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Don Harrán

( b Venice, 1571; d Venice, 1648). Italian rabbi, cantor and scholar . He was a cantor in the Scuola italiana (Italian synagogue), Venice, from 1607 until his death. He appears to have introduced some form of polyphony, probably improvised, into the synagogue at Ferrara in 1604. Erudite in Jewish and humanist studies, Modena composed more than 40 writings, on subjects as diverse as Hebrew language and grammar, lexicography, Jewish rites and customs, Kabbalah, alchemy and gambling, as well as various plays, prefaces and rabbinical authorizations, translations, editions, almost 400 poems, and a highly personal autobiography. Music occupied a central place in his life and thought. Among his extended responses to questions put to him in his capacity as a religious authority, he wrote two essays on music, specifically polyphony: the first (1605) legitimizes its use in Jewish prayer services and celebrations, as well as for study; the second (from later years) addresses the issue of whether it is permitted to repeat the name of God (in a single voice or between voices)....

Article

Don Harrán

(b c1530; d 1590). Rabbi and exegete . Music is treated at length in his sermon Higayon be-khinor (‘Strummings/Meditations on the Lyre’; ed. and Ger. trans. H. Schmueli, Tel Aviv, 1953), the first of 52 sermons in the collection Nefutsot yehudah (‘Judah's Dispersions’; Venice, 1589). In accordance with his belief that the origins of arts and sciences lie in ancient Israel, Moscato traces the beginnings of music to Jubal (not Pythagoras), recognizes the first ‘human’ musician as Moses (not Orpheus), explains the Hebrew origins of musical terms (‘music’ from mezeg, mixture or mood) and finds Hebrew prototypes for musica mundana, or the harmony of the spheres. The main theme pursued in a number of variations is ‘harmony’, which Moscato conceives in cosmic and musical terms. He implies that, in music, ‘harmony’ exists apart from the mode of its composition or realization: thus, by implication, harmony comprises monophony and polyphony, composed and improvised music, vocal and instrumental practices (‘and they will sing to the Lord with a lyre, with a lyre and a singing voice’). Since harmony is perfection, and perfection is consonance, Moscato develops the idea of the octave in its musical and spiritual applications: the octave as a perfect interval is paralleled by the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Simḥat Torah), marking the end of the annual reading of the Torah and its renewal; the study of Torah is the eighth science (beyond the ...

Article

Ramona H. Matthews

( b Hohenelbe [now Vrchlabí], Bohemia, Jan 10, 1889; d Bloomington, IN, Jan 8, 1972. American musicologist) of Czech-German descent , father of Bruno Nettl . He was educated at the German University in Prague, where he studied law (JurD 1913), musicology with Heinrich Rietsch (PhD 1915) and theory with Gerhard von Keussler. After military service in World War I he worked in Vienna under Adler. In 1920 he returned to Prague, where he taught at the German University and served temporarily as head of the musicological institute. In 1930, when it became clear that his Jewish origins would prevent permanent academic advancement, he became more active in journalism, and became music director for German radio in Czechoslovakia (1933). After the German occupation in 1939 he made his way to the USA, where he taught at the Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey, and in New York and Philadelphia. He was professor of musicology at Indiana University in Bloomington (...

Article

Miloš Velimirović

(b Prague, 1413; d after 1471). Czech theorist . He was the author of an encyclopedic work, Liber viginti artium, which includes a discussion of music as one of the arts. He was also known as Paulus de Praga and as Paulus Židek, the latter suggesting that he was of Jewish origin although he may have been brought up as a Christian. He studied in Vienna and in Padua but the claim of a stay in Bologna has not yet been documented. Between 1443 and 1447 Paulirinus taught liberal arts at Prague University. From 1451 to 1455 he was involved in studies as well as political events at Kraków and Breslau. After 1455 he apparently retired to Plzeň where, between 1459 and 1463, he wrote his voluminous encyclopedia in which, besides the liberal arts, he discussed zoology, mineralogy, medicine and metaphysics. The only known copy of this large manuscript is now in the Biblioteka Jagiellónska, Kraków (...

Article

(b 1542; d Mantua, 1612). Italian Jewish physician and writer on Hebrew antiquities. He discussed music, at great length, in his final work Shil ṭei ha-gibborim (‘Shields of Heroes’; Mantua, 1612), in which he glorified the ancient Temple, its architecture, its liturgy and its music. Ten of the 90 chapters are devoted to music. Portaleone conceived the music of the Levites after Italian Renaissance practices and humanist music theory: thus the discussion turns on polyphony, lute tablatures, contemporary instruments (in analogy to ancient ones, which are described in considerable detail), modes, the doctrine of ethos, simple and compound intervals and the differentiation between consonance and dissonance. He maintained that music in the Temple was a learned art, acquired after a rigorous course of training; it was notated, thus meant to be preserved; its performance was based on written sources. Portaleone acknowledged Judah Moscato as his teacher, although he noted that they conceived music differently: whereas Moscato spoke, generally, of number, harmony and ‘science’, treating music for its cosmological and spiritual connotations, his pupil was concerned with ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Berlin, Feb 3, 1921; d Lansing, MI, May 3, 2002). American musicologist of Dutch origin. He was educated in Berlin and Amsterdam, where his teachers included Henk Badings, Felix De Nobel, Marius Flothuis and Karel Philippus Bernet Kempers. During World War II he worked with Willy Rosen’s cabaret company and taught music education in the Belsen concentration camp, 1943–4. After emigrating to the USA he took the MA in 1949 from the New School for Social Research in New York and the PhD in 1955 from Columbia University, where he studied with Paul Henry Lang, Erich Hertzmann and William Mitchell. In 1948 he began teaching at the City College of New York. He held positions at Columbia University (lecturer, 1951–2), Hebrew Union School of Sacred Music (instructor, 1950–52), the University of Pennsylvania (assistant professor, 1952–5), the University of California, Berkeley (assistant professor, 1955–6) and the University of Oklahoma (associate professor, ...

Article

Lyudmila Rapatskaya

(Grigoriyevna)

(b Leningrad, April 16, 1946). Israeli musicologist of Russian origin. She was educated at the Leningrad State Conservatory (now the St Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov State Conservatory) under Sergey Slonimsky (MA 1969, PhD 1973, with a dissertation on the choral works of Bortnyans′ky). She also wrote a second doctorate dissertation at the Kiev State Conservatory on the Russian choral concerto (1989). She began her career teaching at the Novgorod Music College (1969–71), after which she moved to Moscow and worked at the Central State Public Library (1972–5), the Central Museum of Musical Culture (1975–83) and the Centre for Musical Information at the Composers Union of the USSR as assistant director (1983–7). After emigrating to Israel in 1990, she joined Bar-Ilan University as a researcher (1992) and in 1997 began working in the Archive for Israeli Music, Tel-Aviv University. Her main research field is 18th-century Russian music, in which she has written biographies of Berezovs′ky and Bortnyans′ky, has made pioneering studies in the genre of choral concerto and has revised the generic map of 18th-century Russian music, opposing the operocentric official picture. She has contributed to Soviet music studies with a monograph on Sergey Slonimsky and articles on other contemporary Russian-Soviet composers and has researched Israeli music, focussing on the impact of Russian nationalist tradition, and music in immigration societies....

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Shlomo]

(b Riga, March 27, 1878; d New York, July 31, 1962). Russian-Latvian musician and scholar of Hebrew Bible cantillation. His father was the noted Jewish cantor Baruch Leib Rosowsky (1841–1919). He studied composition under Rimsky-Korsakov, Glazunov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Imperial Conservatory and conducting under Nikisch at the Leipzig Konservatorium. After studying law in Kiev he returned to music; he was a co-founder of the St Petersburg Jewish Folk Music Society (1908) and started collecting and editing Jewish folksong and liturgical music. He served as music director at the Jewish Art Theatre in Petrograd (1917–19). In 1920 he left the Soviet Union for independent Latvia, where he directed music at a Riga theatre, was active as a music critic, and founded the Riga Jewish Conservatory of Music (1920). From 1925 to 1947 he lived in Palestine. He wrote incidental music for the Hebrew theatre, some chamber music, and popular songs, and emerged as a leading authority on the chanting of the Hebrew Bible. He initiated courses on Bible cantillation at the Palestine Conservatory of Music, Jerusalem (now the Rubin Academy of Music). In ...

Article

Robert Snarrenberg

(b Wisniowczyki, Galicia, June 19, 1868; d Vienna, Jan 13, 1935). Austrian theorist. While at the Gymnasium in Lemberg (now L’viv), he studied piano with Karol Mikuli, a pupil of Chopin. Following the wishes of his father, a Jewish physician, he went to Vienna to study law at the university (1884–8). While completing his law degree he enrolled in the conservatory (1887–9), where he studied the piano with Ernst Ludwig and harmony with Bruckner. After withdrawing from the conservatory to support his widowed mother and sister and brother, he met with modest success in Vienna as an accompanist, composer, critic and editor. He regularly accompanied the Dutch baritone Johannes Messchaert. After the turn of the century, however, he focussed on writing, editing and private piano teaching. This work attracted the attention of musicians and students: Wilhelm Furtwängler, impressed by Schenker’s treatise on Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony (...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Aladar]

(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...

Article

Ingrid Monson

(b Houston, March 26, 1948). American ethnomusicologist . She completed the BA, MA and PhD at the University of Michigan, where she took the doctorate in 1977 under W.P. Malm. She was appointed assistant professor of music at Columbia University (1977) and New York University (1981), and professor at Wesleyan University (1990), prior to being made chair of the music department at Harvard University in 1992. She is editor of the series The Garland Library of Readings in Ethnomusicology. Her principal areas of research include the music and history of the Falasha of Ethiopia, the notation system of the Ethiopian Christian church, the cultural intermingling of Jewish and Arabic musics in the Syrian Jewish community, and the relationship of music and memory. Shelemay’s discovery that contemporary Jewish identity among the Falasha is an artefact of 19th-century contact with Jewish travellers, rather than the result of an unbroken historical link to ancient Judaism, is an important but controversial contribution to the field. She is also known for her thoughtful works on fieldwork and its relationship to historical investigation....

Article

Philip V. Bohlman

(b Lanus, Argentina, Sept 28, 1928; d July 11, 2014). Israeli musicologist. Of Syrian-Jewish origin, he emigrated to Palestine in 1941 and devoted himself first to a career as a flautist. Studies with Uri Toeplitz at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (1952–4), and at the Paris Conservatoire (1954–5) were followed by a position in the Israel Broadcasting SO (1958–60). Formal ethnomusicological studies took place in Jerusalem (Hebrew University, MA 1960, Hebrew and Arabic literature and biblical studies) and Paris (Sorbonne, PhD 1963, musicology and oriental sciences). After heading the folklore department of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (1965–9), he joined the musicology department at the Hebrew University, where he taught throughout the remainder of his career (senior lecturer, 1969–71; department chair 1971–4; associate professor, 1971–8; professor, 1978–96; emeritus professor, 1996). Important administrative posts at the Hebrew University (director of the Jewish Music Research Center, ...

Article

Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell and Judith Crispin

[Lazarus]

Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...

Article

Theodore Levin

(b Detroit, March 15, 1943). American ethnomusicologist . He received the BA (1964) and the PhD (1969) at Michigan University, the latter under W.P. Malm. In 1971 he was appointed to the faculty of Wesleyan University, where he was made professor in 1984. He served as editor of Asian Music (1972–87) president of the Society for Asian Music (1987–9) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1989–91). The focus of his early work was the music of Central Asia, particularly of northern Afghanistan, where he conducted fieldwork (1967–8, 1971 and 1972). In the mid-1970s he turned his attention to Eastern European Jewish music, concentrating on music found in the USA. His ethnographic work on Yiddish songs, Yiddish theatre, Klezmer musicians and cantors was complemented by research and writing on the theory and method of ethnomusicology. He has been in the forefront of efforts to forge links between ethnomusicology and sister disciplines such as folklore, performance studies, anthropology, sociolinguistics and cultural studies; he has also made documentary videos and directed theatre projects. As an educator, he has played a key role in the development of the World Music Program at Wesleyan University and its model of a ‘world music community’. He has also worked to open up a dialogue with scholars in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe....

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

[Yehoyachin]

(b Romny, Ukraine, Feb 7, 1891; d Tel-Aviv, 1981). Israeli cellist, composer and scholar. His father was a klezmer musician. Stutschewsky studied the cello at the Leipzig Conservatory (1909–12). After returning to Russia, he was soon smuggled to the border to avoid forced conscription. A difficult period as an impoverished cellist in Paris and Jena followed. In 1914 he moved to Zürich where he met Joel Engel and became active performing Jewish music. He settled in 1924 in Vienna, where he became for a time the cellist in the celebrated Kolisch Quartet, which gave first performances of works by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. He published articles in Jewish periodicals, mostly Die Stimme, corresponded with colleagues in Jerusalem and was involved with the founding of the World Centre for Jewish Music in 1937. A dedicated pedagogue, he also wrote a treatise on cello playing.

In 1938, immediately after the Nazi Anschluss, Stutschewsky and his wife Julia, a soprano, emigrated to Palestine. He was appointed inspector for Jewish music by the general council that ran the Jewish autonomy under British mandate. Despite the dismal economic situation, he organized concerts of Jewish folk and art music in Tel-Aviv, which he funded himself. He also presented lecture-recitals throughout the country, using his travels to collect and transcribe Hassidic tunes. He founded a string quartet with Kaminsky, leader of the Palestine Orchestra, and performed piano trios with Taube....

Article

Christian Poché

(b Nazareth, Dec 12, 1934; d Berlin, Aug 10, 1998). German ethnomusicologist and composer of Palestinian birth. He studied piano and theory at the Haifa Conservatory and composition at the Israel Academy of Music, Tel-Aviv, with Alexander Boscovich. In 1964 he received a scholarship from the Deutscher akademischer Ausauschdienst which brought him to Berlin, where he studied ethnomusicology at the Free University with Kurt Reinhard and obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on Arab music theory. From 1969 until its closure in 1997, Tūma worked for the Institute for Traditional Music, which published many of his short articles, reviews and interviews in its journal World of Music. He was also able to pursue private academic projects and study trips in south Turkey, Iraq and Bahrain. He initially analysed the maqām technique of improvisation, developing a theory of the non-temporal ‘tonal spatial component’ in its organization; later in life, he studied the contemporary role of the Arabic musician as well as the Moroccan ...

Article

Eric Werner and Don Harrán

[Ugolino, Biagio]

(b Venice, c1700; d Venice, 1771). Italian theorist. He may originally have been Jewish, though apostatized, eventually becoming a monk in the Franciscan order. As a scholar of Hebrew and other ancient languages, he was well qualified to compile and edit a vast anthology of writings, mainly by 17th- and 18th-century Christian authors, including himself, on Jewish antiquities, named Thesaurus antiquitatum sacrarum (Venice, 1744–69). Amounting to 34 volumes in folio, the compilation includes Latin translations of numerous tractates from the Mishnah, the Babylonion and Palestinian Talmud and rabbinical writings. Volume xxxii (1767) is entirely dedicated to learned disquisitions on biblical music and related topics; it contains 46 essays (in Latin), many of them excerpts from larger treatises, by 34 scholars, among whom the names of Marin Mersenne, Athanasius Kircher, Augustin Calmet and Augustus Pfeiffer indicate the breadth of Ugolinus's reading. Of special importance is Ugolinus's own Latin translation of the polyhistor Abraham Portaleone's ...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Sue Carole DeVale

(b Berlin, March 8, 1907; d Tisbury, Wilts., July 17, 1984). British ethnomusicologist of German birth . After reading law for four years at his father’s urging, he studied musicology at the University of Berlin with Blume and Schering and comparative musicology with Hornbostel and Sachs (1930–32). In spite of a Lutheran upbringing, he was prohibited as a person of Jewish background from attending German universities after 1933. He moved to Switzerland in 1934 and took the doctorate under Fellerer at the University of Fribourg in 1935 with a ground-breaking dissertation on pre-Gregorian chant. Forced to leave Germany permanently in 1936, he fled to London and enrolled at the London School of Oriental and African Studies for work in linguistics, notably on the Bantu languages. He moved with his wife to Uganda in 1937 and spent several years supervising missionary education. He was then appointed curator of the Uganda Museum, Kampala (...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Vienna, Aug 1, 1901; d New York, July 28, 1988). American musicologist of Austrian birth . He attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (graduated 1924) and the universities of Berlin, Graz, Göttingen, Prague and Vienna, simultaneously studying composition (with Busoni, Reitsch and Schreker), musicology (with Adler, Fischer, Lach, Ludwig, Sachs, Schünemann and Wolf) and Judaic studies. He took the doctorate in musicology (Strasbourg, 1928), with Théodore Gérold. Werner taught at Saarbrücken Conservatory (1926–33) and the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (1935–8).

In 1938 he fled the Nazi regime, emigrating to the USA where in 1939 he joined the faculty at Hebrew Union College (Cincinnati) as A.Z. Idelsohn’s successor. There he drew upon the magnificent Eduard Birnbaum collection for his early research on Jewish music. At Cincinnati he conceived the idea for a school of sacred music in New York to be linked with the Jewish Institute of Religion (founded in ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Łódź, April 16, 1893; d New York, Sept 6, 1981). American musicologist of Polish birth . After studying the piano with Jacob Weinberg in Moscow, he attended the Imperial School of Commerce (graduating in 1912) and the Moscow Conservatory (MA 1917), where he studied the piano with Alexander Goedicke, organ with Leonid Sabaneyev and theory with M. Morozov. While directing the conservatory's organ department (1918–20), he served as organist for the Bol′shoy and occasionally performed at the Moscow Art Theatre; he then worked as a lecturer for the Siberian Board of Education (1920–21) and music director of the Shanghai Songsters’ Choral Society (1921–2). He emigrated to the USA in 1923 and, following a concert tour, he settled in New York, working as organist at the Free Synagogue (1927–8), Temple Emanu-El (1928–9) and as organist and choirmaster at Temple Rodeph Sholem (...