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Piero Rattalino and Noël Goodwin

(b Milan, Jan 2, 1928). Italian conductor and musicologist . He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Votto and Giulini, and he made his conducting début in 1956. He worked in the USA (1959–61) teaching and coaching the winners in American vocal competitions. He then took charge of the Italian repertory at the Deutsche Oper, Berlin (1961–3), worked with the New York City Opera in a similar capacity from 1963 and began guest conducting more widely. In 1969 he published (in Milan) a critical edition of Il barbiere di Siviglia, which was taken up by several companies and recorded under Abbado (1972); Zedda used it for his Covent Garden début in 1975, and in 1989 with the Cologne Opera in East Asia.

This publication heralded much scholarly research for the Fondazione Rossini at Pesaro, of whose complete edition of Rossini (Pesaro, 1979–) Zedda is joint general editor, with Philip Gossett. Zedda conducted numerous performances in Europe and America of familiar and less familiar Rossini works such as ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Grodkowice, nr Kraków, July 6, 1837; d Kraków, Jan 23, 1921). Polish composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. He studied in Kraków with Jan Germasz (piano) and Franciszek Mirecki (harmony), then (from 1859) in Prague with Alexander Dreyschock (piano) and Joseph Krejčí (composition). From 1866 to 1870 he studied composition in Paris with Henri Reber and Berthold Demcke. He had earlier studied philosophy at the University of Kraków and in 1862 received the PhD from the University of Prague. In 1871 he returned to Poland. He was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the Warsaw Music Institute (1872–8) and became director of the Warsaw Music Society (1878). In 1881 he moved to Kraków, where he was initially a teacher of theory at the music school. In 1888 he helped to establish the conservatory of the music society in Kraków, and became its director. He also conducted symphony concerts and wrote articles for the Kraków journal ...


(b Melbourne, Nov 15, 1874; d Melbourne, March 3, 1927). Australian violinist and conductor. He was the son of an Italian musician who had taken an opera company to Australia in the 1860s. Alberto, who was largely self-taught in music, made his first appearance as a violinist at six, and at 17 toured as a soloist in Tasmania and New Zealand; in his early years he also conducted light opera. He taught privately, at the Melbourne University Conservatorium and at the Albert Street Conservatorium. He founded several musical organizations in Melbourne, including the Melbourne String Quartet (1905) and the Melbourne SO (1906), which then consisted largely of amateurs and his own pupils. For 16 years he was conductor of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society, giving many choral works (including the Australian premières of several by Elgar) with leading soloists from Australia and abroad. He conducted one season with Melba. In ...


Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Berlin, Dec 11, 1758; d Berlin, May 15, 1832). German composer, conductor and teacher. His father George, a mason from Saxony, settled about 1750 in Berlin, where he worked as a building contractor and married Anna Dorothea Hintze, daughter of a cloth-worker; Carl Friedrich was the second of two sons of this marriage. Zelter was first taught at home and then attended the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium. At his father’s wish, he trained as a mason, becoming in 1783 a master mason and partner in his father’s business, which he took over in 1787; he remained a member of the Berlin masons’ guild until 1815. In 1787 Zelter married Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, née Kappel, who had three children by her first marriage and bore him eight more but died in 1795. A year later he married the singer Juliane Pappritz (d 1806), who bore him two children....



(b Vienna, Oct 14, 1871; d Larchmont, NY, March 15, 1942). Austrian composer and conductor. Although closely linked to the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg was his pupil), Zemlinsky was no outright revolutionary. While undisputedly a conductor of the first rank and an interpreter of integrity, he lacked ‘star quality’ and was overshadowed by more domineering personalities. His music is distinguished by an almost overpowering emotional intensity. It took several decades before it became known and began to be appreciated.

His father, born in Vienna of Slovakian Catholic descent, converted to Judaism in 1870; his mother, born in Sarajevo, was the daughter of a mixed Sephardi-Muslim marriage. At the age of four he showed aptitude at the piano, and after completing his regular schooling in 1886 he enrolled at the Vienna Conservatory, studying the piano with Door, harmony and counterpoint with Krenn and Robert Fuchs (1888–90), and composition (...


Wilfried Gruhn

(b Wiesbaden, Nov 22, 1936). German composer and conductor. He studied the piano with August Leopolder and Edith Picht-Axenfeld, composition with Kurt Hessenberg and Wolfgang Fortner, and conducting with Carl Ueter at the Musikhochschule in Frankfurt and Freiburg. He began his professional career in 1959 as Kapellmeister for the Städtische Bühnen, Freiburg. From 1964 to 1968 he was the principal conductor of the Bonn opera and in 1969 accepted the post of general music director in Kiel. In 1971 he was appointed principal conductor of the Saarbrücken RSO, which became one of Europe’s leading contemporary music ensembles under his direction. He went on to co-found the Musik im 20. Jahrhundert festival with Christof Bitter, commissioning compositions from both young and well-established composers. In 1984 he moved to Hamburg, where, as the general music director of the Staatsoper, he was first to produce Nono’s opera Intolleranza. He also served as the general music director of the city. From ...


Wayne Schneider

(b New York, June 13, 1917; d Las Vegas, Jan 31, 2000). American trombonist and bandleader. He played with Les Brown (1940–42), Harry James (1943), Jimmy Dorsey (1944), and various groups in Los Angeles (1944–9); during this period he appeared in the films Seven Days Leave (1942), with Brown, and Lost in a Harem (1944), with Dorsey. He then worked as a studio musician for MGM from 1949 to 1957, when he formed his own band; in the early 1960s Zentner’s was the only newly formed jazz-oriented big band to achieve success. Up a Lazy River (1960, Lib. 55374), an arrangement by Bob Florence of the standard by Hoagy Carmichael and Sidney Arodin, was his biggest hit. The group toured the USA, accompanying such popular singers as Johnny Mathis and Nancy Wilson, and played frequently in Las Vegas. In ...


H. Earle Johnson

revised by Nancy Newman

(b Malchow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, July 28, 1826; d Milton, MA, Dec 29, 1909). American conductor and flautist of Germanorigin. Zerrahn studied with Friedrich Weber in Rostock from age 12, moving to Hanover and then Berlin, where he joined the Germania Musical Society as a flute player in 1848. During the six years the orchestra toured the United States, he was featured as a virtuoso soloist and occasional composer. After the Germania disbanded, Zerrahn remained in Boston and became conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society (1854–98), the Orchestral Union (1854–68) and the Philharmonic (1857–63). He conducted the newly-formed Harvard Musical Association Orchestra from its inception in 1865 until it disbanded in 1882. The ensemble gave the American premières of works by Mozart, Haydn, and Mendelssohn, and promoted new compositions such as John Knowles Paine’s Symphony No.2. Zerrahn was a renowned choral director throughout New England, directing the Handel and Haydn Society’s triennial festivals for more than two decades, the Worcester County Music Association Festivals (...


Victoria Tcacenco

(b Condrăteşti, Ungheni, May 24, 1939). Moldovan composer and choral conductor. He graduated from the Kishinev Institute of Arts where he studied choral conducting with L. Aksyonova. He has since conducted the leading choral ensembles of Moldova such as the Doina chorus (1967–76) and state radio and television choir (1976–87). In 1988 he founded the Renaissance choir which, under his direction, has won a number of awards and performed internationally. Zgureanu won the ‘best conductor’ prize at competitions in Varna, Bulgaria (1995), and Debrecen, Hungary (1996). He has headed the choral conducting department of the Chişinău Institute of Arts and in 1992 was appointed professor. He was awarded first prize by UNESCO for the Trei madrigale (‘Three Madrigals’) in 1995; he has also received many official awards. His output is associated with most choral genres. In stylistic terms, he combines techniques prevalent in post-World War II composition with ancient Moldovan folklore and Byzantine chant. Miniatures such as ...


George J. Grella Jr.

(b Dandong, China, 1973). Conductor of Chinese birth. Zhang studied at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing where she undertook conducting at the age of 16 (BA 1994, MA 1996). She made her conducting debut in 1992, leading the China National Opera Orchestra in Le Nozze di Figaro. She then went on to serve as conductor-in-residence of the China Opera House, Beijing, and as the conductor of the Jinfan Symphony Orchestra. Zhang taught one year of conducting at the Central Conservatory (1997) before relocating to the United States for doctoral studies at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. After completing her doctoral work, she joined the faculty at Cincinnati as an assistant professor of conducting (2000). In 2002, Zhang won the Maazel/Vilar International Conductor’s Competition, upon which Loren Maazel appointed her to be his assistant at the New York Philharmonic. In ...