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Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

(d Sens, 1222). French theologian and prelate . He was a master of theology at the University of Paris; his best-known pupil later became Pope Innocent III. Pierre received ecclesiastical preferment, becoming a canon of Notre Dame in Paris, Archdeacon of York (1198), Bishop of Cambrai (1199) and Archbishop of Sens (1200). He led the council at Paris in 1210 which forbade the public teaching and private reading of Aristotle's works on natural history. As archbishop Pierre was a respected familiar of King Philip Augustus. Of his works, including sermons and commentaries, very few have survived. An Office of the Assumption, used at Sens until the 17th century, and the Office for Circumcision are attributed to him.

It is on the latter that his musical reputation is founded. In 1198 Cardinal Peter of Capua, papal legate for France, addressed a letter to the Bishop and cathedral chapter of Paris concerning the Feast of Fools which traditionally took place on the Feast of Circumcision and which had become the focus for much abuse. This document, an attempt to regulate the celebration of the feast, sets guidelines including prescriptions for processions and the performance of liturgical items ‘in organo, vel triplo, vel quadruplo’. Reference to ‘quadruplo’ at once suggests the four-voice compositions of Parisian composers associated with Notre Dame. Other works of the Notre Dame repertory are, furthermore, associated with Sens; it seems possible that Pierre, who is named among the other members of the chapter, responded to the cardinal's letter by writing an Office for the Feast of Circumcision, and by taking the decrees on musical practice with him to Sens....


Nino Pirrotta

(b Rome, 1465; d San Gimignano, 1510). Italian humanist. He was the son of Antonio Cortese, a papal abbreviator (i.e. a writer of papal briefs) and the pupil of Giulio Pomponio Leto and Bartolomeo Platina, both abbreviatores. In 1481 he was appointed to the papal chancery to the place vacated on Platina’s death. He was promoted to papal secretary in 1498, resigned in 1503 and spent the rest of his life in a family villa called Castel Cortesiano, near San Gimignano. There he was the host to such guests as Duke Ercole I of Ferrara, Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, later Pope Paul III. He must also have had a comfortable house in Rome in which in the early 1490s there were learned discussions, interspersed with strambotti sung by Serafino Aquilano. Cortese may have known Josquin, who was a papal singer at this time. He praised Josquin highly as a mass composer in his ...


David Tunley

(b Sydney, Feb 1, 1931). Australian musicologist, music critic and conductor. He graduated from the University of Queensland with the BA in 1964 and founded the department of music at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, in 1966 (the university first offered music as an interdisciplinary study before it established an institute of practical studies and music education). He took the doctorate at New South Wales in 1976 and was appointed Chair in 1984. His work covers a broad spectrum and includes writings on 17th-century Italian and 19th-century German and French opera, but his major contribution has been in Australian music. His Australia's Music: Themes of a New Society (1967) is regarded as the classic study on this topic, and his insights into the Australian repertory (and beyond) have been sharpened through his work as chief music critic at the Sydney Morning Herald (from 1960...


F.E. Sparshott

revised by Naomi Cumming

(b Pescasseroli, nr Aquila, Feb 25, 1866; d Naples, Nov 20, 1952). Italian philosopher, historian and critic. In its original and most influential formulation Croce's aesthetic theory is part of a general philosophy of civilization (largely derived from Vico and Hegel). Croce's view is both ‘idealist’ and ‘historicist’. His idealism is evident when he poses a strong contrast between ‘intuition’ and ‘intellect’, and argues that art is ‘intuition without intellectual relations’ (1915). His emphasis on the intuitive is motivated by a resistance to contemporary positivism, which gave weight to scientific understanding. His ‘intuition’ is a form of non-conceptual, non-experimental activity. It does not, however, consist in introspective knowledge, or vague impressions which can be known apart from any tangible form. Rather, that which is ‘known’ intuitively is grasped only in its expression (‘The spirit only intuits by making, forming, expressing’, 1902, Eng. trans., 1992, 8–9). ‘Expression’ itself gains an unusual meaning by this association with the intuitive. If the act of ‘expressing’ gives content to the intuition, it cannot be claimed that the expression is of something already ‘known’, as if intuition and expression were two separate things. To say that art ‘expresses’ intuitions is to say that it brings a state to clear and explicit consciousness by giving it a material and perceptible form....


Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha singing.

In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...


Giorgio Pestelli

(b Naples, April 5, 1883; d Turin, March 12, 1968). Italian musicologist and critic. Self-taught in music, he was professor of music history at the Turin Conservatory (1926–53) and at Turin University (1939–53). His main occupation, however, was journalism. He contributed to various Neapolitan papers from 1906 and was music critic of the Turin paper La stampa (1919–1967), a post to which he brought a professionalism hitherto unknown in Italy.

As a musicologist his chief interest was opera history, and he made valuable contributions to the knowledge of Neapolitan opera, Gluck and above all Verdi: his essays on Aida, Otello and Falstaff (1923–5) enlarged the awareness of the organic unity of Verdi’s dramas to which Toscanini’s reform of interpretation was greatly contributing. In his Toscanini visto da un critico (1958) Della Corte made a study of the concept of interpretation. An advocate of idealism, he produced studies in aesthetics and theory which are collected in ...


Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....


Daniel Heartz

revised by Elisabeth Cook

(b Langres, Oct 5, 1713; d Paris, July 31, 1784). French philosopher, critic and writer. He is best known as principal editor of the Encyclopédie but was also an influential writer on music. Born into a bourgeois family and educated by Jesuits, he was a writer of immense knowledge, energy and determination, who was imprisoned briefly (in 1749) for his philosophical views yet showed a spirit of tolerance that set him apart from most of his friends and colleagues. As chief architect of the Encyclopédie, a task that occupied him for some 20 years, he had a strong impact on the musical thought of his own and subsequent times. Musical discussion is strewn throughout his voluminous writings on all subjects and in his fiction: scientific works on acoustics, sound production and sensory perception are complemented by aesthetic writings, by critical essays on drama, art and music, and by diverse literary texts (plays, novels, dialogues), pedagogical tracts and a rich correspondence....


Aleksandar Vasić

(b Belgrade, May 5, 1905 or 1908; d Belgrade, Feb 18, 1986). Serbian musicologist, music critic, and pianist. She studied comparative literature and history of music (with Miloje Milojević) at the University of Belgrade. She also studied piano with Lazare Lévy in Paris (1927–8). She was the first pianist in Serbia to perform Ravel’s Piano Concerto in G, De Falla’s Nights in the Gardens of Spain and Paderewski’s Piano Concerto. The first woman musicologist in Serbia, she was among the first professors at the Department of Music History and Folklore at the Belgrade Academy of Music (she taught History of Yugoslav Music, 1945–71) and made an important contribution to the newly founded Institute of Musicology of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (director 1962–74).

Most of her studies were devoted to the history of Serbian music. In particular, she studied the development of Serbian music in the 18th and 19th centuries. She was interested in the history of Serbian musical criticism and writings of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. She also wrote a biography of the composer Stevan Mokranjac. Her ...


Paula Morgan

(b Vienna, July 1, 1902; d Pittsburgh, Jan 24, 1991). American musicologist and critic of Austrian birth. In 1925 he took the doctorate at the University of Vienna, where he worked with Adler. He was trained in composition and conducting at the Vienna Music Academy and was a member of the Schoenberg seminar in Vienna; he also studied theory and conducting with Webern and the piano with Edward Steuermann. He was music critic of the Berliner Morgenpost from 1930 to 1933. In 1934 he became Parisian music correspondent for the Frankfurter Zeitung and from 1935 to 1936 he wrote for the Neues Wiener Journal. In America he held the position of professor of music at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1936 until 1971, when he was appointed Andrew Mellon Lecturer in Music there; he became professor emeritus in 1975. In 1977 he was visiting professor of musicology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and later visiting professor of music history at the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia....


Paula Morgan

revised by Jon Stroop

(b Boston, Aug 12, 1911; d New York, Dec 26, 2001). American musicologist and music critic, son of Olin Downes. He attended Columbia University, the Manhattan School of Music and universities in Paris and Munich. From 1939 to 1941 he was music critic for the Boston Transcript. He taught at Wellesley College and the Longy School of Music (1948–9), and was assistant professor of music at the University of Minnesota (1950–55). After taking the doctorate in musicology at Harvard University in 1958 he was musicologist-in-residence at the Bayreuth Festival masterclasses until 1965. He was on the faculty of Queens College and the Graduate School, CUNY (1966–81), and New York University (1981–6), and in 1986 he was appointed professor at the Juilliard School of Music.

As a musicologist Downes concentrated on opera of the early Classical period. In 1958 he became quizmaster for the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts, and he wrote programme notes for the New York PO from ...


Ora Frishberg Saloman

(b Boston, May 13, 1813; d Boston, Sept 5, 1893). American writer on music. A graduate of Harvard College (1832) and Harvard Divinity School (1836), Dwight manifested an early affinity with the German idealist tradition in his annotated translations of poetry by Goethe and Schiller. As a leading contributor to the Associationist Harbinger (1845–9) and Dwight's Journal of Music (1852–81), which he founded and edited, he elevated criticism to a higher and more educational plane. After the death of his wife in 1860, he spent his last 20 years as resident librarian and permanent president of the Harvard Musical Association, which sponsored an annual series of concerts under his management (1865–82).

Dwight's writings of the 1840s reflect New England transcendentalist currents and a familiarity with such European thinkers as E.T.A. Hoffmann, A.B. Marx, Gottfried Fink, Charles Fourier, F.-J. Fétis, Frédéric Kalkbrenner, Thomas Carlyle and William Gardiner. Championing aesthetic education and informed listening, Dwight proposed that music – as art, science, and language of feeling ennobling and uniting people – be made widely accessible. In America he was a pioneer in describing the humanistic importance and large-scale structures of Beethoven's symphonies....


John Covach

(b Bad Kreuznach, April 8, 1897; d Cologne, Dec 15, 1972). German composer, theorist, and critic. He studied at the Cologne Conservatory with Bölsche, von Othegraven, and Abendroth (1919–24) and then undertook musicological studies with Bücken, Kahl, and Kinsky at Cologne University (1924-30), taking the doctorate in 1931. From 1925 to 1969 (except for the years 1933–44) he wrote programme notes for the Gurzenich concerts, from 1927 he worked with Westdeutscher Rundfunk, and from 1930 he served as music specialist on the Kölner Stadtanzeiger. During the period 1935–45 he lived in obscurity as an editor on the Kölnische Zeitung. He returned to Westdeutscher Rundfunk in 1945, becoming director of the late-night music programmes (1948–65) and of the Studio for Electronic Music, which he founded in 1951 and headed until 1962. From 1965 to 1971 he held a professorship at the Cologne Musikhochschule, where he directed the electronic music studio....


Barry Millington

(b London, Aug 20, 1852; d London, Jan 2, 1919). English writer and translator. His father was a surgeon and following medical studies at St George's Hospital, London, Ellis held the post of Resident Medical Officer at the Western Dispensary from 1878. In the mid-1870s, however, he became (in his own words) ‘a devotee of Wagner's works’ and resigned his post in 1887, devoting himself over the following 28 years to the single-minded pursuit of Wagner studies.

From 1888 to 1895 he edited (and largely wrote) the macaronically titled journal of the London Wagner Society, The Meister, founded primarily to publish English translations of Wagner's more substantial prose works. Out of this project grew the first of Ellis's chief undertakings, the eight-volume English translation of Richard Wagner's Prose Works (1892–9). His other major endeavour was the six-volume Life of Richard Wagner, which was initiated as ‘an English revision’ of the ‘authorized’ biography by C.F. Glasenapp, but which from the fourth volume omitted Glasenapp's name from the title-page, on the grounds that it had become Ellis's own work. The latter project – flawed, idiosyncratic, but containing a wealth of detail not available elsewhere – remained uncompleted: volume six takes the story only to ...


Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...


Albert Dunning

(b Rotterdam, 27/Oct 28, 1469; d Basle, July 12, 1536). North Netherlandish humanist. According to Glarean, Erasmus said that as a boy he sang in the choir at Utrecht under the direction of Jacob Obrecht. There is no archival evidence for this, and no extant documents show that Erasmus had any particular affinity with music. The familiarity with musical terminology implicit in his works may be attributed partly to the teaching of music customary within the framework of humanistic education. Erasmus’s text for the déploration for Johannes Ockeghem (composed by Johannes Lupi, first published in 1547) suggests from its tone of warm admiration that he was personally acquainted with the composer. Erasmus himself was honoured at his death with a dirge by Benedictus Appenzeller, court composer in Brussels to Queen Mary of Hungary.

As far as can be deduced from the various observations made by Erasmus in his writings (often only in passing) his outlook on music was based mainly on his own understanding of the world of antiquity. Thus, even in musical matters, Pliny, Plato and Aristotle are cited as his authorities. Another element that influenced his views on music was theological: his puritanism in music must be understood as a combination of his belief in biblical doctrine on the one hand, and his reaction to the abuses of contemporary church music on the other. He condemned the chansons of his day without exception on the grounds that they had obscene texts, and, following from this, the use of secular melodies as cantus firmi in sacred polyphony. He deplored the use of the organ in church, and considered that magnificent polyphonic music consorted ill with the monastic ideal of silence with which he was familiar from his student years in the Augustinian monastery at Steyn. He also strongly criticized the manners and behaviour of the singers. He called for ‘harmonias sacris dignas’, a ‘music worthy of holy things’; with this dictum he anticipated the statements on music made by several synods and provincial councils. The spirit of Erasmus’s ideas is fully reflected in the musical policy of the Council of Trent....


(b Kaluga, Nov 5, 1841; d Ligovo, nr St Petersburg, July 6, 1896). Russian music historian, critic and composer. He had well-to-do parents and studied natural sciences at St Petersburg University and music privately with M.L. Santis; from 1862 to 1864 he studied privately and at the Leipzig Conservatory with Moritz Hauptmann, E.F. Richter and Carl Riedel, and also (1864–5) studied instrumentation with Max Seifriz at Löwenberg. Returning to St Petersburg he was appointed professor of music history and aesthetics at the conservatory (1865–72); between 1869 and 1871 he edited the periodical Muzïkal′nïy sezon and later contributed to Bessel’s Muzïkal′nïy listok and other journals. From 1870 to 1880 he was secretary to the directorate of the Imperial Russian Musical Society. His four-act opera Sardanapal was produced in 1875 and the vocal score was published by Bessel, but it had so little success that his second opera, the four-act ...


Paula Morgan

revised by Jacquelyn Sholes

(b St. Paul, MN, April 20, 1933). American music critic. She studied journalism and music history at the University of Minnesota (BA 1954) and musicology at Columbia University (MA 1957); she earned a PhD in 1983 from the University of Minnesota for a dissertation on George Upton. In 1963 she began a four-decade music advisory and public affairs career with the Minnesota Orchestra. Her tasks included developing and editing the monthly program book, giving preconcert lectures, helping to establish the annual Sommerfest, and aiding with documentation of the orchestra’s history. She served on the Board of Directors of the Music Critics Association (1977–81) and as Vice President of the Metropolitan Opera in the Upper Midwest (until 1986). Since 1996 she has served as writer and speaker for the annual Grand Teton Music Festival. Her scholarly interests include theories of music criticism, music critics of the American West, and the history of music in Minnesota. Feldman has contributed to published histories of the Schubert Club International Artists Series and has written for publications including ...


Gerald Abraham

revised by Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b St Petersburg, Aug 5, 1868; d Leningrad, Sept 10, 1928). Russian musical journalist and historian. He studied at the Ye. Shreknik Commercial College in St Petersburg (1878–87). He gained his musical education at the K. Dannemann and N. Krivoshein Music School (1886–9), and studied counterpoint privately with Nikolay Sokolov (1890–92). Two years later he published, under the initials N.F., a short study of Verstovsky’s music. In 1894 he founded the monthly Russkaya muzïkal′naya gazeta, which was published weekly from 1899 until it ceased publication in 1917; the quality of its main contents – to say nothing of its concert notices, reviews and news – quickly earned it a unique position in Russian musical journalism. Findeyzen not only edited the Gazeta but contributed numerous biographical and critical articles on Russian musicians and music, and printed quantities of hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material, some (but by no means all) of which appeared later as books or pamphlets. In ...


Travis D. Stimeling

[Chester W., Jr. ]

(b Fort Worth, TX, Oct 21, 1943; d Nashville, TN, June 19, 2013). American music critic, biographer, and editor. With contemporaries Ed Ward, Martha Hume, Dave Hickey, and Alanna Nash, Flippo helped bring country music criticism to the mainstream press in the 1970s. He earned a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Sam Houston State University and a master’s degree in journalism from the University of Texas at Austin. As a freelance journalist and Rolling Stone Contributing Editor, he covered the progressive country music scene in Austin before being named Rolling Stone’s New York Bureau Chief (1974). From 1977 until 1980, he served as Senior Editor for Rolling Stone, using his position to significantly increase the magazine’s coverage of country music. During the 1980s Flippo wrote several book-length studies of country and rock artists, including Hank Williams (1981), the Rolling Stones (1985), and Paul McCartney (...