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Gerard Béhague

(b Rio de Janeiro, May 28, 1913; d Rio de Janeiro, Dec 12, 1992). Brazilian music critic. He graduated at the National School of Medicine (1934) and studied the piano at the National School of Music (diploma and gold medal, 1937); while continuing piano studies with Tomás Terán he completed the music teachers’ training course under Villa-Lobos. Subsequently he served as music critic for the Correio da Manhã (1944), professor of music education of the Guanabara state, member of the Cultural and Artistic Commission of Rio’s municipal theatre (1948), founder-member of the Brazilian Academy of Music (1945) and secretary-general of the National Music Commission of UNESCO (1960). He lectured on music history and music appreciation, and produced radio programmes for Radio MEC (Ministry of Education and Culture).

‘Carlos Gomes e a política do seu tempo’, Revista brasileira de música...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Warsaw, Aug 18, 1856; d Lemberg, Oct 30, 1912). Polish composer, choral director, teacher and critic. After graduating in piano and music theory from the music school of the Muza music society in Kraków (after 1867), he subsequently studied composition with F. Krenn at the Vienna Conservatory, and with Rheinberger and M. Sachs in Munich. From 1879 to 1881 he lived in Kraków, where he began his career as composer and critic. In 1882 he was conductor of the Andante Choir in Leipzig and associate répétiteur for the opera chorus in Weimar; here his songs came to the attention of Liszt. In 1883 he went to Italy to deepen his knowledge of the art of singing, and consulted various teachers including F. Lamperti. From the autumn of 1884 he was conductor of the Music Society in Lemberg, and at the end of 1888 he went to Dresden and Leipzig, where he became musical advisor to the publisher of his songs, Leuckart. From ...


Marco Beghelli

(b Perticara, Rimini, Oct 12, 1845; d Rimini, Dec 8, 1919). Italian critic, teacher and composer. He studied with Croff and Mazzucato at the Milan Conservatory, 1862–7, joining Garibaldi during the 1866 war against Austria, along with his fellow-students Marco Praga, Faccio and Boito. In Carnival 1865 his Cesare al Rubicone, a gran scena ed aria for baritone, chorus and orchestra, was successfully performed in Rimini, and on graduating he won the composition prize for his secular oratorio Espiazione (1867) to his own text after Moore’s Lalla Rookh. He then conducted the band in Amelia, Umbria, and was director of the music school in Finale Emilia, 1871–3 (several early works are extant in I-FEM , including a quartet, three symphonies, sacred music and the oratorio Cristo al Golgota, 1871).

Galli returned to Milan as music critic of Il secolo, published by Sonzogno. He took charge of Sonzogno’s music publishing, arranging vocal scores, translating French librettos and replacing spoken dialogue with recitative. He was responsible for a series of cheap editions and sat on the jury of Sonzogno’s opera competitions (which led to ...


Lesley A. Wright

(b Vaugirard, Paris, France, Feb 27, 1822; d Paris, France, April 1, 1878). French composer, teacher, and critic. At the Paris Conservatoire he studied the violin with Habeneck and composition with Halévy, winning the Second Prix de Rome in 1842. He played first violin at the Opéra (1838) and the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire (1847), and became assistant conductor at the Opéra-National (1847–8). His association with opera continued at the Théâtre Italien, where from about 1849 to 1852, and again from 1863 to 1864, he was chef des choeurs. The Opéra-National, and later the Théâtre Lyrique, presented most of Gautier’s early operas. His most popular work there, the opéra comique Flore et Zéphire (1852), had 126 performances as a curtain-raiser. Though some critics found the harmony complicated and the orchestration too rich, Berlioz praised the score’s freshness and skilful orchestration, and the elegant and lively style of the melodies. Gautier’s greatest success came with another light one-act opera, ...


Vjera Katalinić

(b Split, Croatia, July 17, 1951; d Split, May 14, 2011). Croatian musicologist and music critic. He graduated in music education from the Pedagogical faculty in Split (1972), in music theory at the Music Academy Sarajevo (1974), gained the Master’s degree in musicology there (1983), and took the PhD at the Zadar Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences with Stanislav Tuksar, with a dissertation on musical life in Split from the 18th century to the 20th (1995). He was employed at Radio Sarajevo (1975–87). From 1987 to 1997 he taught at the Faculty for Natural Sciences and Pedagogy in Split, and from 1997 until his death at the Academy of Arts in Split (dean: 2005–9). He was artistic director of several music festivals, including Sarajevo musical evenings (SVEM: 1982–6), Meeting of klapa ensembles in Klis, the Croatian Mandolin Festival ‘Mandolina Imota’ (which he also founded), Festival of the sacral music ‘Cro Patria’, Festival of the klapa singing in Omiš, and Musical Youth Split (...


(b St Petersburg, 7/March 19, 1840; d Moscow, 26 Sept /Oct 8, 1888). Russian teacher and critic. After studying with his father he entered the St Petersburg Conservatory at the age of 23, studying theory with Zaremba and orchestration with Anton Rubinstein. At the conservatory he formed a lifelong friendship with Tchaikovsky, a fellow student. After graduating from the conservatory in 1868 he was appointed director of the classes of the Imperial Russian Music Society in Kiev (1869–70); he also worked for a short time as an opera conductor in Odessa. In 1870 he became professor of music theory at the Moscow Conservatory, where he was the only witness to the disastrous occasion when Tchaikovsky played his First Piano Concerto to Nikolay Rubinstein. In 1881 he succeeded Rubinstein as director of the conservatory, but resigned two years later. However, he returned to the staff in ...


(b Göteborg, Dec 22, 1846; d Stockholm, March 11, 1925). Swedish conductor, composer, teacher and critic. Between 1866 and 1871 he studied in Leipzig with Reinecke, in Munich with Rheinberger and in Dresden with Rietz. He then returned to Göteborg, where he became conductor of the music society (1872–8); he later taught singing in Berlin (1879–83). Back in Sweden he was conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Stockholm (1885–95) and of the Royal Opera (1892–7), as well as founder and conductor of the South Swedish Philharmonic Society (1902–7). From 1909 to 1919 he taught composition at the Stockholm Conservatory.

Hallén’s compositions show an accomplished handling of formal elements and contain stylistic reminiscences of Swedish folk music and the works of other Swedish composers like Söderman. The salient feature of his style, however, and the one which strongly affected contemporary reaction, is its close, almost derivative relationship to German music. Wagner’s works and aesthetic ideas had a particularly strong and lasting influence on Hallén; his operas, although conceived with considerable dramatic skill, are largely dependent on Wagnerian models. As an enterprising and versatile conductor, he gave sympathetic performances of the Wagner operas and brought about performances of many choral masterpieces then almost unknown in Sweden, including the first Swedish performance of Bach's ...


John Bergsagel

(b Copenhagen, April 5, 1903; d Copenhagen, Nov 27, 1989). Danish writer on music and educator. After taking an organ diploma at the Royal Danish Conservatory (1924), he studied musicology at the University of Copenhagen (MA 1928). He taught music at the Copenhagen Choir School founded by Mogens Wöldike (1929–48), then at Aurehøj Gymnasium (1948–9) and at the College of Further Education for Teachers (1941–73), where he was appointed professor in 1969. Heerup was an active force in music education in Denmark in a variety of capacities: as author and editor of music textbooks and articles, as a member of the editorial board of the Folke- og Skolemusik series (1934–72), as a founder and chairman of the Danish Society for Music Therapy (1969) and as a member of numerous committees and governmental commissions. He was editor of ...


E. Van Der Straeten

revised by David Charlton

(b Nordhausen, June 19, 1780; d Göttingen, June 2, 1846). German musical educationist and writer. He was the nephew of Gottlieb Heinroth, a singer, harpist and composer. He received his early musical instruction from his father, organist of the Peterskirche, Nordhausen. At the universities of Leipzig (1798) and Halle (1800) he studied literature, theology and education. His second post (1804) was at Israel Jacobson’s boarding school at Seesen, where he taught and composed new devotional music for the Jewish communities of Kassel and Berlin. At this period hatred of the French occupation prompted him to write popular songs against Napoleon which were circulated in manuscript.

In 1818, on Forkel’s death, Heinroth was invited to become musical director of the University of Göttingen. His predecessor’s great reputation made this a demanding position, but from the beginning Heinroth showed considerable enterprise. He formed and directed a choral society, lectured in both music and theology, and in ...


Stefan Fricke

(b Teterow, June 8, 1932). German music journalist and composer. He studied privately comparative linguistics (with Roman Jacobson), philosophy and sociology (with Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Siegfried Kracauer), Marxist methodology, history, economics and urban planning. After working in several European countries and the USA he settled in 1957 in Cologne, where he met Gottfried Michael Koenig and Heinz-Klaus Metzger at the WDR electronic studios. Between 1957 and 1970 he attended the Darmstadt summer courses, where he also lectured. During the 1960s and 70s he wrote as a critic and a journalist on 20th-century music, focussing particularly on sociological issues. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bremen in 1974 and was visiting lecturer at the University of Illinois, 1976–8. He moved to New York in 1978 and returned to Cologne in 1988.

Helms’s writings reflect his commitment to the ideas of the Frankfurt School and concentrate on the sociological context within which musical events take place. His compositions have been described as ‘Sprachmusik’, or the attempt to cross the boundary between literary and musical ideas. He draws on different aspects of language – morphemes, phonemes, grammar, phonetics – to create new word units by using quasi-serial techniques (...


Ramona H. Matthews

(b Newark, NJ, Dec 4, 1855; d New York, June 5, 1937). American music critic. He was the son of a theatrical manager and was educated at Princeton (BA 1876, MA 1886, honorary LittD 1922). His musical training included piano lessons with Carl Langlotz (1868–73) and singing lessons with Angelo Torriano (1876–7); in music theory he was largely self-taught. He wrote for newspapers from the age of 15, and after leaving college served as a reporter on the New York Tribune, and as music critic for the New York Times (1887–1902) and the New York Sun (1902–37). He also lectured on music history at the New York College of Music (1889–95) and on the development of vocal art at the Institute of Musical Art (from 1904). A versatile writer, he provided the libretto for Walter Damrosch's opera ...


(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In 1083, as the result of a conspiracy, Henricus was expelled from Augsburg at the same time as his bishop, Wigold. He sought refuge in the monastery of St Mang in Füssen, where he died and was buried. There is insufficient evidence to confirm his identification with Honorius Augustodunensis (see Flint).

Henricus's teachings on music are assembled in a treatise entitled De musica. This survives only in a south German manuscript ( A-Wn cpv 51), which has a lacuna at the end of the treatise. The work is set out in the form of a dialogue between pupil and teacher, a very popular literary technique used two centuries earlier by the author of the ...


Brett Boutwell

(b Norfolk, VA, Feb 26, 1933). American music critic, journalist, and teacher. Holland majored in literature and philosophy at the University of Virginia (BA 1955). Thereafter he studied composition and piano at the Vienna Academy of Music, the Paris Conservatory, and in London. Holland taught piano in Pittsburgh between ...


Jiří Fukač

(b Martiněves, Jan 2, 1847; d Prague, Jan 19, 1910). Czech aesthetician and music critic. He studied law at the University of Prague (1865–6) and philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Munich, receiving a doctorate in 1868; in 1871 he was a pupil of Smetana. He was active as a critic and an editor of literary journals in Prague before his appointment as professor of aesthetics at the university there; he also lectured on music history at Prague Conservatory (1882–6).

In aesthetics his starting-point was Herbart’s abstract formalism, which then occupied a strong position in Prague. Opposing Herbart’s ideas, Hostinský proposed his so-called ‘concrete formalism’ and published monographs criticizing Herbart in 1881 and 1891. He emphasized the crucial roles of experience and experimentation, especially in O estetice experimentální (1900), at the same time paying attention to the social provenance of art; in studies published in ...


Martin Cooper


(b Oxford, April 2, 1891; d Standlake, Oxon., Sept 28, 1974). English critic, editor, lecturer and writer on music. He was educated at Oxford High School and St John’s College. After a period at the RCM he joined the staff of The Times in 1925 and succeeded H.C. Colles as chief music critic in 1943, a post which he held until 1960. He lectured on musical history and appreciation at the RCM (1938–70) and was Cramb Lecturer at Glasgow University in 1947 and 1952. He was awarded the FRCM and Hon RAM, and was made a CBE in 1954.

One of Howes’s chief interests found expression in his first book, The Borderland of Music and Psychology (1926), and again in Man, Mind and Music (1948). Another lifelong interest was reflected in Folk Music of Britain – and Beyond (1969) and in his editorship of the ...


Ilkka Oramo

(b Säkylä, Oct 26, 1822; d nr Uusikaupunki, March 3, 1868). Finnish composer, writer and critic. He studied classical philology and literature at the Imperial Alexander University of Helsinki, took his Master of Arts in 1843, worked as a teacher in Turku from 1847, lectured on music history and wrote novels, short stories and plays as well as reviews on music for several newspapers in Turku and Helsinki. As a composer he was self-taught, but nevertheless wrote the first symphony ever composed in Finland (1847). Its third movement (‘Scherzo finnico’) is in 5/4 metre, characteristic of Finnish rune singing, although it otherwise lacks the distinctive features of rune melodies. His opera Junkerns förmyndare (The Guardian of a Junker, N.H. Pinello, 1853) was based on a subject from 16th-century Finnish history, and he also wrote about 100 choruses and songs to Finnish poetry (J.L. Runeberg, Z. Topelius and others) as well as some German songs (Schiller, Heine). As one of the first representatives of Finnish national Romanticism and Biedermeier in music and as a pioneer of music criticism he has a place in Finnish music history....


(b Voronezh, 27 Nov/Dec 9, 1839; d Kazan′, 3/March 15, 1920). Russian critic and music teacher. Kashkin received his initial music education from his father, a bookseller who was a self-taught musician. By the age of 13 Kashkin was himself giving music lessons. In 1860 he moved to Moscow, where he studied the piano with Dubuque. His first critical writings appeared in the Moskovskiye vedomosti in 1862, and the following year Nikolay Rubinstein offered him a post as teacher of piano and theory in the music classes of the Moscow branch of the Russian Musical Society. When these developed into the Moscow Conservatory in 1866, Kashkin became a professor of theory, music history and piano, holding the appointment until 1896. In 1866 he also began a close friendship with Tchaikovsky. In addition to his personal teaching activities Kashkin published in 1875 a textbook on elementary music theory. This was one of the earliest books on the subject in Russian and remained a fundamental work in Russian music education for over half a century....


Philip Brett


(b London, April 3, 1924; d Berkeley, CA, March 17, 2014). American musicologist and critic. The son of an American journalist, he was educated at University College School, London, took the AB at New York University (1943) and the doctorate at Princeton University (1950), where he studied under Oliver Strunk, Randall Thompson and Carl Weinrich. After teaching at Westminster Choir College, Princeton (1949–51), he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley (assistant professor 1951, associate professor 1955, professor 1960), serving as chairman of the music department (1960–63, 1991–4). In 1971 he was appointed Heather Professor of Music at Oxford, returning to Berkeley in 1974. He has held Guggenheim and Fulbright fellowships, and visiting fellowships at Princeton (1956), All Souls, Oxford (1966), Cornell (1970) and Clare Hall, Cambridge (1971). He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Fairfield University, Connecticut (...


James Deaville

(Heinrich )

(b Brunswick, Sept 5, 1820; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 16, 1886). German pianist, composer, critic and teacher. He quickly developed as a pianist and was sent to Vienna, where he studied the piano with C.M. von Bocklet and theory with Sechter and Seyfried. After a further two years in Brunswick, he settled in 1845 in Königsberg, where he initially worked in the theatre and conducted the Singverein. From 1847 Köhler devoted himself exclusively to piano pedagogy and to writing about music. He was music critic for the Hartungsche Zeitung for almost 40 years (1849–86), and contributed to Signale from 1844 until his death. His correspondence articles from Königsberg for Brendel's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik brought him to the attention of Liszt and Wagner in 1852, but it was his first book, Die Melodie der Sprache (1853), that established him as one of the leading New German writers, a reputation substantiated by his many journal articles, newspaper reviews and books of the 1850s and 60s. He also proposed the idea behind the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, which he, Liszt and Brendel (among others) developed at the ...