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Article

Reinhard Oehlschlägel

(b Saalfeld, Feb 16, 1939). German writer . After working in industry and the press, Müller studied journalism at the Karl Marx University, Leipzig, 1959–63, and was a cultural editor for the state news service in Halle, Leipzig and Berlin until 1980, when he became principal dramatic adviser at the Komische Oper, Berlin. In 1986 he took the doctorate at the Humboldt University, East Berlin, with a dissertation on Heine’s views on music.

As well as his musical criticism, musical journalism and satirical pieces for East German radio, the weekly Sonntag (Freitag from 1990) and the satirical magazine Eulenspiegel, Müller has written librettos for the operas Candide, after Voltaire, by Reiner Bredemeyer (1986, Halle), Gastmahl, oder Über die Liebe, after Plato, by Georg Katzer (1988, Schwetzingen) and Antigone oder Die Stadt, after Sophocles, also by Katzer (composed 1989–90). He has also prepared a German text for Joplin’s ...

Article

Ivan Čavlović

(b Tuzla, Sept 14, 1942). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, editor, and music critic. Nuić graduated from the Primary and Secondary Music School in Tuzla. She then graduated from the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, in the Department for Music Theory and Pedagogy; afterwards she studied composition with Miroslav Špiler.

She worked as music editor at Radio Sarajevo (1971–92) and at Radio Federacije Bosne I Hercegovine (1994–2007).

Initially engaged in radiophonic composition, Nuić has more recently turned to pieces for traditional instrumentation. Additionally, she is an author of music for numerous radio shows, TV films and educational shows, theatrical plays, and four short films. Nuić is also the composer of the ballet Prizivanje Peruna, choreographed by D. Boldin (première 21 May 1988), and one of the most often performed ballets at the National Theatre in Sarajevo.

Nuić has also written extensively for newspapers and magazines such as ...

Article

André Clergeat

(b Paris, Feb 27, 1912; d Montauban, Dec 8, 1974). French writer on jazz. After studying the saxophone he first wrote about jazz at the age of 18. He was one of the founders (in 1932) and then president of the Hot Club de France, and from 1935 to 1946 he was the editor of the journal Jazz-hot. With his unrivalled enthusiasm for communication, Panassié wrote hundreds of articles for this and other periodicals and was the author of several books, notably Le jazz hot, an important study that was among the first to treat jazz seriously. In 1938 Count Basie dedicated to him and recorded a composition called Panassié Stomp. The same year, in New York, Panassié organized a series of small-group recording sessions with Mezz Mezzrow which also included (at various times) Tommy Ladnier and Sidney Bechet; these were highly influential and contributed considerably to the New Orleans revival movement. In ...

Article

Mike Ashman

(b Mainz, June 21, 1883; d Munich, Jan 27, 1973). German stage designer. He studied law, and later worked as an illustrator. In 1921 the writer Thomas Mann recommended him to Bruno Walter as designer for a new production of Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide at Munich. During the 1920s he designed opera productions for Berlin, Dresden and Munich. His association with Bayreuth began in 1933, when he designed the Ring for Heinz Tietjen, with whom he worked both there and in Berlin during the 1930s and 40s. Other important work included Ring cycles at La Scala (1938), Rome (1953–4) and Vienna (1958–60), and the ‘official’ première of Richard Strauss’s Die Liebe der Danae at Salzburg in 1952.

Preetorius’s style dominated mainstream European Wagner design in the two decades preceding Wieland Wagner’s revolutionary productions at Bayreuth (his influence on Wieland’s early work was great but unacknowledged), forging a link between the weighty, pictorial Wagner settings of the late 19th century and the sparser experimental work of the mid-20th century. His ...

Article

Horst Leuchtmann

revised by James Deaville

(b Leipzig, Feb 12, 1769; d Leipzig, Dec 16, 1842). German critic, writer and editor. He was educated at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, where he studied composition and counterpoint with the Kantor, J.F. Doles. He began composing at an early age and was 17 when his cantata Die Vollendung des Erlösers was first performed. It was perhaps the impression made on him by Mozart, whom he met in Leipzig in 1789, that caused him to doubt his own talent and abandon a musical career; on his father’s advice he began studying theology, but in 1794 he chose the career of a writer, since his humble background prevented advancement in the Church. He published many stories and dramatic works, as well as popular scientific articles, most of which found recognition in his lifetime. He enjoyed close ties with Weimar: a Lustspiel by Rochlitz was performed there in 1800, performances of three other stage works soon followed and Rochlitz visited Weimar in ...

Article

William Osborne

(b Fair Haven, CT, Feb 7, 1857; d Pasadena, CA, Nov 28, 1940). American organist, composer, teacher, music publisher, and music critic. Rogers studied with organ virtuoso Clarence Eddy in Chicago, followed by further study in Berlin and Paris, 1875–82. He worked for a year in Burlington, Iowa, before establishing himself in Cleveland as an organist of various churches, as well as the Euclid Avenue Temple, which he served for 50 years. He was a prolific composer, a teacher at the Cleveland School of Music, a critic at the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1915–32), and a publisher of his own works and those of others. He wrote about 550 pieces, and his more than 130 songs (issued between 1878 and 1933), organ pieces, and church music were widely performed in their time. For the organ he left three sonatas, two sonatinas, three suites, and many one-movement genre pieces. He also wrote secular partsongs, cantatas for both Christmas and Easter, several settings of the Latin Mass, and both a ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Florence, June 8, 1927; d Cambridge, Jan 16, 2001). British writer of partly Italian descent. He studied at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and was a research student in history with Herbert Butterfield at Cambridge (1948–51). He then worked for the (Manchester) Guardian, as leader writer, features editor and deputy London editor, before moving to Sussex University, 1964–89, to teach history, finally as reader. Rosselli worked as a critic but was chiefly noted for his writings on the social and economic background of opera, particularly in Italy. His authoritative The Opera Industry in Italy (1984) explored aspects of operatic history and culture unfamiliar to the music historian, as too did his Music and Musicians in Nineteenth-Century Italy (1991) and his studies of the role, in the broadest sense, of the singer. These include important articles on castratos, the singer’s relation to his patrons, a study of contractual documents between pupils and teachers, and a book on the profession itself, ...

Article

Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert (D.) ]

(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...

Article

Julie Anne Sadie

(John)

(b London, 30 Oct 1930; d Cossington, Somerset, 21 March 2005). English musicologist, critic, and editor. He was educated at St Paul’s School, London, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, reading music under Thurston Dart, Charles Cudworth, and Patrick Hadley (BA, MusB 1953, MA 1957, PhD 1958). After teaching at Trinity College of Music, London (1957–65), he worked as a music critic for The Times (1964–81), a reviewer for Gramophone (1965–2005), editor of the Musical Times (1967–87), and general editor of the Master Musicians series (from 1976). In 1970 he was appointed editor of the New Grove dictionaries, serving as emeritus editor from 1999; he also initiated and edited a number of related or kindred publications including a Handbook series and the Man and Music/Music and Society series. He was for many years a regular broadcaster on Radio 3 and the World Service, chiefly on 18th-century topics, and prepared several critical editions, notably of the Mozart piano sonatas (...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b New York, Oct 31, 1950). American writer. After studying music at CUNY and at the guitar center of the New School for Social Research he worked as an editor, feature writer, and columnist for the periodical of Tower Records, Pulse (1983–91), and contributed numerous articles to Down Beat (1984–93). While serving as a music critic for The Nation (from 1986) he was a columnist for 7 Days (1987–9) and Taxi (1988–90); he then wrote essays for Atlantic Monthly and taught at CCNY (both from 1991). As both a music critic and a feature writer he has contributed to the New York Post (1988–90), the New York Daily News (from 1993), and Fi (1996–9), and he has written for the New Yorker, the New York Times, the Village Voice, Rolling Stone, and Musician...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

revised by Malcolm Miller

(b Schwiegershausen, Nov 3, 1805; d Crete, Nebraska, March 1880). German writer on music. Like others of his generation, Schilling, the son of a pastor, received his education in both music and theology, in the former partly from his father, in the latter from teachers at Göttingen and Halle. From 1830 to 1836 he was director of a music school in Stuttgart founded by Franz Stöpel, but gave it up to become a freelance writer in theology and politics as well as in music. He was founder and secretary of the Deutsche National-Verein für Musik und ihre Wissenschaft and edited its yearbook from 1839 to 1843.

Between 1839 and 1850 Schilling published over a score of books on musical subjects including aesthetics, harmony, pianism and composers (among these an account of Liszt, 1842), which are generally superficial; they are, however, significant in their development of both performance theory and the history of music theory. His career in Germany came to an end in ...

Article

(b New York, Dec 11, 1932). American writer . He studied at Princeton University (BA 1955) and worked as an independent writer on music, founding in 1970 the Musical Newsletter, an adventurous periodical that produced many worthwhile articles during its seven years’ life. Smith served as president of the Music Critics Association, ...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Boston, MA, May 10, 1937). American music critic, publicist, and editor. Solomon is best known for her contributions to the Village Voice, but has also written for Down Beat, Country Music, Hit Parader, the News World, and Us. She was one of the first women involved in popular music criticism; her work focused on folk music of the 1960s, jazz, blues, rock, and country music. Solomon’s column in the Village Voice was called “Riffs.” She also served as editor for the magazine ABC-TV Hootenanny (1963–4), which highlighted performers on the television show of the same name who were just beginning to rise to fame, including Judy Collins, Earl Scruggs, and Doc Watson. Other writers whose work appeared in the magazine included Theodore Bikel and Jean Shepard. Another of her important editing positions was on the magazine New Musical Express (NME) in the 1970s. Solomon also had a brief tenure as a publicist for Chess Records, where she produced a number of liner notes. Her commentary on such diverse subjects as J.J. Cale and Paul McCartney has given her voice a lasting impression in the music business....

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Everton, Liverpool, Jan 11, 1839; d Torquay, May 29, 1924). English architect, amateur organist and writer, father of Heathcote D. Statham. He studied the organ at Liverpool Collegiate Institution and practised architecture in Liverpool for several years before moving in 1869 to London, where he increasingly devoted time to journalism and writing. For several years during the late 1870s he gave a series of Sunday afternoon organ recitals at the Royal Albert Hall, but held no regular organist's post beyond an honorary one at St Jude's, Whitechapel. From 1883 to 1910 his principal occupation was as editor of the journal The Builder, and he wrote several standard works on architectural history.

A thoughtful and intelligent critic, Statham combined his knowledge of architecture and music in his writings on concert hall design, arguing that recently built large halls, such as the Royal Albert Hall and St George's Hall, Liverpool, were constructed solely as places of spectacle in defiance of the basic principles of acoustics. His ...

Article

Anthony C. Baines

revised by Darryl Martin

(b London, 1664; d Spofforth, 1708). English writer on music . He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he matriculated in 1683, becoming a minor Fellow in 1689 and major Fellow in 1690. He played a leading role in the early promotion of Cambridge University Press. He was Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge from 1699 to 1704 when he moved to Spofforth, where he had a rectorship since 1700. He received his doctorate from Cambridge in 1705. His importance to music history derives from his manuscript GB-Och Music MS 1187 (formerly owned by Henry Aldrich) which provides copious information on instruments. The manuscript, which was probably written between 1690 and 1700, consists mainly of 250 numbered sheets on which are recorded details of instruments; much of the information was obtained first-hand from leading players and makers (including Gottfried Finger, John Banister (ii), James Paisible, John Shore and William Bull) and from Talbot’s examination and measurement of instruments provided by these men. Other pages record tunings and tablatures, or quotations from Praetorius, Mersenne and Kircher. The remainder of the manuscript, including sections on ancient Greek music, is in another hand....

Article

Daphne G. Carr

[Thackray, Jerry ]

(b Chelmsford, England, April 21, 1961). English popular music critic and publisher. True is known as an incendiary character in British popular music journalism due to his self-aggrandizing tone, his polemical attitude, and his general curmudgeonliness. His pseudonym comes from an early 20th-century comic strip of a similarly behaving character.

He is known as the Legend, after Creation Records head Alan McGee gave him the role of MC at his club, Communication Bar. McGee let him write for the club’s fanzine, but True quit after two issues and started his own fanzine The Legend! He then wrote for New Musical Express (1983–8), was fired, and went to work for its rival Melody Maker (1988–2000). A 1989 assignment to profile Sub Pop Records for Melody Maker led him to befriend Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain. True was at Cobain’s house at the time of Cobain’s suicide. He later published ...

Article

Jayson Greene

[neth ]

(b New York, NY, Feb 1, 1953). American music critic, film critic, and editor. Ken Tucker is the pop-music critic for the NPR program Fresh Air with Terry Gross, appearing weekly to review new releases. He is also editor-at-large for Entertainment Weekly magazine, where he has worked in various capacities since its founding in 1989. His Entertainment Weekly writing has won two National Magazine Awards, and his music criticism earned him two ASCAP Deems Taylor Awards (2003, 2004). Prior to that, he was the TV critic for the Philadelphia Inquirer, where he was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 1984. He also served as film critic for New York Magazine in the years 2004–05. His writing about television, books, and music has appeared in Rolling Stone, SPIN, Esquire, the Village Voice, Vogue, and the New York Times. He has also made numerous television appearances, serving as a cultural observer on programs such as ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b New York, April 10, 1918; d New York, April 30, 2000). American writer. His father was concert master for the conductor Arturo Toscanini. He was interested in jazz from a young age and attended Columbia University (AB 1939) to be closer to the jazz movement in Harlem; while a student he published articles on jazz in The Spectator. Following graduation he edited Swing: the Guide to Modern Music (c1939–40), Listen (1940–42), and the Review of Recorded Music (1945–6). As the editor of Metronome: Modern Music and its Makers (1943–55) he changed the focus of the journal from classical music and white swing groups to other aspects of jazz, notably bop and its African-American components; in 1950 he designed the Metronome Yearbook. In addition Ulanov organized all-star bop groups which broadcast on WOR (1947) and published biographies of Duke Ellington (...

Article

Geoffrey Norris and Edward Garden

(b Dresden, April 13, 1794; d Lukino, nr Nizhniy-Novgorod, 24 Jan/Feb 5, 1858). Russian writer on music. He was the son of the Russian ambassador at Dresden, and received his early musical education in Germany. In an autobiographical sketch he described himself as being ‘a musician since the age of seven, a passable violinist, a singer when necessary, and acquainted with the principles of composition’. In 1810 he moved to Russia and in 1812 entered the civil service. He worked as a translator in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1816 and later was responsible for editing the journal Le conservateur impartial and the Journal de St Pétersbourg. After resigning from his post in 1830, he retired to his estate at Lukino.

Ulïbïshev is known principally for his articles on music, many of which were published in the Journal de St Pétersbourg, and for two important books. In ...

Article

Stanley Sadie

(Hamilton )

(b London, Feb 9, 1928). English writer on music , son of Guy Warrack. He was educated at Winchester College and at the RCM (1949–52), where he studied the oboe with Terence Macdonagh, history with Frank Howes and composition with Gordon Jacob and Bernard Stevens. He played as a freelance oboist, chiefly with the Boyd Neel Orchestra and at Sadler's Wells, until 1953, when he joined Oxford University Press as a music editor. The next year he was appointed assistant music critic to the Daily Telegraph. He moved in 1961 to the Sunday Telegraph, as chief music critic, resigning in 1972. Warrack became a critic for Gramophone in 1958 and a member of the editorial board of Opera in 1953. In 1975–6 he was visiting lecturer at the University of Durham, and he was a university lecturer at Oxford, 1984–93. He was director of the Leeds Festival, ...