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Alastair Dick

The old South Indian Tamil name for a double-headed hourglass drum. Its name appears to derive from the Sanskrit āmanrikā (‘summoning’). The drum was held in the right hand and played with the left. It was covered with cowhide and has been equated with the i ṭakkai; it was probably of variable pitch....

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(b Hartford, ct , March 1, 1927). American soprano of Armenian descent. She studied at San Francisco, where she sang in the opera chorus (1945–6). At the Metropolitan she made her début (1950) as the Heavenly Voice (Don Carlos). By her 25th anniversary performance there, as Micaela, she had sung 41 roles in 35 operas, with regular appearances as Leonora (...

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Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

(b Kelantan, Malaysia, 1940). Malaysian shadow puppeteer. From an early age he became interested in wayang kulit Siam, which is associated principally with the state of Kelantan and is the most important of Malaysia's four types of shadow play. He received his early training as a dalang (puppeteer) from his father and at the age of 11 created his own experimental wayang kulit Siam troupe with a few friends.

He later studied wayang kulit Siam with Pak Awang Lah, the most famous Kelantan dalang. After an initial lack of success, he managed to impress the international audience of scholars at the 1969 conference Traditional Drama and Music of Southeast Asia, held in Kuala Lumpur. This exposure enabled him to travel overseas. The Seri Setia Wayang Kulit troupe, with Amat as leader, visited ten European countries in 1971 under the sponsorship of UNESCO and the Malaysian Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, giving performances in 31 cities. Aside from returning to Europe and performing in several Asian countries, Amat has also performed in Russia and Turkey (...

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Jeremy Montagu

Ancient Phoenician flute cited by the Roman lyric poet Horace (1st century bce). In Persian, a ṃbūba can mean a tube or pipe. In the Targum (early Aramaic translations of the Bible), abuba (the Aramaic equivalent) is used for Hebrew ugav and halil, the latter a reed instrument, and the Phoenician instrument might well also have been a reed instrument, since these appear to have been much more common in the ancient Near East than flutes....

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Rachel Chacko

[Western gamelan]

Term for modern ensembles of percussion instruments inspired by Indonesian gamelan models. Growing American interest in Indonesian music in the mid-20th century, fostered in part by commercial recordings and burgeoning academic ethnomusicology programmes, prompted efforts to fashion gamelan-type instruments locally to enable performance of traditional Indonesian and new Western compositions. Dennis Murphy (1934–2010) has been credited with the first such effort while he was a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison about 1960. He was followed by Barbara Benary, Paul Dresher, Daniel Schmidt, and others, who created home-made gamelan-type metallophones and related instruments from readily available materials (typically scrap aluminium and iron) and tuned them according to individual preferences. Most prominently, beginning in 1971 the experimental composer Lou Harrison (1917–2003) and his partner William Colvig designed and constructed three sets of gamelan-inspired instruments, the first of which was named ‘An American Gamelan’ (and later dubbed ‘Old Granddad’); two later ensembles were destined for schools in California where Harrison taught (Mills College and San Jose State University). These later gamelans were modelled on traditional Javanese instruments but tuned in just intonation. The San Jose State ensemble, Gamelan Si Betty, was bequeathed to composer Jody Diamond and in ...

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Natan Shahar

(b Warsaw, Aug 8, 1909; d Yakum Kibbutz, Israel, Dec 18, 1993). Israeli composer and teacher of Russian descent. He received his early musical education in Moscow. In 1924 he emigrated with his family to Palestine, where he continued his musical studies with Shlomo Rozovsky (1928–9). He began to compose in 1930. From 1934 to 1936 he studied music education at Trinity College, London, and composition with Bantock and Rowley; at the same time he also studied at Tonic Sol-fa College, London. With the formation of the Israeli Army, he was appointed First Officer for music, founding the orchestras of both the army and the cadets. In 1949 he became the central inspector for music education at the Ministry of Education, a post he held until his retirement in 1975.

Amiran was one of the Ereṣ Yisrael composers who developed the character of what became known as typical Israeli folksong. His vast number of songs (around 600), many of which set biblical texts, were published in a wide array of pamphlets and song books. The most notable of these include: the nursery songs ...

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Paul Attinello

(Benjamin)

(b Fresno, CA, Jan 19, 1945). American composer and administrator of Armenian descent. He studied at Fresno State University (BA in English 1967), San Francisco State University (MA in interdisciplinary creative arts 1969) and Mills College (MFA in electronic music and recording media 1980), where his teachers included David Behrman, Robert Ashley and Paul de Marinis. He has served as music director for KPFA Radio (Berkeley, California, 1969–92), executive director of the Djerassi Artists Program (1993–7), and both artistic (from 1993) and executive director (from 1998) of the Other Minds Festival (San Francisco). His honours include ASCAP's Deems Taylor Award for innovative musical programming (1989) and residencies at the Tyrone Guthrie Centre, Ireland (1997), and the Bellagio Study and Conference Centre, Italy (1997).

Amirkhanian's experiences as a percussionist and radio presenter have informed all of his works. Between ...

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Yury Gabay

(Meshadi Jamil′)

(b Gyandzha [later Kirovabad], Nov 22, 1922; d Feb 2, 1984). Azerbaijani composer. The son of a famous tar player and singer, he studied at the Kirovabad Music College (tar class 1938) and then at the Baku College in the composition classes of Burshteyn and Karnitskaya. In 1939 he entered Zeydman’s composition class at the Azerbaijan State Conservatory, and he also studied the foundations of Azerbaijani music under Hajibeyov with enthusiasm. His years at the conservatory, marked by active creative work, were interrupted by the war. He was wounded at the front and, being demobilized, returned to his studies, which he completed in 1948, presenting as his diploma work the opera Ulduz. Other compositions of this period include his most famous pieces: the symphony Pamyati Nizami (‘To the Memory of Nizam’, 1947), Shchur and Kyurd Ovsharï (1948), both symphonic mugam, and the opera ...

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Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

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Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka, now rare. It is a small version of the daula, about 30 cm long and beaten with one hand and a stick. It was used to play ana-bera, a drum pattern played by a public crier to draw attention to a proclamation about to be made. As late as the 1980s the services of a crier were still occasionally needed in villages, when the ...

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Añafil  

Mauricio Molina

(Sp.; Port. anafir)

Term for the Arab and Persian nafīr, a straight trumpet. It was introduced to Iberia by the Moors during the Middle Ages. The añafil is commonly represented in Iberian art from the 10th century to the 13th with banners and in the context of battles, and thereafter throughout medieval European iconography....

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Alastair Dick

revised by Jeremy Montagu

[gubgubī, khamak]

Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...

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Werner Bachmann and Belkis Dinçol

(Gk.: ‘eastern land’)

An area roughly corresponding to the Asian part of Turkey. At the time of the Hittite empire (c 1400–1200 bce), which included central and south-east Anatolia, Hittite rule extended into northern Syria. Archaeological research in Turkey since the middle of the 20th century has resulted in a substantial increase in the materials available for a reconstruction of the history of Anatolian music. Evaluation of these finds, which include instruments and depictions of musicians, together with information from Hittite cuneiform texts has led to a new understanding of the musical life of the area. Not only does Anatolia appear to have stood out from the rest of the prehistoric cultural environment of the Near East and Mediterranean, but the range of musical instruments produced and developed there is greater than was previously thought. The widespread belief that Anatolia was primarily a land of transition – a bridge between the advanced cultures of Mesopotamia, the Levant, Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean civilizations – and that the highland population mostly adopted foreign cultural traditions can no longer be sustained. Indeed, the evidence indicates the presence of many indigenous elements in Bronze Age Anatolian musical culture and a strong vein of creativity on the part of the Anatolian people....

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Andelu  

Jeremy Montagu

Rattle used by ballad singers of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is a pair of hollow metal rings about 4 to 5 cm in diameter, open all around the outer circumference and containing metal pellets. The rings are worn on the thumbs or fingers. It is similar to the gaggara of Mysore used by devotional singers....

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Margaret J. Kartomi

Tuned bamboo sliding rattle of Java, Madura, Bali, South Sumatra, Central and South Sulawesi, south-western Kalimantan, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. It is especially popular in West Java. Its two or three bamboo tubes, tuned to as many octaves, are closed with a node at the bottom. A tongue-shaped segment is cut out of one side of each tube, the size of the segment determining the pitch (see illustration ). The tubes sit in small troughs cut in the base of the square bamboo frame; attached to narrow vertical tubes tied with rattan, they slide to and fro when shaken. They are normally played in groups of three or more, each instrument being shaken sideways by one person, and traditionally in an interlocking, hocket-like manner, sometimes together with an oboe (the Tarompet in West Java, the selompret in Central and East Java), drums and gongs to accompany dances. The angklung...

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

Transverse flute of India. It was invented by the surgeon and inventor Chintamani V. Mehendale, M.D. (1928–2008) and first played publicly by him at the University of Mumbai on 25 Oct 1977. Instead of fingerholes producing a limited number of discrete pitches, it has a sliding, spring-loaded external sleeve of canvas covering a channel in the tube. Sliding the sleeve allows a glissando over the full range of pitches, as well as inflections of pitch, similar to those achieved by pulling the strings on the sitar, which are impossible to produce on ordinary flutes....

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Ankara  

Faruk Yener

[Angora]

Capital of the Republic of Turkey. The foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 was followed by the concentration of cultural activities in the new capital, which had been an important commercial city since ancient times. In 1934 the first operas by Turkish composers were produced at the Ankara Halkevi Theatre (opened 1930, cap. 638): Özsoy and Taş bebek by Ahmed Adnan Saygun, and Bayönder by Necil Kâzím Akses. The opening of the Ankara Conservatory in 1936 was followed by the foundation in 1939 of an opera workshop led by the German opera director Carl Ebert, who remained at the Conservatory for nine years and appointed eminent teachers including Elvira de Hidalgo, Giannina Arangi-Lombardi and Apollo Granforte. Trial productions by the Opera Workshop began in 1940 with Bastien und Bastienne, Fidelio, Act 2 of Tosca and Act 1 of Madama Butterfly. In 1948 the Palais des Expositions (built 1934) was converted into a theatre, the Büyük Tiyatro (Grand Theatre), with 650 seats. There the Ankara Devlet Opera ve Balesi (Ankara State Opera and Ballet Company) stages six new productions each year, between September and July, of operas and operettas from the standard international repertory, usually two productions in Italian and four in Turkish. Local soloists perform with invited foreign singers; notable among the latter have beem Gianni Raimondi, Luciano Pavarotti and Nicola Martinucci....