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Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi and Bret Werb

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (...

Article

Nicholas Carolan

(b Jamestown, Co. Dublin, May 5, 1919; d Naul, Co. Dublin, Oct 5, 1982). Irish traditional musician, singer and collector. Having learnt uilleann piping from his civil-servant father and worked in publishing, Ennis became a music collector for the Irish Folklore Commission in ...

Article

John Cline

(b Takoma Park, MD, Feb 28, 1939; d Salem, OR, Feb 22, 2001). American guitarist, folklorist, and record producer. As a teenager, Fahey’s early interest in country music was expanded to include bluegrass and country-blues due to a friendship with richard Spottswood , later a noted folk and ethnic music scholar. With Spottswood and famed collector Joe Bussard, Fahey sought out pre-war 78 r.p.m. records. After taking up the guitar, Fahey’s made his first recordings for Bussard’s private Fonotone label on 78 r.p.m. shellac discs, some of which Fahey claimed to have slipped into boxes of more “authentic,” vintage records at flea markets. In ...

Article

Watkins Shaw and Robert Ford

(b Canterbury, bap. March 27, 1709; d Canterbury, Jan 5, 1798). English composer and music collector. A son of John Flackton, bricklayer and cathedral contractor, he was a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral under William Raylton from 1716 to 1725. During this time he was also apprenticed to Edward Burgess, bookseller, stationer and cathedral lay clerk. In the ...

Article

Anthony Hicks

(b Fontmell Magna, Dorset, July 8, 1879; d Blandford, March 12, 1964). English author, collector and publisher. After training as a writer on various popular journals, Flower joined the publishers Cassell & Co. in 1906 and took over as proprietor in 1927. He was knighted in ...

Article

Nancy Groce

(b Canton, CT, Nov 11, 1833; d Brooklyn, NY, May 17, 1896).

American instrument dealer and collector. He was trained as a clock maker in Bristol, CT, and later worked as a machinist in Hartford, CT, before moving to New York in January 1852...

Article

Gordon E. Smith

(b Lumsden, nr Regina, SK, April 30, 1913; d Toronto, March 28, 1996). Canadian folksong collector. After studying literature and history at Saskatchewan University, she moved to Toronto in 1938 and was spurred to collect English-language folksongs in Ontario in the 1940s by a perceived dearth of recordings and publication of local music. She conducted fieldwork in southern Ontario, discovering a rich heritage of folk music especially in the Ottawa valley and Peterborough regions while also working for CBC radio. The author and editor of numerous books, articles and folksong collections, she was professor of folklore at York University, Toronto (...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill and Veslemöy Heintz

(b Västerås, May 4, 1879; d Hälsingborg, Aug 25, 1965). Swedish musicologist and collector. He studied Romance languages at Uppsala University, where he took the doctorate in 1907, and was a music pupil of I.E. Hedenblad and L.J. Zetterqvist. Subsequently he taught French in schools in Sundsvall (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, Feb 16, 1916; d New York, Jan 29, 2008). American collector and writer on music. He received the BA from Harvard College in 1937 and graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1940 and practised law in New York. His interest in first editions led him to an investigation of the various techniques for dating printed music and identifying first editions and he built up a private collection of over 1700 first editions of classical, popular and folk music, which includes Palestrina’s ...

Article

Gordon E. Smith

(b Rivière-du-Loup-en-haut [now Louiseville], Lower Canada [PQ], Nov 7, 1834; d Quebec City, Sept 15, 1915). Canadian composer, organist, teacher and folksong collector. After completing the classical studies programme at the Collège Joliette, he spent three years studying music in Montreal. In 1853...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Dorchester, Dec 25, 1858; d Richmond, Surrey, Dec 30, 1945). English collector of musical instruments and scholar. He was educated at King's School, Sherborne, where James Robert Sterndale Bennett, son of the composer, encouraged his aptitude for music. From 1877 he studied classics at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA ...

Article

Jack Sage

(b Plasencia, Jan 4, 1912; d Madrid, Aug 26, 1974). Spanish collector of and writer on folk music. He studied the violin, flute, piano and composition with Joaquín Sánchez, the maestro de capilla of Plasencia Cathedral. By the time he was 18 he had founded a choir in his home town, the Masa Coral Placentina, which he conducted; subsequently he reorganized the choir into smaller groups, the Coros Extremeños, better suited to performing his own versions of the increasing number of Extremaduran folksongs he collected. In ...

Article

Dena J. Epstein

(b Philadelphia, Oct 30, 1842; d West Orange, NJ, May 11, 1877). American collector of slave songs. The only practising musician among the collectors of slave songs in the South Carolina Sea Islands during the Civil War, she accompanied her father to this Union enclave in ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Logroño, May 14, 1898; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1964). Spanish folklorist and composer. He received his early musical education in Burgos, where, influenced by the musicologist Nemesio Otaño, he became deeply interested in traditional folk music. He qualified as a military bandmaster in ...

Article

Georgina Boyes

(b Manchester, Dec 8, 1863; d Lancaster, July 24, 1954). English musical antiquary and authority on folk music, psalmody and hymnody. Trained at the Royal Academy of Music, she began research in folklore in 1895, when she noted similarities between newly discovered folksongs and the modal tunes of 16th- and 17th-century hymns. Between ...

Article

(b Sorochintsï, Poltava province, 19/March 31, 1809; d Moscow, 21 Feb/March 4, 1852). Russian novelist and dramatist. Born into an impoverished gentry family in the Ukraine, where he spent his childhood and youth, he received a rather meagre education. He went to St Petersburg in ...

Article

Malcolm Gillies and David Pear

(b Brighton, Victoria, July 8, 1882; d White Plains, NY, Feb 20, 1961). Australian-American composer, pianist and folksong collector. Best known for his settings of British folk music, he was also an innovative composer of original works and ‘free music’, and an accomplished performer....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Dec 26, 1716; d Cambridge, July 30, 1771). English music collector, poet and amateur musician. He was educated at Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge. After touring Italy with Horace Walpole during the period 1739–41, he divided his time between London, Stoke Poges (where his mother had retired) and Cambridge, where he was first a fellow of Peterhouse and then of Pembroke College. As well as being one of the greatest poets of his time, Gray had a fine connoisseur’s taste in painting, architecture, natural history, and music. While in Italy he began to assemble a remarkable library of Italian music, largely consisting of operatic arias in score. He was especially fond of Pergolesi, but also admired older composers including Palestrina; he had no great love of Handel. He was an accomplished harpsichord player and kept Viscount Fitzwilliam’s instrument in his rooms at Peterhouse; later, perhaps under the influence of his friend ...

Article

Greece  

Katy Romanou, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Alexander Lingas, Nikos Maliaras, Achilleus Chaldaiakis, John Plemmenos, Pyrros Bamichas, Kostas Kardamis, Sofia Kontossi, Myrto Economides, Dafni Tragaki, Ioannis Tsagkarakis, Kostas Chardas, Manolis Seiragakis, Sotirios Chianis and Rudolph M. Brandl

Katy Romanou

Greeks have a history of over three millennia, during which they inhabited large and varied areas mainly in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The greatest expansion of ancient Greek civilization was achieved with Alexander the Great’s conquests and the establishment of states by his successors during the Hellenistic period. Greek language and civilization, globalized at that crucial moment of change for world history, were vehicles of the new religion that would expand to western Europe. In that same period, and in the Greek language, sciences were perfected in the new centres, such as Alexandria; mechanics, acoustics, and philology contributed to the invention and improvement of musical instruments, the scientific justification of Greek musical concepts, and the preservation in critical editions of the corpus of ancient Greek literature in all fields.

In 200–146 bce the Romans completed the conquest of Greek centres, and in 30 bce, with the conquest of Alexandria, the Roman Empire dominated all the Hellenistic states. In 330 ...

Article

Jean Mary Allan and Emily Lyle

(b Parkhill, Aberdeenshire, Feb 10, 1856; d Whitehill, Aberdeenshire, Aug 31, 1914). Scottish folksong collector, author and composer. He took the MA at Aberdeen University in 1876 and became a teacher; in 1879 he was appointed headmaster of Whitehill School and he retained this position until his death. On his mother’s side he was related to James Burness, Robert Burns’s great-grandfather, and like Burns he was keenly interested in collecting folksongs. It is by his extensive work in this field that he is known. He had a sound knowledge of the theory and practice of music, being able to take down songs while they were being sung and to harmonize them. He made the fullest single statement of his findings in a substantial article ‘Folk Song in Buchan’; he also wrote a column called ‘Folk-Song of the North-East’ in the ...