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Article

Howard Mayer Brown

[called Linceo]

(b Naples, c1580; d Naples, c1650). Italian instrument maker. He was the inventor of an enharmonic harpsichord or Arcicembalo with eight keyboards. The instrument, called ‘Sambuca lincea’ by its inventor but ‘Pentecontachordon’ (because of its 50 strings) by lexicographers, divided the octave into 17 parts. It is described and illustrated in Colonna’s La sambuca lincea overo dell’istromento musico perfetto (Naples, 1618), which includes samples of enharmonic music by Colonna, an explanation of his division of the monochord, and a brief description of the hydraulic organ. Colonna’s system of temperament is summarized in J.M. Barbour: Tuning and Temperament (East Lansing, MI, 1951, 2/1953/R, 153ff). Colonna probably owed his sobriquet, which he bestowed on his invention, to the fact that he was a member, and perhaps one of the founders, of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome.

F. Colonna and S. Stella: La sambuca lincea, overo dell’istromento musico perfetto...

Article

Peter Smith

revised by Marc Vanscheeuwijck

(b Bologna, June 16, 1637; d Bologna, Nov 28, 1695). Italian composer, teacher, organist and organ builder. He was the son of a well-known organ builder from Brescia, Antonio Colonna (alias Dal Corno) and Francesca Dinarelli, and himself became an active authority on organ construction. As a young man he took organ lessons in Bologna with Agostino Filipucci and then went to Rome to study composition with Abbatini, Benevoli and Carissimi. There he absorbed the technique of polychoral writing, which became a prominent feature in his later work. While in Rome he was possibly organist for a time at S Apollinare. He returned to Bologna, enjoyed an increasing reputation as a composer and was appointed second organist at S Petronio in September 1658 (though he did not take up his duties until December 1659). In 1661 he became the sole organist, but reverted to his former post when C.D. Cossoni was appointed first organist in ...

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Philip J. Kass

(b Genoa, Italy, c1660; d Genoa, Italy, June 6, 1732). Italian violin maker. A label of 1774 suggests that there might have been two makers by this name, but research has so far yielded only one, active primarily during the early 18th century. He was a neighbour and associate of the obscure maker Andrea Stasser, who witnessed his marriage in ...

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Michael O’Brien

(b Padua, May 4, 1655; d Florence, Jan 27, 1732). Italian maker of pianos and harpsichords. He is best known for the invention of the piano. He received an appointment to the Florentine court of Grand Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici in 1688 to tune and maintain harpsichords. By 1716 he had become custode (steward) of the Medici collection of musical instruments and was working out of rented quarters, independent of the Uffizi artisan workshops. Nothing is known of his early career, but his Florentine years are richly documented. Expense records from Prince Ferdinando’s treasury establish the dates of Cristofori’s engagement and also his parity with the court musicians. During his first ten years of service he received a monthly stipend and reimbursements for his rent, but after 1698 the prince fell into financial difficulties and payments lagged. Some of Cristofori’s invoices survive from the period 1690–98 and from ...

Article

Stephen Bicknell

revised by Michel Cocheril

[Dalham, Dallans, Dallow, D’Allam]

English family of organ builders.

(b Lancashire, c1575; d after 1629). In 1599–1600 he travelled to Constantinople with a mechanical organ-and-clock for the Sultan, described in the state papers as ‘a Great and Curious present … which will scandalise other nations’. Dallam’s Turkish diary was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1893 (partly reproduced in Mayes (1956); see also Barrel organ). On his return to England he established an unrivalled reputation, building new organs at King’s College, Cambridge (1605–6; see Hopkins and Rimbault); Norwich Cathedral (1607–8) St George’s Chapel, Windsor (1609–10); Worcester Cathedral (1613, to the scheme of Thomas Tomkins); Eton College (1613–14); Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh (c1615, case by Inigo Jones); St John’s College, Oxford (c1617); Wells Cathedral (1620); Wakefield Cathedral (1620); Durham Cathedral (1621); and Bristol Cathedral (...

Article

Donati  

Walter Hüttel

[Donat]

German family of organ builders. In 1653 Christoph Donati the elder (b Marienberg, Saxony, Sept 30, 1625; d Leipzig, Aug 14, 1706) built with Matthias Tretzscher from Kulmbach, Bavaria, an organ in the Stadtkirche in Bayreuth. The same year he was in Leipzig, where he was made a citizen on 4 October 1662. In 1684, after his third marriage, he came into possession of an inn. He built clavichords as well as about 20 organs, including those at Neuenkirchen, near Cuxhaven (1661–2), Luckau, Lower Lusatia (cathedral of St Nicolai, 1672–4), Eisenberg, Thuringia (Schlosskirche, 1683–8) and Brandis bei Wurzen (1705), all notable examples of his craftsmanship. Johann and Johann Philipp Krieger were involved in the final arrangement of the disposition of his organ at Eisenberg; Sebastian Knüpfer composed the music played for the dedication of an organ at Knauthain, and Mattheson published the disposition of his organ in the Leipzig Neukirche. Christoph Donati the younger (...

Article

Peter Williams

(b ?Hennaard, Friesland, c1650; d Tzum, c1725). Dutch writer on music, organist and schoolmaster. While mysteries remain about Douwes’s biography and publications, there is no doubt that his little Grondig ondersoek (Franeker, 1699/R) is one of the most important sources of information for historians and makers of keyboard instruments, offering unique details on the scaling of the clavichord and virginals. It also discusses the trumpet marine and ‘noardske Balke’ (noordsche balk). His general musical education came from such Dutch authors as J.A. Ban, but his data on instruments (useful, like his discussion of musical intervals, to remote Friesian organists) were more empirical and, though based on an uncertain unit of measurement, much more practical than those of any European theorist of his period. His treatise is concerned with the notes (toonen) of music: how to tune them, how to use them harmonically and how to produce them on different instruments. It does not seem to have been widely known at the time....

Article

Günther Seggermann

( b 1646–50; bur. Lüneburg, Sept 26, 1732). German organ builder . He was born in the Siebenbürgen region (Romania), a descendant of German Saxons who had emigrated there in the 12th century. His date of birth is not known. From 1680 onwards he was working in Hamburg as a journeyman to Arp Schnitger (1648–1719). He set up independently in Hamburg in 1692. Information about his work is scarce, but in 1696 he built a new organ for the church on the island of Finkenwerder in the Elbe near Hamburg. Dropa provided new wind-chests for the Rückpositiv and pedal of the baroque organ at Altenbruch near Cuxhaven in 1698. In 1705 he was commissioned by the Michaeliskirche in Lüneburg to build a great organ with three manuals and pedal. This organ made his name, and from then on he lived in Lüneburg. The case-front of this organ, with its pipes, has been preserved. In ...

Article

David Ledbetter

French musicians and instrument makers bearing this name were active in Paris throughout the 17th century. The most important are Pierre Dubut le père (b c1610; d before 1681) and Pierre Dubut le fils (b ?after 1642; d c1700), both lutenists and composers. The first definite appearance of Dubut le père is in Pierre Ballard's Tablature de luth de differents autheurs (Paris, 1638), to which he contributed five pieces. He is described as master lutenist in documents from 1642 (when he married Marie Prévost, daughter of Pierre Prévost, a lute maker and player) to 1673 (in the marriage contract of his son Dubut le fils). In 1654–5 he instructed Sir John Reresby in lute playing at Blois and Saumur. He had died by 1680, when he is referred to in the past tense by le Gallois.

Dubut le fils had by 1666...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Augsburg, Nov 23, 1662; d Prague, Jan 20, 1729). Bohemian violin maker of German birth. He was the third maker of that name and was trained by his father in Augsburg. He established himself in Prague while in his twenties. His violins, essentially germanic in character, loosely follow the Stainer model. He was also an important lute maker who reputedly was the first to extend the lute’s range to 13 courses, placing the lowest two (diapasons) off the fingerboard on an extension of the pegbox. He seems sometimes to have reused older lute bodies and to have inserted labels of earlier makers in his own work. Edlinger was apparently a fine teacher and can be regarded as the founder of the old Prague school of violin making. Most of his early students were, like himself, expatriate Germans. On his death his son Joseph Joachim Edlinger (b Prague, ...

Article

Phillip T. Young

(b ?Stolberg, Harz, Germany, 1678; d Leipzig, Germany, March 30, 1769). German instrument maker. He possibly trained with Andreas Bauer(mann) (1636–1717) in Leipzig. Documented there in 1707 as a demobilized solider, he was described at his wedding in the Thomaskirche in 1710 as ‘Instrumentalischer Pfeiffenmacher’. He appears in Leipzig directory listings from 1717 to 1757, although he retired in 1749. His woodwinds are well made and of handsome design, presumably reflecting the taste and requirements of Leipzig in Bach’s time. Tradition has it that J.S. Bach first suggested to Eichentopf the curved tenor oboe with flared bell (i.e. oboe da caccia); a surviving example (DK.K.m) is dated 1724. Eichentopf also produced brass instruments and was apparently a dealer in string instruments. Bach’s close friend, the luthier Johann Christian Hoffmann, was godfather to Eichentopf’s daughter Johanna Christina. Other godparents to Eichentopf’s children were the brass instrument maker Christoph Stephan Scheinhardt (...

Article

Denzil Wraight

(b ?1699; d Florence, 1758). Italian harpsichord maker. He was an assistant of Cristofori in Florence and worked with him until his death in 1732. Only two signed instruments by Ferrini have survived: a bentside spinet of 1731 and a combination harpsichord-piano of 1745. Much of the work in Cristofori's signed instruments (1720–26) appears to have been executed by Ferrini and Ferrini's combination instrument is probably also a Cristofori design. Documentary evidence suggests that Ferrini continued the production of pianofortes, although none by him has yet been identified. Some other surviving harpsichords may have been made by Ferrini, but the close similarity of his work to that of the Cristofori workshop makes it difficult to determine the origin of these instruments.

BoalchMS. Pollens: ‘Three Keyboard Instruments Signed by Cristofori's Assistant, Giovanni Ferrini’, GSJ, 44 (1991), 77–93D. Wraight: The Stringing of Italian Keyboard Instruments c1500–c1650...

Article

Hans Klotz

revised by Felix Friedrich

(b Löbejün, 1610; d Wettin, 1678). German organ builder. He was the son of the master builder and mayor of Wettin, Lorenz (?Martin) Förner, and was taught by his brother-in-law, J.W. Stegmann (d 1637; probably identical with ‘Johannes N. von Wettin’, who was dismissed for his critical remarks on the occasion of the examination of the famous Gröningen organ). Förner was interested in mathematics and physics and attempted to use scientific knowledge in organ building, as he described in Vollkommener Bericht, wie eine Orgel aus wahrem Grunde der Natur in allen ihren Stücken nach Anweisung der mathematischen Wissenschaft soll gemacht, probieret und gebauet werden (1684). He invented the hydraulic wind pressure gauge.

Förner’s work included repairs to the organs built by David Beck at Schloss Gröningen (1592–6) and St Martini, Halberstadt, and to the instrument built by Esaias Compenius at St Martini, Croppenstedt, as well as four new organs: at Halle Cathedral (...

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Hans Klotz

revised by Dietrich Kollmannsperger

(b Meissen, 1578; d Ottensen, 1638). German organ builder. He was an intimate of Praetorius, Schütz and Scheidt, and he qualifies, along with both the Compenius brothers (Esaias and Heinrich the younger) and Hans Scherer the younger, as one of the foremost German masters of his day. Fritzsche was probably a pupil of Hans Lange, a native of the Dithmarschen region of Holstein, whose workshop was in Kamenz, near Dresden, and is known to have worked on organs at the Thomaskirche, Leipzig (1596) and the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig (1598). Lange, like Heinrich Compenius the elder, was a disciple of Esaias Beck and Fritzsche initially constructed his organs on the same model. From the outset, however, he provided a wider range of stops; his reeds, like Beck's, had only short resonators and, most notably, the Rückpositiv and pedal-board were without Principal choruses of their own. Examples are the instruments in the Hofkirche, Dresden (...

Article

Nona Pyron and Angela Lepore

(b Parma, Oct 16, 1649; d ?Parma, 1697). Italian composer, cellist, instrument maker, sculptor and painter. All that is known of his life is that he worked at the Este court at Modena. His only known music is Trattenimento musicale sopra il violoncello a’ solo (Modena, 1691), a set of 12 sonatas for solo cello (like his contemporaries at the Este court, G.B. Vitali and Giuseppe Colombi, he was himself a cellist). Precedents for his sonatas can be found in various works for solo cello by Colombi. Others by the two Bolognese composers G.B. Degli Antoni and Domenico Gabrielli probably influenced him still more: Degli Antoni’s set of 12 Ricercate appeared in 1687, and Gabrielli published a similar set of seven Ricercary in January 1689, shortly after spending a year at the Este court. The appearance of Galli’s sonatas in 1691 seems more than just coincidental: they could well have been inspired by his close contact with Gabrielli. Their style is remarkably close to that of Gabrielli’s ...

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Hans Klotz

revised by Jerzy Gołos

(b c1645; d c1712). Polish organ builder. He worked in Kraków and south-eastern Poland. In 1679 he built an organ for St Elizabeth’s, Stary Sącz, of which the case still exists. Between 1683 and 1690 he finished the three organs begun in 1680 by Stanisław Studziński at the church of the Annunciation in Leżajsk (the cases and some of the stops survive); the largest instrument had 64 stops on four manuals and pedal. Another big undertaking was for the Franciscan church at Kraków (1700–04). In 1712 he was to have built an organ with 30 stops for the parish church of Żywiec, but the work was eventually carried out by Ignacy Ryszak from Opava. Głowiński seems to have built in the southern Polish style, preferring diapason chorus and foundation stops of various kinds, but using few mutations or reeds. It is not known if he was related to an organ builder of the same name who worked in Kraków in about ...

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( b Cologne, 1595/6; d Antwerp, Nov 17, 1658)). Flemish organ builder . He was the leading apprentice of Florentius (Floris) Hocque jr (d 1623/3), and lived in Antwerp until 1642, when he moved to Haacht, where he remained for the rest of his life. He completed Hocque’s organ at St Jans Cathedraal in ’s-Hertogenbosch, but his work was considered so poor that the church asked the Hagerbeer firm to finish it instead; Goltfuss in turn blamed his late teacher. He built many organs in the southern Netherlands (including parts of modern Belgium). His largest work was the three-manual, 43-stop organ for St Laurenskerk, Rotterdam (1642–4), which blended Dutch, Flemish and German elements. This organ, like that of Tongerlo Abbey (1642), had a five-stop bass-function pedal, a novelty in an area where the bass function still tended to belong to the main manual....