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Monique Brandily

Wooden single-headed hourglass drum of the professional musicians of northwestern Chad. Like the small clay drum kollu, the head is fitted with snares. Two drums are always played together, held one above the other under one arm, and are beaten by hand, one of the drums having a ‘male’ and the other a ‘female’ voice. Two ...



Sydney Hutchinson

Single-headed drum of the southern and eastern Dominican Republic. It is a hollowed log with a goatskin head attached by ropes tied to small bolts on the body or to a cord around the middle of the body. In the east, the head is affixed with bent nails and no ropes. Its size varies widely by region, from about 32 cm in diameter and 34 cm tall, to 26 by 51 cm for the ...



Double-headed cylindrical drum of the Lobi people of Burkina Faso. It has laced heads, one of which is struck by the hand while a stick is used to strike the body. The bambam is played with the elong xylophone in funeral music for respected farmers....


John M. Schechter

Single-headed drum of black musicians of the French Antilles and Louisiana. It is about 60 to 90 cm long and 40 cm in diameter, open at the base, and played with both hands. In Guyana it is called babulá and in Haiti, Trinidad, and Grenada ...



Small hourglass-shaped rattle drum of Thailand. It resembles the South Asian Damaru and is played in the same manner. The ball that strikes the heads is connected by a cord to the end of the handle (a tapered post 13-cm long affixed to the waist of the drum). It is used in some rarely seen royal ceremonies....



Set of two or more single-headed frame drums, with or without circular metal jingles, and a kettledrum used by members of the k’adiriyya Islamic sect of northern Nigeria. It accompanies the zikiri (creed formula by which a person acknowledges that he is a Muslim). The frame drum is held in the left hand and beaten with the fingers of the right....



Alan R. Thrasher

Single-headed block drum of the Han Chinese. Ban here refers to the concept of ‘beat’; gu means ‘drum’. Other common names include danpigu (‘single-skin drum’) and xiaogu (‘small drum’). The thick body, about 25 cm in diameter and 10 cm deep, is constructed from wedges of hardwood glued together in a circle (or sometimes carved from a single block) and wrapped at the bottom with a metal band. The body is open at the bottom, and the interior tapers inward to the top, leaving a central circular opening (about 5 cm in diameter) called the ...



Drum of the Mbelo and Kongo peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et due Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1951), 61.


Tensioned double-headed hourglass drum of the Bariba people of Benin. It is held under the arm and used with a cylindrical drum to accompany dance music for state occasions. The name bara karanku is presumably cognate with the Hausa kalangu.

See also Kalangu.



Inna D. Nazina

Double-headed drum of the eastern Slavs (Ukraine, Belarus, and western regions of Russia). It is known in Belarus in two forms: the drum alone and, influenced by Turkish fashion since the 18th century, with a pair of cymbals mounted on the shell. The baraban is held with the heads vertical and is struck with a wooden beater, often tipped with leather. It is traditionally used in folk ensembles (with violin, clarinet, dulcimer, and accordion) that play at weddings and dances. According to Russian chronicles the drum was used also as a military instrument from the 11th century. The terms ‘baraban’ or ‘ruchnoy baraban’ are also used for the Buben. The ...


Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Large single-headed frame drum of the Cham people of Vietnam. It is played in a ritual ensemble that also includes the sarunai (oboe), a pair of gaming (double-headed drums), and sometimes the ching (gong).

See also Ching (i) ; Sarunai.



Single-headed kettledrum of the Dogon people of Mali. Made from an almost spherical calabash, it is beaten with the flat of the hands; it is used with other drums during the sowing festival and at funeral rites.



Malena Kuss

Set of three Afro-Cuban double-headed hourglass drums of Yoruba origin. Batá are the sacred instruments of the religious system of Ocha/Ifá (Santería). The largest and lowest-pitched drum, which carries the main oratorical role, is called iyá (‘mother’) because other drums are born from the sacred presence within it. The smallest and highest-pitched ...


John M. Schechter and Amanda Villepastour

Drum of the Ẹ̀cgbá Yorùbá people of Nigeria. It is constructed from two large gourds strung together (koto is a Yorùbá word for ‘deep gourd’). One end is then cut open and covered with a skin head. The bàtá koto ensemble consists of the ...



K.A. Gourlay

Term used by the Gunga and Duka peoples of northwestern Nigeria for a calabash drum. The Duka drum is also known as kworria. The Gunga batta is almost spherical and measures about 55 cm in diameter. The goatskin head, about 25 cm in diameter, has a large piece of tuning wax. Metal jingles are attached to the lacing. The drum is beaten by hand and is usually played with the smaller stick-beaten ...



Small kettledrum of the Arab world used in religious processions, begging, and during the month of Ramadan. It is about 16 cm in diameter. Sometimes the body is of metal in the shape of an inverted bell.



Zbigniew J. Przerembski

Term for different types of Polish drums struck with drumsticks. The main types are a single-headed frame drum with jingles or small bells attached (also known as the bębenek, ‘small drum’), widespread in Poland; and a cylindrical two-headed braced drum found largely in the Kalisz region, where it was formerly made from a hollowed log. Such drums are used in various kinds of ensemble, usually with fiddles, in some regions with the bass fiddle but at least since the 19th century never with bagpipes....



Patricia Matusky

Drum of West Malaysia and Sarawak. The usually cylindrical wooden body, sometimes longer than one metre, bears one head of either cow or water buffalo hide, depending on the size of the drum (buffalo hide is thicker and stronger and lasts longer). The head is attached with laces and struck with a pair of wooden sticks. The ...



Drum, described by Pierre Trichet (Traité des instruments de musique. F-Ps, 1070, cl640) as cylindrical with laced heads; earlier the term designated a kettledrum. The bedon de Biscaye is described by Mersenne (Harmonie universelle, 1636–7) as a tambourine.



Margaret J. Kartomi

Large double-headed barrel drum in the Central Javanese Gamelan. It is about 74 cm long and 40 cm wide and is suspended in a decorative wooden frame. The heads are tacked to the shell and one head is beaten with a heavy mallet. It emphasizes dramatic effects in some gamelan works, especially in the theatre and plays the role of the ...