(b Sydney, March 21, 1961). Australian conductor. She studied composition and piano at the NSW Conservatorium and made her conducting début at the Sydney Opera House in 1985. In 1987 she was engaged as an assistant conductor at the Cologne Opera, and in 1993 was appointed Kapellmeister at the Berlin Staatsoper. Young has been the first woman to conduct at the Vienna Volksoper (1992) and Staatsoper (1993), the Opéra-Bastille (1993) and the Staatsoper in Munich (1995). Other important débuts have included Covent Garden (with a highly praised Rigoletto, 1994), the Metropolitan Opera (with La bohème, 1995), and the Munich PO (1996). Her repertory extends from Mozart to contemporary music, with special emphasis on Wagner and Strauss, and her performances have been acclaimed for their exciting theatricality. In 1997 Young embarked on a Ring cycle at the Vienna Staatsoper, and in ...
revised by Richard Wigmore
(b Chicago, Aug 8, 1900; d Palm Springs, CA, Nov 10, 1956). American composer, conductor and violinist. He began to play the violin at the age of six, and four years later went to live with his grandfather in Warsaw, where he studied at the conservatory. He made his début as a soloist with the Warsaw PO in 1917. In 1920 he returned to the USA, and the following year made his American début at Orchestra Hall in Chicago. Between 1922 and 1929 he was a leader in movie theatres, a musical supervisor of vaudeville productions, a violinist and arranger for Ted Fiorito’s orchestra, and the assistant musical director of the Balaban and Katz theatre chain.
He first worked for radio in 1929, and in 1931 became musical director for Brunswick Records, where in 1932 he arranged and conducted several selections from Show Boat with soloists, chorus and orchestra; released on four discs, it was the first American album ever made from the score of a Broadway musical. In ...
(b Chicago, IL, 8 Aug 1900; d Palm Springs, CA, 10 Nov 1956). Composer, conductor, and violinist. He began to play the violin at the age of six and four years later went to live with his grandfather in Warsaw, where he studied at the conservatory. He made his debut as a soloist with the Warsaw PO in 1917. In 1920 he returned to the United States and the following year made his American debut at Orchestra Hall in Chicago. Between 1922 and 1929 he was a leader in movie theaters, a musical supervisor of vaudeville productions, a violinist and arranger for Ted Fiorito's orchestra, and the assistant musical director of the Balaban and Katz theater chain.
He first worked for radio in 1929 and in 1931 became music director for Brunswick Records, where in 1932 he arranged and conducted several selections from Show Boat with soloists, chorus, and orchestra; released on four discs, it was the first American album made from the score of a Broadway musical. In ...
(b Liège, July 16, 1858; d Brussels, May 12, 1931). Belgian violinist, conductor and composer. His first music teacher was his father, a violinist (a pupil of François Prume) and conductor of amateur music societies. Ysaÿe began studying with Désiré Heynberg at the Liège Conservatory in 1865, but he was an unsettled child and his attendance irregular, so that the lessons with Heynberg were discontinued in 1869. However, he returned to the Conservatory in 1872 and joined Rodolphe Massart's class. He was unanimously adjudged co-winner with Guillaume Remy of the Conservatory's silver medal in 1874, and also won a bursary which enabled him to take lessons with Henryk Wieniawski in Brussels and then study with Henry Vieuxtemps in Paris. Four years spent attending lectures and concerts in the French capital helped him to make useful artistic contacts. In 1879 he became leader of the Bilse orchestra in Berlin and he stayed there until ...
(b Verviers, March 2, 1865; d Nice, March 24, 1918). Belgian composer, pianist and conductor, younger brother of Eugène(-Auguste) Ysaÿe. He studied at the Liège Conservatoire from 1876 to 1880, and in 1881 joined his brother in Berlin, where he studied wilh Kullak at the Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, and where he became acquainted with Laforgue. In 1885 the Ysaÿe brothers settled in Paris, and there Théophile studied composition with Franck. His brother’s accompanist, he began a career as a virtuoso in 1886 and was professor of the piano at the Geneva Académie de Musique (1889–1900). Back in Belgium he took an active part in his brother’s Concerts Ysaÿe, principally as the rehearsal conductor. His own music is close to Debussy in detail and to Franck in conception. His symphonic poem Les abeilles was inspired by Maeterlinck’s La vie des abeilles. Its style is Impressionist in the flowing melodic lines, the play of sonorities and the poetic atmosphere that predominates in all three movements....
James M. Burk
(b Lemberg [now L'viv, Ukraine], Aug 31, 1864; d St. Louis, MO, Feb 3, 1921). American conductor and violist, trained in Austria. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory from 1880 to 1886 and also played violin in the Austrian Army. He then came to the USA, becoming the first violist in the Boston SO (1886–1907) and the viola player in the Adamowski Quartet (1889–1906). He conducted (with others) the Boston “pops” concerts from 1895 to 1902 and from 1905 to 1907. With Emil Mollenhauer, he conducted the Boston Band at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (1904). He was invited to become the conductor of the orchestra of the St. Louis Choral-Symphony Society in 1907 when it became a professional orchestra. During Zach’s first season the ensemble, renamed the St. Louis SO, increased in size from 52 to 64 players and was developed into a disciplined ensemble. Zach also increased the number of its subscription concerts. He was a masterly program builder and included many modern works in the orchestra’s concerts, among them 45 symphonic compositions by 26 American composers, and some American and world premières; he also presented the complete cycle of Beethoven’s symphonies in ...
(b Waging, Nov 13, 1942). German conductor . He was a member of the Regensburg Boys’ Choir, and studied conducting in Munich and Essen and with Swarowsky in Vienna, as well as with Kertész, Karajan and Maderna. He won international prizes in Rome and Milan and worked at opera houses in Salzburg, Kiel and Darmstadt, 1967–73. After working as chief conductor of the Austrian RSO, 1982–5, he was music director at the Paris Opéra, 1986–8, where he conducted the première of Höller’s Der Meister und Margarita (1989), in which his expert direction of a complex score was much admired. He is also noted for Berg’s Wozzeck and Lulu, and his close connection with contemporary works (including Zimmermann’s Die Soldaten) extends to the Ensemble InterContemporain in Paris and the London Sinfonietta. His British opera début was with the Glyndebourne Touring Opera’s Le nozze di Figaro (1984...
(b Frýdek-Místek, Feb 5, 1939). Czech composer and conductor. He studied the violin and composition at the Brno Conservatory (1956–61), then composition with Kapr at the Janáček Academy; his graduation piece was the one-act opera Fraška o kádi (A Farce about the Tub). Thereafter he was a pupil of Bialas at the Hochschule in Munich (1968–70) and of Dvořáček at the Prague Academy of Musical Arts (1974–9). For many years Zámečník was a violinist with the Janáček Opera and the Brno State PO. In 1982 he became founder-director of the Brno Brass Band, an ensemble for which he and other Czech composers have written numerous pieces and arrangements. From 1989 to 1994 he was dramaturge of the opera at the National Theatre in Brno (until 1991 State Theatre of Brno, 1991–93 Regional Theatre of Brno). He was president of the board of the Copyright Union Fund (...
revised by Lennart Hedwall
(b 1753; d Stockholm, Feb 21, 1796). Swedish conductor, violinist, viola player and composer. His father, the bassoonist and oboist Johan David Zander (1714–74), moved from Germany to Stockholm as a member of the orchestra of Prince Adolphus Frederik, who acceded to the Swedish throne in 1743. The younger Johan joined the orchestra as a violinist in 1772, rose to third Konzertmeister in 1787 and deputy Konzertmeister the next year, a post he held until his death. As a solo violinist, viola player and conductor he frequently appeared in concerts in Stockholm. He taught the violin at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music from 1785 and at the Opera school from 1786; he became a member of the Academy in 1786.
After his first published works, the two violin solos (1781), Zander composed theatre music in which he emulated the style of French opéra comique...
John C.G. Waterhouse
(b Monticelli d’Ongina, Piacenza, Sept 26, 1873; d Pesaro, Jan 9, 1949). Italian composer, conductor and pianist. He studied with Bottesini and others at the Parma Conservatory. In 1890 he first conducted the orchestra of the Teatro Regio di Parma. From 1893 to 1900 he was in South America, at first as substitute conductor in Marino Mancinelli’s opera company, then independently as a pianist. He directed the Parma Conservatory (1903–5) and the Liceo Musicale, Pesaro (1905–40).
Some of Zanella’s earlier pieces were considered adventurous in their day, especially in their rhythmic freedom: the intriguing Due studi op.44 dispense entirely with bar-lines, as do the opening and closing sections of the evocative, Leopardi-inspired Il passero solitario. Moreover his unpublished compositions of the period include some (mostly piano pieces gathered under the general title L’arte del fare il nuovo and described as ‘composizioni burlesche, avveniristiche’) which were deliberately freakish, with nonsense titles paralleling those of Satie. Later he became, on the whole, more staid and conformist – overproductive and often lapsing into a rather prolix academicism, out of touch with contemporary trends. Even the would-be-modish ...