721-740 of 57,944 results

Article

Bruce Carr and George Biddlecombe

(b L’Isle, nr Avignon, Oct 4, 1779; d Paris, Feb 2, 1866). French conductor and composer. He became conductor at the theatre at Marseilles when he was 17. He moved to Paris in 1817, where his opera Les jeux floraux was performed, with little success, in ...

Article

James Jolly

(b Crewe, July 9, 1963). English tenor. He studied music at Oxford University and with Diane Forlano. After early engagements with Gothic Voices and other groups he made his first operatic appearance in Scarlatti's Gli equivoci nel sembiante at Innsbruck's Early Music Festival (...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock and Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in ...

Article

Aip  

Brian Diettrich

An hourglass-shaped, single-headed drum from the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. The body was made from breadfruit tree wood (Artocarpus altilis) or from the local tree topwuk (Premna gaudichaudii), and the head from shark or ray skin, or ray, or possibly a fish bladder. Drums were formerly of great cultural significance on the island; they were given proper names, associated with paramount chiefs, and played and cared for by men assigned the honorary title ...

Article

Howard Mandel

Free-jazz trio. In 1971 the alto saxophonist Henry Threadgill was asked to arrange music by the ragtime composer Scott Joplin for a theater production at Columbia College, Chicago; with the drummer Steve McCall and the double bass player Fred Hopkins he formed a cooperative trio called Reflection to perform the material (which was eventually recorded in ...

Article

Air (i)  

Nigel Fortune, David Greer and Charles Dill

A term used in England and France from the 16th century onwards, frequently and rather loosely as synonymous with ‘melody’, ‘tune’ or ‘song’.

When Thomas Morley (A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, 1597) applied the term to all the secular vocal forms of his day except the madrigal, the most serious of them, he was following his Italian predecessors and contemporaries in using it to refer to light pieces in a simple, canzonetta-derived style (...

Article

John H. Baron

A French drinking-song. The term was used principally between the second half of the 17th century and the mid-18th century for strophic, syllabic songs whose texts are of a light, frivolous nature in contradistinction to airs sérieux, whose texts deal with love, pastoral scenes or political satire. The ...

Article

A recording made from a broadcast, usually by an enthusiast using a recorder in his home. The term is normally used of recordings made during the era of the 78 r.p.m. disc. SeeTranscription; see alsoRecording, §II, 3.

Article

Philip Bate and Murray Campbell

The body of air inside a tubular wind instrument. When a note is sounded the air column is in a state of longitudinal vibration, i.e. subject to a cyclic succession of local compressions and rarefactions (see Acoustics, §IV, 2). The frequency of these disturbances determines the pitch of the sound heard; it is governed mainly by the form and dimensions of the air column (...

Article

John H. Baron

A term used by French composers and publishers from 1571 to the 1650s to designate many secular, strophic songs sung at court. From 1608 until approximately 1632 these were the most important and numerous vocal compositions in France.

Airs de cour were composed either for four or five unaccompanied voices (a few examples are for six and eight voices) or for one voice usually with lute accompaniment. They were written for the entertainment of the king and his courtiers by the finest composers at court, all of whom were excellent singers. Nearly all ...

Article

Sarah Fuller

An obscure figure, Magister Airard of Vézelay (a major pilgrimage station along the route to the shrine of St James at Santiago de Compostela) appears as author of a two-part conductus, Annua gaudia, in the 12th-century Calixtine manuscript ( E-SC ). Whether he was actually a musician or poet is unknown, since the Calixtine attribution has no independent confirmation and Airardus is otherwise unknown....

Article

Ais  

A♯. See Pitch nomenclature.

Article

Aisis  

A♯♯. See Pitch nomenclature.

Article

James P. Cassaro

(b New York, Sept 7, 1924). American composer. He studied at the Juilliard School (where he later taught) with Persichetti, Bernard Wagenaar, and Robert Ward. In 1970 he was appointed chairman of the music department at William Paterson College in Wayne, New Jersey, where he became professor of music in ...

Article

Richard Crawford and Nym Cooke

(b Dalkeith, c1746; d Philadelphia, Sept 8, 1831). American music engraver, publisher and dealer of Scottish birth. He also worked as a metalsmith for much of his life. Arriving in Philadelphia by 1785, he began his career as a music publisher in ...

Article

Bruce Mather

(b Kentville, NS, Aug 28, 1939). Canadian flautist, conductor and composer. He studied with Nicholas Fiore (in Toronto) and Marcel Moyse; later with Rampal and Gazzelloni. He was principal flautist of the Vancouver SO (1958–9) and of the Toronto SO (...

Article

Richard Dyer and Justin Krawitz

(b Los Angeles, CA, June 17, 1908; d Sante Fe, NM, May 11, 1981).

American pianist. After studying in California under Alexis Kall and Alfred Mirovitch, and at the Curtis Institute under Herbert Simpson, he departed for Berlin to pursue further studies with three pupils of Liszt—Arthur Friedheim, ...

Article

Aius  

A term used in the Gallican rite for the Trisagion. See Gallican chant, §7, (iii).

Article

Aiva  

Hourglass drum of Wuvulu Island, Bismarck Archipelago. It is beaten during times of sickness to chase away evil spirits.

P. Hambruch: Wuvulu und Aua (Maty- und Durour-lnseln) (Hamburg, 1908), 125–6.

Article

Marcel Frémiot

City in southern France. Strophic songs, ‘planchs de St Estève’, were chanted from the 9th century for the feast of St Stephen in the former cathedral, Notre Dame de la Seds, but the city suffered for a long time from Saracen invasions and was able to resume any artistic activity of note only from the 11th century. The first known ...