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Article

Theodore Karp

(fl 13th century). French trouvère. Of the three chansons attributed to him in I-Rvat Reg.lat.1490 (J'ai amé trestout mon vivant, R.371, Meudre achoison n'euc onques de chanter, R.789, and S'amours loiaus m'a fait soufrir, R.1461; all ed. in CMM, cvii, 1997), two are unica...

Article

Craig Wright

[Egidius]

(fl early 15th century). French composer. He was a petit vicaire at Cambrai Cathedral from 1409 to 1411 (Kügle); in 1411 he travelled to Cyprus as a chaplain in the retinue of Charlotte of Bourbon. It is unlikely that he can be identified with the Egidius Flannel alias Lenfant who sang in the papal choir from 1420 to 1441. The style of the eight compositions with manuscript attributions to Velut indicates that they were written during the early years of the 15th century. Jusqu'au jour and Laissiés ester still show traces of the complex cross-rhythms and syncopations that characterized much of French secular music at the end of the 14th century; his rondeau, Je voel servir, however, with its playful use of hemiola, clearly directed harmonies and frequent cadences, reveals an affinity to the chansons of the early period of Du Fay. Despite these apparent differences, it has been proposed that Velut's songs, notwithstanding his clear technical ability, are rather formulaic in character....

Article

David Fallows

( fl c1430). Composer . His three voice motet O domina gloriosa is in the manuscript I-TRmp 87 (ed. in DTÖ, lxxvi, Jg.xl, 1933/R, p.70). A Gloria in I-AO 15 is ascribed to ‘Jo. Werken’ (misread by de Van as ‘Berken’); it is also in a fragmentary manuscript at Zwettl (...

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

(b ?Anagni; fl 14th century). Italian theorist . He may be the notary Johannes Vetulus de Anagnia, mentioned in a document of 16 August 1372. (The form ‘Verulus’ is due to a misreading of the name.) His Liber de musica (ed. in CSM, xxvii, 1977), probably written in the mid-14th century, opens with an introduction defining music and expounding its nature, origin and purpose. After a short section on musica plana, the main part of the work is devoted to mensural music: the division of time, single notes and ligatures, rests, perfect and imperfect time, the four main mensurations and a short chapter on the minima. The most original and interesting feature of the treatise is Vetulus's determination of tempo in absolute terms: the minim is taken as the unit of measure and is made equal to ¹/72 of a minute. Six different mensurations are then distinguished in terms of the minim as follows:...

Article

Theodore Karp

(fl c1183–c1205). Provençal troubadour. The ironic wit, fantasy and whimsical boastfulness of his verse probably contributed to the rapid spread of legendary stories concerning his life. A restless wanderer, he served Raimon V of Toulouse, Raimon Gaufridi Barral, Viscount of Marseilles, Alfonso II of Aragon, Alfonso VIII of Castile and Boniface I of Montferrat. He visited Hungary as a follower of Constance of Aragon and lived in Genoa and Pisa. Some of his poems touch on political quarrels of the time. He was a supporter of Richard the Lionheart, and supposedly accompanied him as far as Cyprus on the Third Crusade. The tale of his marriage to a Greek woman whom he thought to be the granddaughter of the Emperor of Constantinople is now regarded as fictitious.

Vidal’s poems reveal technical ease and power as well as an original approach to traditional themes. Of approximately 50 poems that are attributable to him, 12 survive with music. One anonymous work, ...

Article

Craig Wright

(fl ?1405–33). Franco-Flemish composer. He may have been a choirboy at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, in 1405. He was awarded a prebend in the church of St Donatian, Bruges, in 1410, at which time he may have been a singer in the chapel of John XXIII (Strohm); a document of 1410 calls him a ‘clericus’ from the diocese of Tournai, but he was not ordained. By December 1423 he had been retained as a valet de chambre to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1426 was given charge of the upbringing of two choirboys of the Burgundian chapel. He was promoted to the post of secretary to the duke in 1428, and in the same year was given a small organ. Despite his talents as a composer, Vide was never listed as a member of the ducal chapel. His name last appeared in the Burgundian records in ...

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

(b Florence, 1325; d ?1405). Italian chronicler . He completed his law studies in Florence in 1360, was chancellor of the city of Perugia 1376–81, and was lecturer on Dante in the University of Florence 1391–1404. His writings include a continuation of the Nuova cronica (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847), begun by his uncle Giovanni and continued by his father Matteo, a commentary (surviving incomplete) on Dante's Commedia, and the two-volume Liber de origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847; ed. G. Tanturli, Padua, 1997). The second volume mentions several 14th-century musicians, including Bartolo, Lorenzo da Firenze, Giovanni da Cascia and Jacopo da Bologna; it also includes a biography of Francesco Landini. For the latter this is the most detailed account to survive (although some of it is now thought to be spurious) and was used as a source of information for references to the composer throughout the 15th century....

Article

Vineux  

Margaret Bent

[Vineus]

Rubric, indicating the title, identification, or possibly composer, of a monophonic mensural Sanctus setting associated with the trope Qui januas mortis confregisti (Chevalier 16434). Four monophonic sources are recorded. In F-Pa 204 it is linked with a matching Agnus troped Patris filius eterni, and these are the only two mensurally notated pieces in the manuscript; in I-AO A 1°D19 it is the only monophonic piece in the entire polyphonic manuscript; and in Tournai, Trésor du chapitre, 471 (destroyed in 1940), it had the trope Qui vertice Thabor affuisti. Only in the Aosta manuscript is it headed ‘Vineux’.

Six related polyphonic compositions are known. The four-voice Sanctus vineus secundum Loqueville in I-Bc Q15 (ed. Reaney, CMM, xi/3, 1966) is flanked by a three-voice Sanctus and Agnus on the same tenor ascribed to Du Fay (ed. Besseler, CMM, i/4, 1962 and CMM, i/5, 1966) and linked in I-Bc Q15 with a Du Fay Kyrie on a similar tenor (also present in ...

Article

Ernest H. Sanders

( fl c1290–1300). Theorist . He is known only through certain rules regarding mensural polyphony attributed to him in the Regule of Robert de Handlo (ed. Lefferts). Petrus Le Viser was the first to acknowledge the existence of different stylistic categories requiring different tempos for the beat. He posited three speeds at which the beat (tempus – i.e. the breve) could be taken: mos (i.e. manner) longus, mos mediocris and mos lascivus. The last of these, applying principally to the Franconian tradition, was equivalent to the modern ‘allegro’, in both senses of the word. It was now conceived as sufficiently fast for the characteristic unequal rhythm of the 3rd and 4th modes (brevis recta – brevis altera) to be equalized (two breves recte): ‘But in the mos lascivus we reject any altered breve and any inequality of breves and affirm their equality; hence, two breves between two longs are equal in the ...

Article

Margaret Bent and Andrew Wathey

[VitriacoVittriaco]

(b ?Champagne, 31 Oct 1291; d 9 June 1361). French composer, theorist, and bishop.

The early career of Philippe de Vitry remains obscure: he is often styled ‘magister’, but there is no direct evidence either that he studied at the University of Paris (though some contact with its members seems likely) or that he held the degree of magister artium (he is called ‘master of music’ in F-Pn lat.7378A). Vitry is first documented in 1321, when he was presented to a canonry with the expectation of a prebend at Cambrai; in the event no vacancy occurred and Vitry dropped his claim to this position between 1327 and 1332. He may, however, already have been a canon of the collegiate church of Notre Dame in Clermont-en-Beauvais, the family church of the counts of Clermont; he certainly held this position by August 1322, probably acquiring it through the patronage of Louis de Bourbon, Count of Clermont, with whom he was closely linked, as clerk, administrator, and diplomat, over the next 20 years. A connection with Louis de Bourbon may originate before ...

Article

Michael Klaper

(c1200). German Minnesinger and Spruch poet. He is regarded as one of the most outstanding and innovative authors of his generation. In the opinion of his contemporaries, too, he was considered the leading poet and musician among the Minnesinger (see, for example, Gotfrid von Strassburg: Tristan, 4751–820; for an overview of contemporary comments on his work (see Bein, 1997; also Ranawake, rev. 11/1997 of Paul edn). His poetic oeuvre is the most varied of his time, comprising many Minnelieder and Spruch stanzas as well as religious lieder (including one Leich and a Kreuzlied), and his poetry treats a number of subjects, adopting frequently contradictory positions. In his work he freed Minnesang from the traditional patterns of motifs and restricting social function and transformed it into genuinely experienced and yet universally valid love-poetry.

Article

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[Eist, Ast, Aste, de Agist]

(fl 2nd half of the 12th century). German Minnesinger. The details of his life are unclear. Although he was previously thought to have died before 1171, it is now thought that he may have been a younger man. He might have come from a branch of a baronial family whose seat was near Mauthausen in upper Austria; otherwise he was possibly a minister to the barons of Aist. One of the earliest poets of German Minnesang, he wrote poems that are varied in both form and content, including both the simpler indigenous style and the more complex kinds of song influenced by the Romance poets. The difference between the two styles has given rise to much discussion as to whether there were several poets or whether one man had mastered the various techniques. No music has survived, but Aarburg identified one of his poems as a contrafactum and reconstructed the melody....

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

[Hartmann von Ouwe, Meister Hartman]

(b c1160–65; d after 1210). German poet. He was a member of a freeborn family from Aue (presumably in south-west Germany or northern Switzerland), received a religious education and rose to ministerial rank. His pre-eminence as an epic poet is due to his courtly poetic romances, Erec, Iwein, Gregorius and Der arme Heinrich, and as a lyric poet to his Minnelieder. His verse is highly developed, his language graceful and both rhyme and rhythm are highly polished. Hartmann’s Minnelieder encompass the conventional concept of courtly love, yet they reveal a note of impatience with this deceptively formal, socially hidebound ideal. In its place, they portray the experience of love without the courtly conventions. He took part in a crusade, most probably that of 1189–90; and the epics which he wrote after that reflect his humility and devoutness.

Hartmann’s poetry consists of 18 lieder (without melodies), four of which may not be by him. In substance and motivic material it owes something to French and Provençal models (notably the work of Chrétien de Troyes, the legends, and troubadour strophic structure). His poem ...

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[der Brenneberger, der Brannenburger, der Bremberger]

(d Regensburg, before ?1276). German Minnesinger. His identity is uncertain, but it is possible that he came from a Bavarian noble family and was in the service of the Bishop of Regensburg. He died in a local feud at Regensburg; his posthumous fame was enhanced by the rumour that he had paid for an act of courtly homage to a lady with his life. In terms of content and form his Minnelieder and Sprüche (see Spruch), rich in imagery and fantasy, belong among the work of those 13th-century Minnesinger connected with the courtly traditions. His work is close to that of Ulrich von Singenberg, Reinmar [Reimar] (der Alte) von Hagenau, Heinrich von Morungen and Walther von der Vogelweide. His output includes four Kanzonen (see Bar form) as well as the Spruchton (Ton IV) with at least 12 strophes. The Spruchton was used by other Minnesinger in the 13th century and was also used in the 14th century for Latin ...

Article

[Her Wolveram]

(fl c1170–1220). German poet. On the basis of his epics Parzival (?c1200) and Willehalm (?c 1215) he counts as probably the greatest medieval German poet and was named one of the 12 ‘alte Meister’ by the Meistersinger (see Meistergesang). His seven surviving lyric poems (ed. in Kraus) have no music. Two melodies are connected with Wolfram, however. The Schwarzer Ton is ascribed to him in one 14th-century manuscript (for facs. of three sources see Sources, MS, and fig.; for comparative edn. see Ton, ex.1). It was often used by the Meistersinger. The other melody is for his fragmentary epic Titurel (? after 1217) with a complicated four-line stanza form that was much used for later poems. The melody appears with one of the earliest of these, Albrecht von Scharfenberg’s late 13th-century Jüngerer Titurel (A-Wn 2675, f.1v...

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[Hagenouwe]

(fl 1185–1205; d c1205). German Minnesinger. He was possibly a member of the family of imperial ministerial rank from Hagenau in Alsace, but it is not known whether ‘von Hagenau’ is a reference to a place (of birth or of activity) or is simply a family name. He is not attested in documents of the time: the manuscripts refer to him as ‘Reinmar’ or ‘Reinmar der Alte’, and Gotfrid von Strassburg described him as ‘die nahtegal von Hagenouwe’. He may have participated in Leopold VI’s crusade of 1197–8. Reinmar was one of the leading representatives of Hoher Minnesang, the form of which he raised to classic perfection. It was presumably he who brought this art form from his western homeland to Austria, where he was possibly employed in the Babenberg court in 1195. The character of his poetry is original and reveals hardly any influences of Friedrich von Hûsen’s Rhenish school of poetry, which was orientated towards the Provençal lyric; all that can be discerned is the adoption of motifs and themes from the Danube school....

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[Berengerius de Orehem, Berlengerius de Oreim]

(fl 1196). German Minnesinger. It has been assumed that he came from the Frankfurt region, on the grounds of his use of language, but it is also possible that he was from a north Bavarian family, or otherwise came from Horheim, near Vaihingen. He was one of a group of noblemen from south-west Germany who, as the followers of Friedrich von Hûsen, writing in a more international style than hitherto, brought about the blossoming of Minnesang. These men drew on the work of the northern French trouvères and southern troubadours for content and formal schemes of their poetry. Six songs (17 strophes) by Bernger have survived, all of them stylish and none with music. Of these, two (possibly four) may have used the melodies of his Romance precursors, since they can be recognized as contrafacta of works by, among others, Chrétien de Troyes and Gace Brulé.

none of the poems appears with music in any source...

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[Hausen]

(b c1150; d Philomelium [Akşehir], Asia Minor, May 6, 1190). German Minnesinger. His ancestral seat was in Rheinhausen, near Mannheim in the Rhine region. He is attested in documents from 1171 and was in the service of the Hohenstaufen emperors; he is traceable in northern Italy in 1175 and again in 1186 and 1187. He participated in the third crusade under Friedrich Barbarossa in 1189 and fell at the Battle of Philomelium. Contemporaries depict Friedrich von Hûsen as a highly esteemed figure. He belonged to the closest circle of intimates of Barbarossa (as his secretary and legal adviser) and of Henry VI. Friedrich was primarily responsible, together with Rudolf von Fenis-Neuenberg and Hendrik van Veldeke, for the adoption of Romance poetic features in German lyric poetry and for the further independent development of Minnesang. He was among the first poets writing in German to give full lyrical expression to the themes of ...

Article

[‘der von Riuwental’]

(bc?1190; d after 1236). German Minnesinger. The only indisputable fact about Neidhart's life – his social origins are unknown – is that he sang in Vienna for Duke Friedrich II ‘der Streitbare’. He was probably active before this in Bavaria. Reference in his songs to the arrival of Emperor Frederick II in Vienna (1236/7) provide one unequivocal date. The first mention of ‘Her Nîthart’ is in Wolfram von Eschenbach's epic Willehalm (dated 1210–20; line 312,12). Contemporaries did not call him ‘von Riuwental’; this is the allegorical name (meaning ‘vale of tears’) of the impoverished knight whose identity Neidhart convincingly portrayed. In the begging songs (he asked the duke for a house in Lengenbach, near Vienna) Neidhart presumably identified completely with his role. Generally, the songs suit urban tastes – prosperous peasants and their rivals, the rural noblemen, are satirized equally. This may explain why a tradition of ‘Neidhart’ songs (some of them original), plays and comic texts (...