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William D. Gudger

revised by Andrew D. McCredie

(b Ampfing, Upper Bavaria, Oct 22, 1885; d Frankfurt, May 30, 1935). German composer and editor. The son of a school teacher and organist, he attended the Munich Academy of Music where he studied with Rudolf Louis, Joseph Rheinberger and others. From 1913 he was an editor and adviser with Schott of Mainz, for whom he compiled Das Buch der Motive (Maine, 1921), which became a standard source for identifying Wagner’s leitmotifs. After military service, he taught theory and piano in Wiesbaden; two years before his death he was appointed director of the Mainz Music School. His music is in the late-Romantic tradition. In addition to orchestral works in conventional genres, he wrote two grandiloquent sacred works: the Missa symphonica (1926) and the Requiem (1929). His small piano pieces (op.37) adopt certain modern trends, inviting comparison with Bartók’s Mikrokosmos.

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Michael Remson

(b Philadelphia, PA, 1837; d Philadelphia, PA, 1918). American composer and publisher. He was the younger brother of Septimus Winner (1827–1902). He followed his older brother into Philadelphia’s growing music publishing business. Evidence suggests Septimus gave his brother a job, possibly as early as 1845. Septimus and Joseph had a contentious relationship, with Septimus permitting his brother to rejoin the business at least once after a separation for unknown causes. By 1854, Joseph opened his own business and maintained it until 1895; his son ran it until 1918. Joseph and Septimus reconciled at least one other time, sharing business locations from 1885 to 1887. Family records describe Joseph’s jealousy of his brother’s compositional successes and, using his middle name as a pseudonym, he published at least 25 songs prior to his 1869 success, Little Brown Jug. By his retirement, he had published well over 50 songs under the Eastburn moniker....


Nicholas E. Tawa

(b Philadelphia, May 11, 1827; d Philadelphia, Nov 22, 1902). American composer, teacher and publisher . His parents were Joseph Eastburn Winner, a violin maker, and Mary Ann Winner (née Hawthorne), a relative of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Largely self-educated in music, he played and taught several instruments. Around 1845 Winner became a music publisher and opened a music store with his brother Joseph. He was active in Philadelphia’s music circle and was a member of the Musical Fund Society, in whose orchestra he played for five years, the Cecillian Musical Society, and the Philadelphia Brass Band.

Winner wrote many simple and highly popular pieces, arrangements and instruction methods for different instruments. He is best known for his songs issued under the pseudonym Alice Hawthorne, which spawned the genre known as ‘Hawthorne Ballads’. Other pseudonyms were Percy Guyer, Mark Mason and Paul Stenton. Recognition came with How sweet are the roses...


Bernd Baselt and Karl-Ernst Bergunder

(b Altenburg, c1660; d Gotha, April 3, 1717). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was first taught music by his father, Johann Ernst Witt, who was Altenburg court organist in succession to Gottfried Scheidt and had come from Denmark when a Danish princess married into the ruling house of Saxe-Altenburg about 1650. The Altenburg male heirs having all died out, the succession passed in 1672 to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Friedrich I, who, probably in 1676, gave Witt a scholarship to study in Vienna and Salzburg. He also paid for him to study composition and counterpoint with G.C. Wecker in Nuremberg in 1685–6. On 1 June 1686 Witt was appointed chamber organist at the Gotha court. In 1688 he was again sent to study with Wecker. In 1694 he was appointed substitute for the Kapellmeister, W.M. Mylius, and he succeeded him after his death, in 1713...


Walter Blankenburg

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Nov 19, 1534; d Strasbourg, Sept 11, 1592). German mathematician, music editor, ?composer and writer on music . From 1553 he studied at the Viadrina at Frankfurt an der Oder, where he was a pupil of the mathematician Helias Camerarius. In 1555 his name appeared, as ‘David Nephelius Wratislaviensis’, in the matriculation register of the University of Wittenberg. From at least 1568 until his death he was a teacher of mathematics and a Kantor at Strasbourg. He is of musical interest for his editing of two volumes of psalms: Psalmen: mit 4 Stimmen zu singen in den Kirchen und Schulen in Strassburg (Strasbourg, 1577) and Psalmen für Kirchen und Schulen auff die gemeine Melodeyen syllaben weiss zu 4 Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583), as well as Die teutsche Litanei: für Kirchen und Schulen zu vier Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583). According to Zahn the first collection of psalms is based principally on old melodies, most of which are in the tenor part. The second contains mainly melodies from Strasbourg and from the Bohemian Brethren, which are in the cantus part. It includes nine unidentified tunes fashioned on definite rhythmic models and thus related to the reformed psalter; Wolkenstein may have written them himself. The second collection can profitably be seen as a link between the French psalter and Lucas Osiander's ...



Nym Cooke

(b Northboro [now Northborough], MA, July 30, 1752; d Northboro, MA, Aug 6, 1804). American composer and tunebook compiler. He worked as a fuller of cloth, served as tax assessor and captain of a militia company, and led a local choir in Northboro. He was a drummer and later a member of the Committee of Correspondence during the Revolution, and several of his compositions relate to that conflict. The magnificent Warren, an elegy for the patriot Joseph Warren, is one of 27 pieces by Wood in his and Joseph Stone’s The Columbian Harmony (Boston, n.d. [1793]). A Hymn on Peace, published independently in 1784, was sold by William Billings, among others. The Funeral Elegy on the Death of General George Washington (1800), also issued separately, was also later adapted and sung after the death of President W.H. Harrison in 1841.

Wood compiled one tunebook on his own, ...


Robert M. Copeland

(b Beverly, MA, Oct 23, 1819; d Columbia, SC, Oct 26, 1858). American composer, editor, teacher and writer. He studied music in Boston, London and Paris. On his return he worked as a private teacher, church organist and choral conductor. His first musical publications were tune books compiled in collaboration with his cousin Benjamin F. Baker, with whom he also formed the National Musical Convention, a training school for teachers.

During the 1840s and 50s Woodbury travelled extensively as a choral conductor and baritone soloist. He was organist at Marlborough Chapel, Boston (1843–4), and from 1846 to 1848 was corresponding editor of the World of Music. He was organist at Rutgers Street Church, New York (1850–51); he also edited the American Monthly Musical Review (1850–53) and the New York Musical Pioneer (1855–8). His health began to fail in the 1850s and he spent his final years struggling against tuberculosis; he visited Europe and the Mediterranean in ...


Hermann J. Busch

(b Cattaro [now Kotor], Dalmatia, June 13, 1863; d Vienna, Oct 22, 1943). Austrian church musician, composer and editor. After studying at the Vienna Conservatory (1880–82), where his teachers included Franz Krenn, he held several teaching and church music positions in Vienna. He also worked as an editor for Universal Edition (1908–31), edited Musica divina (1913–34) and was co-editor of Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (from 1925). Among other projects, he prepared piano scores of Mahler’s symphonies for publication and edited works by Bruckner. As a composer, he wrote primarily Catholic sacred music; his works show the influence of the Cecilian movement and the music of Bruckner, with whom he had many personal contacts.

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(b Frankenhausen, Thuringia, May 1, 1726; d Brunswick, Jan 30, 1777). German poet and editor . After law studies at Leipzig and Göttingen he became a teacher at the Carolineum at Brunswick in 1748, being appointed to a chair in 1761. Der Renommiste, Zachariä’s most famous work, a comic epic in the manner of Boileau and Pope, was published when he was only 18. He also wrote much lyric verse of various kinds, and tales that enjoyed considerable popularity. His lyrics were frequently set to music in the 18th century, and of his larger works Die Pilgrime auf Golgatha was set by Albrechtsberger and others, and Die Auferstehung, Das befreite Israel and Die Tageszeiten (in the manner of James Thomson) by Telemann. Zachariä also composed, earning warm praise for his Sammlung einiger musikalischen Versuche (Leipzig, 1760–61, enlarged 2/1768) from Hiller, Marpurg and others. His Zwey schöne neue Mährlein...