teaching position in applied voice at the seminary in Chur, Switzerland, he established a Caecilian Society, an organization committed to historic Catholic music and liturgical practices (e.g., Gregorian chant and the polyphonic works of Palestrina). He completed his academic studies under Franz Xaver Witt at Regensburg. In 1873 he arrived in St. Francis, WI, to teach at the Catholic Normal School of the Holy Family, a position he held until his death. Soon afterward he founded the American Caecilian Society.

He edited the journals of the society and was a faithful promoter of Caecilian ideals. The journal Caecilia (1874–1965) was the society’s German-language publication, and ...