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(b nr Kharkiv, 27 Sept/Oct 9, 1863; d New York, Dec 8, 1945). Ukrainian pianist and conductor . He studied the piano at the Moscow Conservatory with Zverev from 1871 and with Nikolay Rubinstein, Taneyev, Tchaikovsky and Hubert from 1875, graduating with a gold medal in 1881. He worked with Liszt in Weimar (1883–6), co-founded the Liszt-Verein in Leipzig, and made his professional début there in 1883. Returning in 1887, he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where his students included Goldenweiser, Maksimov and his cousin Rachmaninoff. In this period he began work as editor for Tchaikovsky, particularly on the first and second piano concertos. He left the conservatory in May 1891 and from 1892 to 1900 lived and toured in western Europe. He also toured New York, Boston, Cincinnati and Chicago in 1898. From 1901 to 1903 Ziloti directed the Moscow PO; from 1903 to 1917...

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Charles Barber

(Joel)

(b New York, July 10, 1936). American conductor. After early violin studies at the Oberlin Conservatory he studied theory and composition at the University of Minnesota and took up conducting at Tanglewood. He then worked in Maine with Monteux (1958–62), serving as his assistant from 1961 to 1964. Zinman was principal conductor of the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra from 1965 to 1977, music director of the Rochester PO from 1974 to 1985 and chief conductor of the Rotterdam PO from 1979 to 1982. After two years as principal guest conductor, Zinman was appointed music director of the Baltimore SO in 1985, a position he held until 1998. With that orchestra he made important recordings (including a series of Schumann symphonies and much American music) and transformed a regional ensemble into a leading American institution, his musical strengths complemented by an engaging manner, a deep commitment to music education and community relations, deft use of the media and self-deprecating humour (‘I am the Mel Brooks of the violin’, he once declared). He has also appeared with leading orchestras and festivals in the USA, Canada and Europe. Zinman has given numerous premières at Baltimore and elsewhere, including works by Adams, Bolcom, Danielpour, Daugherty, Kernis, Kirchner, Rouse and Torke. His recording of Gorecki’s Symphony no.3 with the London Sinfonietta was an international bestseller. Zinman became music director of the Zürich Tonhalle Orchestra in ...

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Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Lada Duraković

(b Sovinjak, nr Buzet, June 1, 1910; d Pula, Oct 27, 1993). Croatian conductor, composer, and musical pedagogue. He received the degree in composition in 1934 at the Music Academy in Zagreb. Until 1941 he worked as city kapelmaster and director of the Music School in Sušak. From 1941 until the war he worked at the Croatian State Conservatory in Zagreb and led the Croatian Choral Society ‘Lisinski’. During the war years he conducted the choir of the Central Theatre Troupe of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH). From 1946 he worked as conductor of the choir of the Radio-television, music editor of Radio Zagreb, and professor of conducting at the Music Academy. From 1965 until his death he lived in Pula. He worked as director of the School of Music ‘Ivan Matetić Ronjgov’, research associate and ethnomusicologist of the North Adriatic Institute of Jugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (JAZU), taught at the Academy of Pedagogy, and collected folk-music material....

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Deane L. Root

(b Leipzig, July 4, 1854; d Freiburg, May 8, 1941). German conductor and composer, son of Carl Friedrich Zöllner. He studied music at the Leipzig Conservatory (1875–7) under Reinecke, Jadassohn and E.F. Richter, and in 1878 was appointed director of music at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia). In 1885 he became a staff member of the Cologne Conservatory, and began directing the male choral society. From 1890 to 1898 he lived in the USA, where he conducted the Deutscher Liederkranz in New York; his festival cantata Die neue Welt was awarded a prize at the 1892 Cleveland Sängerfest. On his return to Leipzig, he succeeded Kretzschmar as director of music at the university and conducted the Paulus male choir; in 1902 he was Reinecke’s successor as professor of composition at the conservatory, and from 1903 music editor of the Leipziger Tageblatt. He resigned his Leipzig positions in ...

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Geoffrey Norris

(b Venice, c1715; d ?Venice, after 1781). Italian musician. In 1739 his opera Lucio Papirio dittatore was performed in Graz by Pietro Mingotti’s Italian opera company. On 21 November 1745 he was appointed deputy Kapellmeister to the Bonn court of Archbishop Clemens August of Cologne. He held this post until 1752, and then, probably working with Locatelli’s touring opera company, went to Prague, where in 1753 his opera Il Vologeso was performed. In 1757 he arrived in St Petersburg, producing his opera Didone abbandonata in 1758 and La Galatea two years later. He was appointed deputy conductor of the Italian opera under Raupach, and was subsequently promoted to conductor. He is thought to have succeeded to the directorship of the imperial chapel choir after Galuppi left Russia in 1768. In 1781 Zoppis himself left St Petersburg and probably returned to Italy. Among his other works are a setting of Metastasio’s oratorio ...

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George Leotsakos

(b Sparta, Feb 23, 1905; d Athens, Dec 22, 1987). Greek composer and conductor. He studied the violin at the Athens and Hellenic conservatories (1919–24), conducting with Boutnikoff and Mitropoulos and composition with Lavrangas and Riadis. His studies were continued with Kalomiris at the National Conservatory (1926–38) and at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers in conducting were Gmeindl, Schmalstich and F. Stein, and in composition, Blacher, Grabner and Höffer. Zoras was conductor of the Greek National State Opera (1948–58) and at the Deutsche Oper and RIAS radio in Berlin (1958–68). He was appointed director of the Athens National Conservatory in 1968. Although a composer of Kalomiris’s circle, Zoras had little in common with his teacher stylistically. His earlier compositions, such as Thrylos (‘Legend’, 1936), show an almost Ravelian treatment of folk material, with spare harmonies. Later works, including the Symphony (...

Article

Juan María Veniard

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 11, 1935; d Buenos Aires, Aug 25, 1999). Argentine and Italian composer and conductor. He studied in Buenos Aires at the Municipal Conservatory (1947–51), composition with Gilardi at the National Conservatory (1952–7) and conducting with Mariano Drago at the National University of La Plata (1957–65). From 1965–7 he studied in Italy, at the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome (composition with Petrassi) and at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena (conducting with Franco Ferrara).

His career as a conductor began in Buenos Aires in 1955. He conducted all the leading Argentine orchestras and toured the American continent and occasionally Europe. He was principal conductor of the National SO (1968–9; 1979–83; 1992) and of the Rosario SO (1977–90) and has appeared frequently at the Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires, conducting both operas and concerts.

He composed music in many genres, including film music. His opera ...

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László Gombos

(b Esztergom, May 12, 1887; d Budapest, June 24, 1936). Hungarian violinist, composer and conductor. He studied the violin with Hubay and composition with Koessler at the Budapest Academy of Music (1901–6). In 1907 he qualified as a teacher, and soon after he changed his name to the more Hungarian-sounding Zsolt. As a composer, he made a highly successful début in 1908 with the première of his Piano Quintet, which was awarded the Erkel Prize. Also in 1908 he accepted the position of leader of the Queen's Hall Orchestra, London. He returned to Hungary two years later, eventually obtaining a teaching post alongside Hubay at the Budapest Academy, but then returned to the London orchestra in 1913. Interned in England at the beginning of World War I, he was repatriated in 1919, and subsequently served as professor of violin at the Budapest Academy. His students included Sándor Végh. Zsolt frequently played viola in the Hubay String Quartet, and in ...

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Wolfgang Suppan

(b Vienna, July 2, 1896; d Locarno, Switzerland, April 24, 1965). Austrian musicologist and conductor, active in the USA. Possibly a member of the Schenker's circle of students in Vienna as early as 1912, Zuckerkandl studied the piano with Richard Robert and after army service during World War I, was a free-lance conductor in Vienna, 1920–29. In 1927 he took the doctorate in musicology, with a dissertation on the methods of instrumentation in Mozart's works. (He also took art history and philosophy as secondary subjects.) He was a music critic for the Ullstein-Blätter, an editor for the publisher Bermann-Fischer (1927–33) and taught music theory at the Vienna Music Academy until 1938. After fleeing Austria, he taught at Wellesley College (1942) and then worked as a machinist in an arms factory in Boston. In 1946 he became a music theory teacher at the New School of Social Research, New York and in ...