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Article

Taisiya Shcherbakova

(b Dzhalal-Oglï, nr Tbilisi, Georgia, 9/May 21, 1869; d Minsk, Dec 27, 1964). Belarusian folklorist and composer. He completed his studies in composition with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Tbilisi Music College (1892), and then worked as a music teacher in Baku and from 1903 in the north-west region of Russia (in the towns of Kovno, Vil′no and Mstislavl′). He headed amateur societies and choirs, and began his work as a folklorist. His first volume of 53 Belarusian songs was published in Vil′no in 1910. His opera Osvobozhdyonnïy trud (‘Emancipated Labour’) was written in Mstislavl′ in 1922 and was staged there by amateurs in the same year.

After 1935 Churkin lived permanently in Minsk and devoted himself to folklore. He recorded around 3000 Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaidjani folksongs. These served as sources for many of his instrumental works – three sinfoniettas (1925, 1949...

Article

Josiane Bran-Ricci

revised by Hervé Lacombe

(b Naples, Sept 15, 1808; d Paris, March 19, 1866). French composer, curator and teacher. His paternal grandfather was a wind instrument maker at Lyons and his father a professional horn player who played principal horn at the Teatro S Carlo, Naples, and led the military band for Murat (King of Naples during the First Empire) in the early 19th century. As a result of political and military events at the end of the Empire, the Clapisson family returned to France and settled in about 1815 in Bordeaux, where the father was appointed principal horn at the Grand Théâtre and Louis began his musical studies, particularly of the violin. Soon he was making concert tours in the south of France. On returning to Bordeaux he studied harmony and became a first violin in the Grand Théâtre orchestra. He then went to Paris, entering the Conservatoire on 18 June 1830...

Article

(b Copenhagen, May 1, 1855; d Frederiksberg, Feb 22, 1931). Danish textile manufacturer, diplomat, philanthropist, and instrument collector. He was the son of a theatre prop manager. In 1884, after some years as a school teacher and inspector, he moved to Malmö, where he opened a textile factory. While living in Sweden he helped establish the Swedish section of the International Musicological Society which he led until 1914. He returned to Copenhagen in 1906, but maintained his business in Sweden until his death. Previously he was instrumental in founding the Musikhistoriska Museet in Stockholm (1899). At the outbreak of World War I he was appointed Denmark’s consul in Peru, becoming consul-general in 1915. Active in charitable, mercantile, and museum circles, Claudius was chairman of the Sundby Asylum, co-founder of the Danish Music Society (1921), and in 1928 he became a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music. His honours included Knight and 2nd degree Commander of the Dannebrog. Claudius collected coins, prints, liturgical manuscripts, autographs, bookplates, but especially musical instruments, which he acquired over about 30 years, amassing one of the largest private collections in Europe at the time. He and his wife hosted concerts played on historical instruments in their home. Claudius bequeathed his collection of music and musical instruments to the Danish state. In ...

Article

Richard Will

(Harris )

(b New York, Aug 2, 1932). American folk musician, folklorist, filmmaker, and photographer. He studied painting and photography at the Yale School of Fine Arts (BFA 1955, MFA 1957), where his teachers included Joseph Albers and Herbert Matter. In 1958 he formed the New Lost City Ramblers with Seeger family, §4 and Tom Paley (later succeeded by Tracy Schwarz). Focusing on string band music and songs from rural Appalachia, they were among the most important groups of the folk revival of the 1950s and 60s, and a principal inspiration for the ongoing string band revival known as Old-Time Music. They made over 25 recordings, and Cohen and Seeger also edited a highly influential songbook. Much of Cohen’s fieldwork has concentrated on the same area, and his films and recordings of Roscoe Holcomb, Dillard Chandler, the Carter Family and others have decisively shaped modern perceptions of Appalachian music. As a co-founder of the Friends of Old-Time Music in ...

Article

Sally K. Sommers Smith Wells

(b New York, NY, Dec 13, 1936). American Folklorist and musicologist. Trained as a physical chemist, he is one of the foremost scholars of American traditional-music history, practice, and recording. In addition to holding faculty positions in chemistry at two undergraduate institutions in Portland, Oregon, he has taught undergraduate courses in folk song, bluegrass, country, and Jewish music in Portland and at UCLA. Cohen is perhaps best known for his long association with the John Edwards Memorial Foundation (now John Edwards Memorial Forum; JEMF). He served as the editor or co-editor of the JEMF Quarterly from its inception (as the JEMF Newsletter) in 1965 through 1988. He has lectured and written extensively on American folk song and is particularly well known for his study of the railroad as a theme in American folk music, published as Long Steel Rail: the Railroad in American Folksong. He has also compiled a two-volume regional encyclopedia of American folk music as well as a collection of case studies in folk music research, ...

Article

José López-Calo

[Hernán] [Columbus, Ferdinand]

(b Córdoba, 1488; d Seville, Sept 12, 1539). Spanish bibliophile and music collector. The illegitimate son of Christopher Columbus, he received a thorough education at the court of the Catholic Monarchs. From his earliest years he had a great passion for travel and accompanied his father on a journey to America. Later he made several extensive journeys through Europe, at first with Charles V and later on his own account. He took advantage of his journeys to acquire the best books he could find on many subjects, including music. He kept an exact account of all his acquisitions, with details of the most important ones; in each volume he noted the place and date of purchase and the price. He also compiled careful lists of his library. By the end of his life he had an extremely important library of more than 15,000 items, including numerous manuscripts; on his death he left the whole collection to Seville Cathedral. Regrettably, nearly three-quarters of the books have been lost; only some 4000 volumes remain. Among them, nevertheless, there are some very valuable items, ranging from medieval manuscripts to unique prints of Petrucci and theoretical works. His catalogues also largely survive and provide details of early printed music which has since been lost. In ...

Article

Owain Edwards

(bap. London, July 18, 1680; d London, March 7, 1748). English violinist, composer and collector. His earliest compositions were songs and incidental music for the Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre, where he also played. In 1705 he was engaged to play in the orchestra at the new Queen’s Theatre in the Haymarket, where the following year the semi-opera The British Enchanters, or No Magick like Love, with music mostly by Corbett, had 11 performances. He was greatly admired as a solo performer, often being billed as the chief attraction at the benefit concerts of colleagues in London. He also appeared further afield: he played at Nottingham during race week (1707 and 1709) and at York during Assize week (1709). An instinctive showman, Corbett emphasized the unusual in his concerts and in his own compositions; the viola d’amore, archlute and mandolin made appearances at his benefit concerts (...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa

(b Casale Monferrato, March 14, 1755; d Salabue, Dec 15, 1840). Italian collector of violins. He was of noble birth and endowed with both a natural curiosity about violins and the means to satisfy it. His first great opportunity came in 1775–6 when he acquired ten Stradivari violins, together with tools, patterns and all that remained of Stradivari's violin-making equipment (now owned by the city of Cremona) from the master's son Paolo. For the next 50 years, with the assistance of the Mantegazza family, Cozio avidly traced and where possible purchased fine Italian violins of the Cremonese school, scrupulously noting down their details in his Carteggio (ed. R. Bacchetta, Milan, 1950; partial Eng. trans., 1987). He also gave much assistance and encouragement to many violin makers, including G.B. Guadagnini and Giacomo Rivolta.

Much of Cozio's collection was eventually acquired by another energetic enthusiast, Luigi Tarisio. The instruments included the famous unused Stradivari of ...

Article

Gordon E. Smith

(b Dartmouth, NS, Sept 5, 1899; d Halifax, NS, Dec 12, 1989). Canadian folksong collector. She studied music for a short period at McGill University and was later a social worker and teacher in Guadalajara, Mexico. Inspired by her fellow Nova Scotian, W.R. Mackenzie, she began collecting maritime traditional folksongs in 1928, sometimes travelling on foot into remote areas to meet performers. In the 1930s Creighton was assisted with the musical transcriptions by the English musician Doreen Senior. During the 1940s Creighton studied at Indiana University and received three grants from the Rockefeller Foundation; she then worked for the National Museum of Canada (1947–67). An ardent preservationist, she recorded over 4000 songs in English, French, Gaelic, Micmac and German (see ‘Canada’s Maritime Provinces: an Ethnomusicological Survey’, EthM, xvi, 1972, 404–14) and compiled folksong collections (Gaelic Songs in Nova Scotia, Ottawa, 1964/R; Folksongs from Southern New Brunswick...

Article

Charles Haywood

revised by Anne Dhu McLucas

(b New York, NY, April 26, 1875; d Paris, France, Oct 23, 1921). American Musician, transcriber, folksong collector, and folklorist. She studied music at the National Conservatory and the Paris Conservatoire. After visiting the Chicago World’s Fair and other expositions, she became intrigued with Native American music and abandoned plans for a career as a concert pianist in order to work among American Indians. She began in 1903 by recording Hopi songs on Edison wax cylinders and spent extensive time with other Southwestern tribes, as well as with the Plains Indians. Her transcriptions of the songs of 18 tribes resulted in the publication of The Indians’ Book (1907, 2/1923/R), a collection of 200 songs transcribed mainly from live performances. She included notes on the tribes and some contextual information on singers, as well as free translations of the texts. Most innovative was her approach to formatting the songs to reflect their formal structure. This book led to further opportunities for research, publications, and speaking engagements. Curtis inserted aspects of native cultures into the Arts and Crafts movement and worked for reform of Indian affairs....

Article

Andrew D. McCredie

revised by Samantha Owens

(b Sydney, Australia, April 16, 1887; d Brisbane, Australia, July 31, 1959). Australian conductor, composer, and music collector. He studied with Arthur Mason and Gordon Lavers in Sydney. In 1912 he was appointed organist and choir director at Christ Church Anglican Cathedral and conductor of the choral society in Grafton, New South Wales. After war service he went to London for further study with Frederick Bridge, R.R. Terry, and Charles W. Pearce. He returned to Australia in 1919 and settled in Brisbane, where he served as organist and choirmaster at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church (1919–32) and the Anglican churches of St Thomas at Toowong (1933) and All Saints, Wickham Terrace (1933–41). He directed the University of Queensland’s Musical Society (1920–30), an association that culminated in what was believed to have been the first Bach Festival in the southern hemisphere, held in ...

Article

Geoffrey Norris

(fl c1760–90). Russian folksong collector. All that is known of him is that his name, perhaps a pseudonym, is associated with one of the most valuable 18th-century folklore collections. There is evidence that he began fieldwork in one of the south-western regions of Siberia during the 1760s, for in 1768 P.A. Demidov, a wealthy writer who possibly commissioned the collection, sent one of the song texts, ‘obtained from the Siberian people’, to the historian G.F. Miller; however, the manuscript of 70 songs (now in RUS-SPsc ) was probably not completed until the 1780s. For many years Demidov owned the collection, but in 1802 or 1803 it was passed to F.P. Klyucharyov, director of the Moscow postal service, who in 1804 arranged for the publication of 26 of the song texts without music; a second edition (1818), containing 61 songs with music, was prepared on the instructions of N.P. Rumyantsev, who had acquired the manuscript in ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Santiago, May 16, 1932). Chilean ethnomusicologist and folklorist. At the University of Chile he studied philosophy, specializing in Romance languages and Spanish education (1958–65); he also studied ethnomusicology and folklore privately with Carlos Lavín. He has held positions as professor of folklore at the Catholic University (1957–74), professor of ethnology and folklore at the University of Chile (appointed 1971), professor of ethnomusicology at the latter institution (appointed 1963), chairman of the art department of the Catholic University (1972–4) and president of the Research Committee of the University of Chile, northern campus (appointed 1974). In 1973 he visited the University of California at Los Angeles and Berkeley as a fellow of the University of Chile. He has lectured widely in Latin America and the USA, and participated in numerous international conventions and congresses. In his research he has concentrated on the study of Chilean folklore and folk music, devoting many years to field work; his extensive publications reveal a systematic and comprehensive approach to the subject....

Article

(b Havana, Cuba, June 20, 1930). Cuban musicologist, historical essayist, recorded-sound collector, and lawyer; immigrated to Puerto Rico in 1960. Díaz Ayala studied journalism and law at the Universidad de La Habana, and began his musical career as a radio host on a jazz program in Havana. Although he is not a formally trained musicologist, his impressive archival work and research in the field of recorded folk music established him as an authority on Cuban musical culture.

A prolific writer with publications spanning thirty years, Díaz Ayala has made an extremely significant contribution through his compilation and examination of early to mid twentieth-century Cuban musical recordings. Monumental in scope, this project represents the most exhaustive reference work for scholars of Cuban and Latin American music. Aspiring at discographical completeness, the work documents nearly every musical recording produced in Cuba or involving any genre of Cuban music. In 2001...

Article

Lester Levy

(b nr Warsaw, Poland, Dec 25, 1899; d Atlantic City, NJ, Jan 27, 1977). American collector of and dealer in sheet music, born in Poland. He immigrated to the USA in 1906. For some 40 years until his retirement in 1965 he worked as a waiter in Philadelphia. While operating a small bookshop, from 1929 to 1931, he developed a passionate interest in early American popular sheet music; he eventually collected and distributed approximately 500,000 sheets of the late 18th to late 19th centuries. Much of the music was purchased by universities and municipal libraries, many of which relied on Dichter as altant—from 1942 to 1945 he served the Free Library of Philadelphia in this capacity. With Elliott Shapiro, a sheet-music publisher, he wrote Early American Sheet Music: its Lure and its Lore, 1768–1889 (1941, rev. 1977 as Handbook of Early American Sheet Music, 1768–1889), still regarded as the leading reference work of its kind. Under his own name or that of Musical Americana he issued several collections of sheet music and other important publications, including J.J. Fuld’s ...

Article

(b Rinteln an der Weser, Oct 7, 1801; d Nuremberg, May 25, 1880). German folksong collector. After abandoning his law studies at the University of Marburg (1820–25), he made the acquaintance of Spohr in Kassel. This, together with his interest in published folksong collections, inspired him to devote himself to poetry and music and especially to collecting folksongs. He took theory lessons with Moritz Hauptmann in Leipzig and also studied the music of the 15th and 16th centuries. From 1858 he was director of the Department of Old Music at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. He collected folksongs from Franconia and historical songs from Germany and Austria from the period 1618–1871.

Article

Maria Domokos

(b Csíkvárdotfalva, June 28, 1901; d Budapest, Feb 18, 1992). Hungarian musicologist and folklorist. After taking a diploma in 1919 as a schoolmaster and music teacher in Csíksomlyó (now Şumuleu), he studied music and sciences at the Budapest Teachers' Training College (graduated 1926) and then worked as a music teacher and choirmaster in Csíkszereda (now Miercurea-Ciuc) from 1926 to 1929. Between 1926 and 1940 he played an important role in the cultural life of the Hungarian minority in Romania: he founded a newspaper, initiated a movement to revive popular customs and organized choral festivals to perform Kodály's works. Subsequently he was the principal of the teachers' college in Cluj (1940–44), taking the doctorate in 1943 at Cluj University. In 1944 he moved to Budapest.

Domokos began his research with pioneering fieldwork in Moldavia (1929, 1932), where he collected folksongs among the Csángó-Magyars, and in Bukovina (...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Brookline, MA, c1875; d Boston, MA, c1959). American collector, arranger, and civil engineer. He is responsible for one of the largest collections of sheet music in America. While growing up in Brookline he learned to play piano and organ under b.j. Lang, and there is some evidence that he also wrote arrangements of sacred music. This led to a long amateur engagement at Boston’s Sacred Heart Cathedral, where he led the choir and played the organ. “Benedixisti domine” by Bernhard Klein is one of Driscoll’s few remaining arrangements; the other extant editions or arrangements are of sacred pieces. By the 1890s Driscoll was already amassing material for his ever burgeoning collection, always looking for the perfect copy of any rare number. Well known for his sharp bargaining and compulsive habits, he refused to relinquish the search for the most complete collection possible. The James Francis Driscoll Collection of American Sheet Music at the Newberry Library in Chicago, IL, stores around 84,000 pieces of music dating from the 1770s until Driscoll’s death in ...

Article

Bruce Alan Brown

(Pio Francesco Antonio Maria)

(b Genoa, April 27, 1717; d Padua, Oct 15, 1794). Italian diplomat, theatre director, librettist and art collector, and one of the principal catalysts of reform in 18th-century opera and ballet. The francophilia that coloured nearly all Durazzo's theatrical endeavours was largely the result of his birth into a noble Genoese family (of Albanian origin) with a long history of commercial and political dealings with France. The Durazzos (who produced several doges, including Giacomo's older brother Marcello) were active in Genoa's theatrical life, notably as proprietors of the Teatro del Falcone. Following his inscription into the nobility in 1744, Giacomo was entrusted with several commercial and diplomatic missions to France, during one of which, in 1748, he and his compatriot Agostino Lomellini conceived a plan to rework Quinault and Lully's Armide as an Italian opera on reformed principles. As versified by Migliavacca and set by Traetta, this project was realized in Vienna in ...

Article

(b St Petersburg, 8/Jan 20, 1857; d St Petersburg, 16/Sept 28, 1891). Russian conductor and folksong collector, son of Otto Johann Anton Dütsch. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1866–75). After Borodin’s death he assisted with the preparation for publication of the vocal score of Prince Igor. From 1886 he was principal conductor of Belyayev’s Russian Public Symphony Concerts, and from 1889 he was in charge of the orchestral class at the conservatory. In 1886 he collected the music of 114 folksongs, Pesni russkogo naroda, sobrannïye v guberniyakh Arkhangel′skoy i Olonetskoy v 1886 godu (‘Songs of the Russian people, collected in the Arkhangel and Olonets governments in 1886’); F.M. Istomin was responsible for the words, and the collection was published in St Petersburg in 1894. Later, Balakirev, Rachmaninoff and Prokofiev all made arrangements of songs in his edition.

N.F. Findeyzen...