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Georgia  

Leah Dolidze, Christian Hannick, Dali Dolidze, Grigol Chkhikvadze and Joseph Jordania

Country in Transcaucasia. An independent kingdom for over 2000 years, it adopted Christianity in the 4th century ce while under Byzantine influence. It was invaded by the Mongols in 1234 and thereafter became subject to incursions by Arabs, Turks and Persians. It was annexed by Russia in the 19th century. After a brief period of independence (1918–20), it was renamed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921. With the collapse of the Soviet Union it declared itself an independent republic in April 1991.

The development of Georgian art music followed a course characteristic of many Eastern European schools of composition during the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. A few decades saw a rapid advance from the first experiments in composition and an amateur musical culture to a thoroughly professional approach to composition in the context of increased musical activity in the concert hall and opera house. The evolution of Georgian music from the 1960s to the 90s had much in common with that of Western music in the late 20th century....

Article

John Kmetz, Ludwig Finscher, Giselher Schubert, Wilhelm Schepping and Philip V. Bohlman

(Ger. Deutschland)

Country in Northern Europe. It extends from the Baltic Sea and the North German Plain to Lake Constance and the Bavarian Alps and Plateau, and from the North Sea and the French border to the Oder and Neisse rivers and the mountainous eastern regions of the Erzgebirge and the Fichtelgebirge. It is bordered by Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. After World War II, from 1949 to 1990, Germany was divided, with Bonn as the capital of West Germany; the historic capital Berlin was restored after reunification in 1990 (East Berlin having served as the capital of East Germany from 1949 to 1990).

For opera in Germany, see also Germany, Austria .

John Kmetz

Exactly when German history began has been a matter of debate ever since Goethe and Schiller felt obliged to ask the question ‘Germany? But where is it?’. Some modern historians start with the anointing of the first Carolingian king, Pippin the Short, in 751; or the re-foundation of the ‘Roman’ Empire in the West by his son Charlemagne (768–814) when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III in 800. Other scholars have suggested the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, or 911, the year that Conrad I, Duke of Franconia, was elected as the first king of the East Franks; and still others look to the coronation of Otto I, king of the East Franks, in 936, or to his imperial coronation in Rome in 962 as the country’s birthdate. It is clear, however, that by the end of the 10th century the four East Frankish peoples – the Franks, Swabians, Bavarians and Saxons – formed what was known as the land of the Germans (...

Article

J.H. Kwabena Nketia

[formerly Gold Coast]

Coastal West African country. It has 19·93 million people (2000 estimate) and an area of 238,540 km². Its musical traditions reflect the variety of musical styles found in West Africa, for, although Ghana is a comparatively small country, it is made up of several ethnic groups that have historical, cultural or linguistic affinities with societies beyond its borders (fig.1). The Northern and Upper regions of the country, which are occupied by about two and a quarter million people, form part of the savanna belt of West Africa and belong to the Sudanic cultural area. The rest of the country, consisting of the rain-forest belt and the coastal plains, belongs to the so-called Guinea Coast area.

About 36 different languages are spoken in Ghana, although only six of these are cultivated officially as written languages. Of these, Akan, in the form of its Twi and Fante dialects, is the most widely spoken. It is also the language whose cultural expressions, including music, have had the greatest impact on other Ghanaian societies....

Article

Gerard Béhague and Linda L. O’Brien-Rothe

Republic of (Sp. República de Guatemala)

Country in Central America. It is bordered at the north and west by Mexico, at the north-east by Belize and at the south-east by El Salvador and Honduras. The capital is Guatemala City.

Gerard Béhague

In pre-Columbian times the culture of the Mayas spread over most of the present territory of Guatemala. After the Spanish Conquest (1523–4) Guatemala rapidly became a significant centre of music. The musical life of the country has always been concentrated in the capital, Guatemala City. Its cathedral had, from the time of its construction (1534, seven years after the foundation of the city), a regular organist and a chantre to conduct and intone. Hernando Franco worked in Guatemala from 1554 to 1573, before moving to Mexico in 1575, and two of his works, a five-part Lumen ad revelationem and a five-part Benedicamus Domino, are in the cathedral archives. The colonial archives of S Miguel Acatán, other smaller communities in the Huehuetenango province and Guatemala City Cathedral give ample evidence of the splendour of the country’s early musical life. They contain works by composers active in other Spanish colonies (such as Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla, Torrejón y Velasco, Zumaya and Salazar), several manuscripts of some of the greatest Spanish and Flemish Renaissance composers (Morales, Guerrero, Victoria, Ceballos, Isaac, Compère, Mouton, Sermisy) and works with both vernacular and Spanish texts by local ...

Article

Guinea  

Eric Charry

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 245,857 km² and a population of 7·5 million, approximately 85% of whom are Muslim.

Encompassing diverse geographic regions and peoples, the government patronage policies of the independent republic’s first president Sekou Toure constructed a composite national culture from 1958 to 1984 that is brilliantly represented in the repertory of its renowned national ballet Les Ballets Africains, established by Fodeba Keita, a pioneer in presenting African music and dance for a world audience. The resulting extensive system of regional and national government ballets, ensembles and orchestras, including the beloved dance orchestra Bembeya Jazz, has been a model for much of francophone West Africa. Guinea’s musical heritage includes a prominent class of Maninka jelis (see Griot), with its roots in the 13th-century Mali empire, who excel on the bala (and to a lesser extent the Kora and koni), masked dancers widespread among the small-scale societies that populate the coastal and southern forest regions, and diverse drumming traditions throughout the country, particularly those of log drums (...

Article

Susan Hurley-Glowa

(Republic of Guinea-Bissau; Port. Republica da Guiné-Bissau)

Country in West Africa. Located on the coast between Senegal and Guinea, it has a population of 1.5 million (2011 estimate) and an area of 36,125 km.

The Republic of Guinea-Bissau’s population is diverse, consisting of more than 20 ethnic groups descended from Mande, Fula (Fulbe; Fulani) and Senegambian peoples. The main ethnic groups include the Balanta, the Fula, the Manjaca, the Mandinga, and the Papel. The official language is Portuguese, but Kriol (Kriolu, Crioulo), a Portuguese-West African creole language, serves as the primary language of communication between ethnic groups.

Approximately 50% of the population practise indigenous religions including the Balante, Papei, Manjaca, Diola, Bijago, Nalu, and Brame (Burama) peoples. The others, including the Fula, Mande, Beafada (Biafada), and Susu peoples, are Muslim (38% to 45%), or Christian (5% to 13%). Followers of indigenous religions are mostly concentrated along the coast and coastal islands, while the population that now practises Islam is located mostly in the cattle-raising interior....

Article

Guyana  

Republic on the northeastern coast of South America with an area of 215,000 km² and a population of 874,000 (2000 estimate). Formerly named British Guiana, it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1966 and became a member of the British Commonwealth. Though on the mainland, Guyana is a part of the circum-Caribbean culture area and its heterogeneous musical traditions are most similar to those of other Caribbean poly-ethnic or plural societies (see Suriname, Republic of. and Trinidad and Tobago, Republic of). The music of Guyana comprises three distinct traditions: that of the Amerindian tribes (5% of the population in 1975), of the East Indian community (51%) and of the African-derived blacks and Creoles (31%). However, by the beginning of the 21st century, little musicological research had been conducted there.

GEWM, ii (‘Guyana’, O. Ahyoung) W.H. Brett: The Indian Tribes of Guiana (London, 1868), 133, 154, 349...

Article

Haiti  

Robert Grenier and Gage Averill

Country in the West Indies. It is located on the island of Hispaniola.

Robert Grenier

The tradition of Western music may be dated to 6 January 1497, when Spanish colonists celebrated the first sung mass at Ysabella, near present-day Cap-Haïtien. Under Spanish rule important institutions that promoted sacred music were created: in 1504 the archdiocese of Santo Domingo was founded, and by 1540 the organist and canon of the cathedral Cristobal de Llerma had established music as a prerequisite for the degree of Doctor of Arts at the University of Santo Thomas de Aquino, founded in 1538.

In 1697 the Treaty of Ryswick confirmed French title to the western portion of Hispaniola, which was re-named Saint-Domingue, and by the early 18th century the rich plantation society was emulating the urban culture of France. In 1750 Port-au-Prince became the colonial capital; the wind band of its militia began the tradition of public concerts. The earliest efforts in theatre music can be dated to the 1740s in Cap-Français (now Cap-Haïtien), and from ...

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Article

T.M. Scruggs

Country in Central America. The name Honduras derives from the characteristic steep valleys (Sp. honda:‘deep’) that carve the mountainous terrain making up about two thirds of this republic's 112,000 km². The population of approximately four and a half million is almost 95% mestizo, a mixture of indigenous American and European peoples and cultures. Historically, the area's geography encouraged social and cultural isolation of different segments of the population, a phenomenon that only broke down in the latter half of the 20th century with the marked increase in communications and massive migration to the capital, Tegucigalpa. Latin American, Hispano-Caribbean and, increasingly, North American musics have had a strong impact on the consumption of popular music. During the 1990s, there was a heightened awareness of the country's indigenous peoples and of the Garifuna, who are of mixed indigenous and African descent.

Research on music before independence still remains to be done in colonial government and church archives, although the low level of economic enterprise during the colonial period probably limited state and church sponsorship of musical activity. In the early independence period, José Trinidad Reyes (...

Article

Hungary  

Janka Szendrei, Dezső Legány, János Kárpáti, Melinda Berlász, Péter Halász, Bálint Sárosi and Irén Kertész Wilkinson

(Hung. Magyarország)

Country in Central Europe. It was settled in the late 9th century by the Magyars. The introduction of Christianity was completed in the early 11th century by Stephen, who took the title of king. In the 14th century, under kings of various dynasties, its territory included much of central Europe; however, in the 16th century it was invaded and partly conquered by the Turks. By the end of the 17th century the Turks were expelled and the country was united under Habsburg rule. In 1867 the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy was established, but after World War I the Habsburgs were dethroned and the territory of the monarchy was divided; large parts of Hungary were lost, Transylvania being ceded to Romania and the area now known as Slovakia becoming part of the new state of Czechoslovakia. The communist People's Republic was established in 1949 and dissolved in 1989. For a map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ...

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Thomas J. Mathiesen, Dimitri Conomos, George Leotsakos, Sotirios Chianis and Rudolph M. Brandl

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Tullia Magrini

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Robert Stevenson, Louise K. Stein, Albert Recasens, Belen Perez Castillo, Josep i Martí i Perez, Martin Cunningham, Ramón Pelinski, Jaume Aiats, Sílvia Martínez García and Arcadio de Larrea Palacín

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Richard Crawford

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Marina Frolova-Walker, Jonathan Powell, Rosamund Bartlett, Izaly Zemtsovsky, Mark Slobin, Jarkko Niemi and Yuri Sheikin

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Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

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Hugh de Ferranti

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