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Article

Andrew Ashbee

(bur. Westminster, London, Aug 18, 1679). English viol player, teacher, and composer. The earliest reference to Bates is by John Playford, who, in his Musicall Banquet (1651), listed him among the ‘excellent and able Masters’ of the voice and viol in London. Bates probably served the royalist cause during the Civil War: as ‘Captain’ Bates he petitioned unsuccessfully for a place among the vicars-choral at St Paul’s Cathedral when the choir was reconstituted in 1660–61, stating that he had formerly been in the choir of St John’s College, Oxford. He was sworn as one of Charles II’s musicians on 19 June 1660, receiving two posts. One was as viol player and the other as teacher of the royal children, with salaries of £40 and £50 a year respectively. Bates also served as bass viol player in the Chapel Royal; a warrant dated 30 August 1662 orders him to attend on Sundays and holy days. In spite of this potential income, payments were sparse and records show that Bates faced continual financial difficulties (...

Article

Hugh Macdonald

revised by Valerie Walden

(b Nancy, March 29, 1773; d Paris, Sept 26, 1849). French cellist, teacher and composer. He and Lamare joined Baillot in Paris in 1792 to play Boccherini quintets. He was a pupil of the elder Janson and became a cello professor (second class) at the newly founded Paris Conservatoire in 1795. His appointment was suspended in 1802 but he resumed office from 1805 until 1827 when he retired to undertake a number of tours. During the Empire he continued to perform chamber music with Baillot and other faculty members, and joined the Opéra orchestra. He became principal cello in the imperial chapel and retained the post during the Restoration. In 1818 he became a member of the Société Academique des Enfants d’Apollon. Although he was much esteemed in France, the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung of April 1820 described his playing as cold. Fétis, too, inclined to that view, though he praised his pure tone and fine intonation. Baudiot played a Stradivari cello of ...

Article

Luise Marretta-Schär

(b Rorschach, Nov 15, 1820; d Zürich, March 17, 1867). Swiss pianist, teacher and composer. His father died when he was young, but his exceptional intelligence assured him of a place at his school and the continuing of his education. In 1833 he was adopted by Joseph Waldmann, a clergyman from Messkirch, Baden, who educated him further. At the age of 14 he was composing and giving music lessons. He attended the Gymnasium in Zürich from 1836 to 1838, and then studied at Zürich University. Resolving to become a professional musician, he studied the piano and theory with Alexander Müller, the director of a number of choirs; Baumgartner was occasionally asked to conduct in his master’s absence. Having concluded his apprenticeship after three years, he moved in 1842 to St Gallen, where he taught the piano, gave recitals and composed songs. During this period he was in close contact with Friedrich Kücken, with whom he frequently discussed his compositions; he also became interested in German literature and theology....

Article

Giovanni Carli Ballola

revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin

(b Brescia, March 11, 1818; d Milan, Feb 10, 1897). Italian violinist, composer and teacher. He was a pupil of a Brescian violinist, Faustino Camisani (Camesani); encouraged by Paganini, he began his concert career at an early age and became one of the most highly regarded artists of his time. From 1841 to 1845 he lived in Germany, where he was much admired by Schumann both as a violinist and a composer, as well as by Mendelssohn (Bazzini gave the first private performance of his Violin Concerto). After a short stay in Denmark he returned to Brescia to teach and compose. In 1846 he played in Naples and Palermo. In 1849–50 he toured Spain and from 1852 to 1863 lived in Paris. He ended his concert career with a tour of the Netherlands in 1864. Returning once more to Brescia, he devoted himself to composition, gradually abandoning the virtuoso opera fantasias and character-pieces (such as the well-known ...

Article

[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...

Article

Kara Gardner

(b Detroit, March 28, 1866; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1945). American violinist, conductor, musical director, teacher, and composer. Bendix was born to Jewish parents who had emigrated from Germany. His father William was a music teacher. Bendix began formal study at the Cincinnati College of Music where, at the age of twelve, he performed with the college orchestra, directed by Theodore Thomas. This began a long association between the two men, leading to Bendix’s appointment as first violinist and concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1886. In August 1893 Thomas resigned his position as music director of the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition following a series of unsuccessful concerts. Bendix took Thomas’s place as conductor of the Exposition orchestra. This created tension between the two men, and Bendix left the Thomas orchestra in 1896. He went on to serve as conductor at the Manhattan Opera House and to conduct orchestras for world fairs in St. Louis (...

Article

Jernej Weiss

[Emerich, Emerih]

(b Brno, Czech Republic, Oct 17, 1868; d Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 11, 1940). Czech composer, cellist, and music educator. Immigrated to Slovenia in 1898. After playing the cello at the Secondary School of Music of the Music Society in Brno (1884–85), he began in 1885 to study at the Organ School in Brno, where he attended composition and instrumentation classes under Leoš Janáček. He graduated with honours in 1888 and passed the national examination in Vienna in 1892. From 1889 to 1890 he was a cellist in the opera orchestra of the City Theatre in Brno. From 1890 to 1898 he taught music at the Czech Men’s College of Education in Brno and was a teaching assistant at the Brno Organ School. In 1897 he appeared before the general public in Brno (where he wrote the majority of his compositions) for the first time as a composer; he achieved his first major success as a composer with ...

Article

Mary Cyr

[not Jean-Baptiste]

(b Lunel, 1710; d Paris, Dec 1, 1772). French haute-contre singer, music teacher, cellist and composer. His début in 1733 at the Paris Opéra, according to La Borde, was in the monologue of Pélée, ‘Ciel! en voyant ce temple redoutable’ from Act 3 of Collasse's Thétis et Pélée (1689). He soon joined the Italian troupe, performing in divertissements between the acts of operas. After three years he returned to the Opéra and took several minor roles between 1737 and 1745 in Rameau's works: Un Athlète in Castor et Pollux (1737), Un Songe in Dardanus (1739), Lycurgue in Fêtes d'Hébé (1739), and Tacmas (replacing the well-known haute-contre Tribou) in the third entrée of Les Indes galantes (1743 revival). In 1743 he sang the title role in the première of Boismortier's ballet-comique, Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse, with the famous soprano Marie Fel as Altisidore. Two years later he retired from the opera to devote himself to teaching and playing the cello. He became first cellist of the orchestra at the Comédie-Italienne in ...

Article

William Barclay Squire

revised by Robert Pascall

(b Furtwangen, Baden, July 14, 1844; d London, Feb 21, 1922). English pianist, composer and teacher of German birth. His father was a political refugee who fled with his family to London in 1849. Having studied the piano with an elder sister, he performed during 1859–60 at the Crystal Palace and in 1861 made his first appearance at the Saturday Concerts. He studied from 1864 to 1866 under Moscheles, Richter, Reinecke, David and Plaidy at Leipzig, and then under Tausig, Ehlert and Weitzmann at Berlin. In 1869 he was appointed professor at Tausig’s Schule des höheren Clavierspiels at Berlin, but in 1871 he returned to a concert life in England. After visiting Leipzig again in 1872 he founded in London in 1873 the Academy for the Higher Development of Pianoforte Playing, which was very successful until its closing in January 1897. In 1882 he gave the first English performance of Brahms’s second concerto. He became a professor at the RAM in ...

Article

Boris Schwarz

(b Paris, Feb 12, 1833; d Sceaux-en-Gatinais, Oct 22, 1914). French pianist and composer, son of Charles-Auguste de Bériot and Maria Malibran. He was an excellent pianist and pedagogue. In 1887 he was appointed to the piano faculty of the Paris Conservatoire where he taught for many years. Among Bériot’s works are four piano concertos, chamber music and various orchestral and vocal compositions. With his father he wrote ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(b Lower Hutt, Aug 31, 1945). New Zealand composer, pianist, writer and teacher. She grew up in a musical family and began piano lessons at the age of seven. She graduated from the University of Otago, first in English and then in piano and composition (BMus 1968) and musicology (MA 1969). A New Zealand University Grants Committee scholarship took her to Victoria University in Wellington where she studied electronic music under Douglas Lilburn, gaining a diploma (1970). She subsequently studied in Berlin and Cologne (1971–5) with Aloys Kontarsky, Wilhelm Hecker, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel, being warded the Kranichstein Prize in new music (1974) and a Boswil Artistic Residency in Switzerland (1975). She married the singer Roger Wilson, returned to New Zealand as Mozart Fellow (1976–7), and after diverse experience in teaching, editing Canzona (journal of the Composers’ Association of New Zealand, whose President she was from ...

Article

(b Boston, March 12, 1838; d Seattle, Sept 22, 1925). American organist, pianist, composer, and teacher. At age 12, Blodgett began playing organ at churches in Boston, studying with James Hooton. He continued his training at the University and Conservatory of Music, Leipzig, where his teachers included Ignaz Moscheles and Moritz Hauptmann; later, he received his doctorate from Oxford University. Upon returning to the USA, he taught music at the Maplewood Institute in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (1865–78), then moved to Northampton, where he served as Professor of Music at Smith College for twenty-five years (1879–1903). He later became the first principal of Smith’s School of Music, but in 1903 the college’s board voted for the School’s closure. Invited by Jane Stanford to join the staff of the newly-constructed Memorial Church at Stanford University, Blodgett then moved west and served as the organist and choir director. When the earthquake of ...

Article

Joachim Braun

(Mikhaylovich)

(b Kovalyovka, South Ukraine, 7/April 19, 1863; d Moscow, Jan 21, 1931). Russian conductor, pianist, composer and teacher, uncle of Heinrich Neuhaus. He studied the piano with Stein and composition with Rimsky-Korsakov at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he taught the piano from his graduation in 1885 until 1918 (excluding the years 1905–11), being appointed a professor in 1897. From 1895 to 1911 he was also conductor at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, where he gave the premières of Rimsky-Korsakov's Servilia (1902) and Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh (1907) and the Russian première of Tristan und Isolde (1899). In 1908 he conducted the Russian seasons in Paris, achieving wide recognition as a conductor and, more especially, as a pianist. He lived and worked in close contact with Anton Rubinstein, Rimsky-Korsakov, Glazunov, Rachmaninoff and Chaliapin. His performing style, influenced by Rubinstein's, was heroically brilliant and lyrically melodious; he gave the first performances of many piano works by Glazunov, Lyadov and Arensky, among others. He was well known as a teacher, first in St Petersburg, then in Kiev (...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, 9/May 21, 1899; d Sinaia, May 26, 1992). Romanian composer, violinist, teacher and conductor. He studied the violin in Iaşi (1908–12) with Eduard Caudella and in Craiova (1912–16) with Jean Bobescu and then entered the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1920–24, 1926–7) where he studied with Nestor Lejeune (violin), d’Indy (composition) and Paul le Flem (harmony). After starting his career as a solo violinist he became professor of violin at the conservatories of Cernăuţi and Braşov. In 1935 he was appointed conductor of the Radio Symphony Orchestra in Bucharest where he remained until 1972. Bobescu’s compositions range in theme from historical and biblical subjects to satirical comedy. Though post-Romantic in structure, his music has a pronounced lyrical character: the melodic writing is essentially Romanian but it is clothed in a traditional European harmonic language. His lively orchestration displays a perfect handling of timbres, especially of strings, which he used to achieve impressionistic shading in the operas....

Article

Martha Furman Schleifer

(b Dürkheim, Germany, Dec 4, 1839; d London, UK, Aug 15, 1917). German pianist, composer, and teacher, active in the USA. Bonawitz studied piano and composition at the Lìège Conservatory and came to the USA in 1852. His life as a struggling immigrant musician in Philadelphia during the 1850s is vividly described in a lengthy article written by his childhood friend Karl Merz for Brainard’s Musical World. He returned to Europe in 1861 for concert tours with Joseph Joachim, then taught in Wiesbaden, Paris and London. Following a failed concert series in New York, 1872–3, he successfully toured playing piano recitals later in 1873. A review in the Cincinnati Daily Gazette noted that in Paris his playing had been compared to that of Liszt and Rubinstein. Bonawitz produced two of his operas, The Bride of Messina and Ostralenka, in Philadelphia in 1874. Armstrong noted that the operas had musical, but not dramatic, merit. Bonawitz moved to Vienna in ...

Article

Barbara Garvey Jackson

[Jeannette]

(b Chicago, March 3, 1913; d Los Angeles, April 26, 1972). American composer, pianist and teacher. The daughter of a physician, Dr Monroe Alpheus Majors, and his second wife, Estelle C. Bonds, an organist, she first studied with her mother, whose home was a gathering place for black writers, artists and musicians, including the composers Will Marion Cook and Florence Price. In high school Bonds studied piano and composition with Price and later with Dawson; she received the BM and MM degrees from Northwestern University (1933, 1934). She moved to New York in 1939 and in 1940 married Lawrence Richardson, though she retained the surname ‘Bonds’ (her mother’s maiden name) throughout her life. At the Juilliard Graduate School she studied the piano with Djane Herz and composition with Starer; other teachers included Harris.

Bonds won the Wanamaker prize for her song Sea Ghost in 1932. In ...

Article

Alejandro Bruzual

(b Caracas, Feb 4, 1882; d Caracas, June 24, 1967).Venezuelan guitarist,teacher and composer. He came from a family well known for its artistic leanings. Little is known about his musical education except that he was self-taught. He began with popular instruments, playing, in addition to the guitar, the cuatro, the bandola, the mandolin and, apparently, the harp. In 1912 he belonged to the Círculo de Bellas Artes, a group in which the plastic arts dominated and the first artistic group with modernist concerns in Venezuela. During those years he began his work as instrumental teacher. In the 1920s he wrote mostly guitar pieces in a nationalistic style, the first in Venezuela to be written for the guitar as a solo instrument. In 1926 he went to Paris as a diplomat. At the beginning of the 1930s he struck up a close friendship with Agustín Barrios Mangoré, and this led to the creation of a chair in classical guitar at the Caracas National Conservatory, established on ...

Article

Irene Weiss Peery

(b Sydney, June 29, 1886; d Philadelphia, June 20, 1948). Australian-American pianist, composer and teacher. He was first taught the piano by his mother and then, from 1901, by Sydney Moss. In the same year he made a concert tour of more than 280 towns and cities in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand; further tours followed. From 1905 to 1910 he studied in Berlin with Busoni. During these years of intensive study he performed extensively throughout Europe and conducted orchestras in the UK. After he settled in the USA in 1910, such notable pianists as Mark Hambourg, Ernest Hutcheson and Backhaus continued to play his compositions in Europe. From 1910 until his death Boyle performed, taught and composed in America. He held positions at three major American conservatories: the Peabody Conservatory of Music in Baltimore, as head of the piano department (1910–22), the Curtis Institute (...

Article

Elizabeth Keitel

(b Vernon, Eure, March 31, 1722; d after 1779). French violinist, composer and teacher. He was the son of Nicole Picot and Antoine Branche, a dancing-master and possibly the musician who was active in Lyons in 1732. In 1748 Branche dedicated his Première livre de sonates à violon seul et basse (Paris) to his patron, the Marquis de Caraman. The following year he was first violinist at the Comédie-Française, playing with, among others, Piffet, Chartier, Perrin, Sénéchal and Blondeau until his retirement in 1764. He continued to teach the violin until 1779 after which his name no longer appears. He had contemporaries with the same surname: a first violinist in a 1767 concert at Orleans, and a woman who in 1771 published a book of airs and a sonata for harpsichord; it is not clear whether they were related.

Although the accompaniment to Branche’s Concerto à violon principal...