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Article

Stuart Campbell

( b Nizhniy Novgorod, Dec 21, 1836/Jan 2, 1837; d St Petersburg, 16/May 29, 1910). Russian composer, conductor, teacher and pianist .

Balakirev was the son of a minor government official. His musical education began with his mother’s piano tuition and proceeded to a course of summer lessons in Moscow with Aleksandr Dubuque. At that time the leading musical figure and patron in Nizhniy Novgorod (and author of books on Mozart and Beethoven) was Aleksandr Ulïbïshev, and it was through his household pianist and musical organizer Karl Eisrich that Balakirev’s induction to music, embracing the crucial discoveries of Chopin and Glinka, continued. Eisrich and Ulïbïshev provided Balakirev with further opportunities to play, read and listen to music, and to rehearse other musicians in orchestral and choral works, including, when he was 14, Mozart’s Requiem. His first surviving compositions date from the age of 15. Balakirev’s formal education began at the Gymnasium in Nizhniy Novgorod and continued after his mother’s death in ...

Article

Richard R. Bunbury

(b Easthampton, MA, March 27, 1872; d Canaan, NH, Sept 30, 1943). American composer, organist, conductor, and music educator. He graduated from Williston Seminary in Northampton, Massachusetts (1890), and studied music in Boston with George W. Chadwick and others (1890–93). He then returned to Northampton and became a church musician, recitalist, school music supervisor (beginning in 1899), and director of the Vocal Club of Northampton (1894–1904). In 1900 he took over the Institute of Music Pedagogy, a summer program for training school music supervisors. In 1904 he became a church music director, organist, and school music supervisor in Hartford, Connecticut, eventually moving to the Immanuel Congregational Church of Hartford (1917). He also founded and directed the all-male Choral Club of Hartford (1907–37), and directed the Mendelssohn Glee Club of New York City (1923–34). He received honorary degrees from Trinity College in Hartford (BA ...

Article

Silvio J. dos Santos

(b São Paulo, Brazil, Dec 17, 1944). Brazilian guitarist, arranger, and teacher. Barbosa-Lima has been performing for over 50 years in important venues around the world. He started playing the guitar at age 7 and two years later began studying with Isaías Sávio, one of the foremost guitar teachers in Brazil. His concert career started with his debut in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro at age 13. After his successful 1967 concert tour in the United States, he received scholarships to participate in Andrés Segovia’s 1968 masterclasses in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. He has produced more than 40 recordings, with a repertoire ranging from classical and contemporary music to jazz and Brazilian popular music, and has published books on guitar techniques and repertoires in collaboration with John Griggs. He has also published and recorded works dedicated to him by composers such as Guido Santórsola, Francisco Mignone, and Alberto Ginastera. His transcriptions and performances of works by Domenico Scarlatti, Claude Debussy, George Gershwin, Antônio Carlos Jobim, Scott Joplin, and Stephen Sondheim are remarkable for their clarity of textures, where the melody and bass lines are clearly distinguished from countermelodies and harmonies. Formerly a member of the guitar faculty at the Manhattan School of Music, he still conducts masterclasses throughout the world. He has published several books on guitar techniques and repertoires in collaboration with John Griggs....

Article

Charles Conrad

(b Hobart, OK, Sept 9, 1949). American composer, educator, conductor. He earned degrees in music at the University of Kansas (BM 1974, MM 1975), where he has been a faculty member since 1976, and is currently Division Director for Music Theory and Composition. His compositions include six symphonies, many overtures and several works for solo winds with band. He has twice received the American Bandmasters Association Ostwald Award as well as the Kappa Kappa Psi Distinguished Service to Music Medal and the Bohumil Makovsky Award for Outstanding College Band Conductors.

Barnes is known as an expert orchestrator; his trademarks include the integration of tuned percussion, piano, and harp into the band texture, and the extensive melodic and solo use of low brass and woodwind instruments. Among the most performed of his more than 100 published works are Third Symphony (1996), Fantasy Variations on a Theme of Niccolo Paganini...

Article

Paul Rinzler

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[William, Jr. ]

(b Philadelphia, March 27, 1927; d Middletown, CT, Sept 21, 1989). American tenor and soprano saxophonist, composer, and teacher, brother of Kenny Barron. He first studied piano with his mother from the age of nine, but four years later changed to soprano saxophone and then to the tenor instrument. At the age of 17 he toured with the Carolina Cotton Pickers, after which he served as a musician in the army (1943–6), where his fellow bandsmen included Randy Weston and Ernie Henry. He then played tenor saxophone in Philadelphia with Red Garland, Jimmy Heath, and Philly Joe Jones; Dexter Gordon influenced his early style. In 1958 he moved to New York. There he performed and in 1959 recorded with Cecil Taylor, recorded with Jones in 1959–60, and co-led the group the Barron Brothers; he also formed a group with Ted Curson which in 1964 toured Europe, where it frequently broadcast on radio and television and recorded in Paris. He appeared with Taylor’s free-jazz group at the Newport Jazz Festival in ...

Article

Paul Rinzler

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Kenneth ]

(b Philadelphia, June 9, 1943). American pianist, composer, leader, and teacher, brother of Bill Barron. He learned piano from the age of 12 and with the help of his brother secured an engagement when he was 15 with a rhythm-and-blues orchestra led by Mel Melvin; while in high school he also played double bass and tuba. Having worked with Philly Joe Jones (1959) and Jimmy Heath, and in Detroit with Yusef Lateef (1960), in 1961 he moved to New York and began appearing regularly at the Five Spot with James Moody, on whose recommendation he was engaged by Dizzy Gillespie; from 1962 to 1966 he toured Europe and North America with Gillespie. Barron then played briefly with Stanley Turrentine and was a member of several groups led by Freddie Hubbard (1967–9); by 1970 his compositions had been recorded by Gillespie, Hubbard, and Moody. He was again with Lateef from ...

Article

Lesley A. Wright

[Adrien ]

( b Bayonne, France, June 7, 1828; d Asnières-sur-Seine, France, Aug 13, 1898). French composer, pianist, and teacher . After studying with Leborne, he won the Prix de Rome in 1854. The music section of the Académie praised his envoi, the French opera Don Carlos (1857), for its craftsmanship, fine orchestration, and strong sense of the stage, and in 1858 they awarded him the Prix Édouard Rodrigues for his oratorio Judith, over the only other competitor, Bizet. That year Barthe married mezzo-soprano Anna Banderali.

The Théâtre-Lyrique opened a competition in 1864 on Jules Adenis’s libretto La fiancée d’Abydos, for Prix de Rome winners whose work had not yet reached the stage. Barthe was the unanimous choice of the jury, above Émile Paladilhe and three others. Extensive changes were made during rehearsal and the première took place on 30 December 1865. Critics were largely positive, though they noted resemblances to Meyerbeer, Félicien David, Gounod, and others, and found the libretto somewhat tedious. After a respectable 21 performances (in Paris and Bayonne) the work disappeared from the repertory....

Article

(b Tarnopol′, 8/Feb 20, 1888; d L′viv, June 9, 1963). Ukrainian composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He took piano lessons first at the K. Mikuli Music School (1895–1905) and with W. Kurtz (1905–06) at the conservatory in L′viv. During the same period he studied jurisprudence at Lemberg University, and from 1907, philosophy at the University of Prague. In Prague Barvyns′ky studied musicology with Z. Nejedly and O. Hostinsky, the piano with I. Holfeld and composition with Vítězsláv Novák (1908–14), who exerted a powerful influence on him. From 1915 to 1939 Barvyns′ky taught at, and was director of, the Lysenko Music Institute in L′viv, and also taught at the conservatory there (1939–41 and 1944–8). A prolific organizer, he initiated and took part in many musical activities in L′viv and became a member of the editorial board of the journal ...

Article

Elżbieta Dziębowska

(d Lemberg [now L'viv], after 1862). Polish composer, teacher and flautist, probably of Czech descent. He was choirmaster at Lemberg Cathedral, and from 1838 to 1844 vice-director of the music society in Lemberg. Later he taught singing and the flute in Kiev. He composed a three-act vaudeville Skalmierzanki, to a libretto by J.N. Kamiński (1828, manuscript in PL-Wn ), and three operas: Syn i córka (‘Son and Daughter’), Więzienie Jana Kazimierza we Francji (‘The Imprisonment of Jan Kazimierz in France’) and Twardowski na Krzemionkach, a five-act comic opera to another libretto by Kamiński. He also wrote sacred music, including a setting of the Salve regina (Lemberg, 1858), and some piano works, notably Collection de polonaises (1826) and L'aurora boreale (Lemberg, 1839).

SMP R. Bohdan [K. Estreicher]: ‘Raptularzyk podrożny’ [Travel diary], Ruch muzyczny (1857), 319 K. Estreicher: ‘Podrożnik raptowny’ [Travel diary], Ruch muzyczny...

Article

Andrew Ashbee

(bur. Westminster, London, Aug 18, 1679). English viol player, teacher, and composer. The earliest reference to Bates is by John Playford, who, in his Musicall Banquet (1651), listed him among the ‘excellent and able Masters’ of the voice and viol in London. Bates probably served the royalist cause during the Civil War: as ‘Captain’ Bates he petitioned unsuccessfully for a place among the vicars-choral at St Paul’s Cathedral when the choir was reconstituted in 1660–61, stating that he had formerly been in the choir of St John’s College, Oxford. He was sworn as one of Charles II’s musicians on 19 June 1660, receiving two posts. One was as viol player and the other as teacher of the royal children, with salaries of £40 and £50 a year respectively. Bates also served as bass viol player in the Chapel Royal; a warrant dated 30 August 1662 orders him to attend on Sundays and holy days. In spite of this potential income, payments were sparse and records show that Bates faced continual financial difficulties (...

Article

Hugh Macdonald

revised by Valerie Walden

(b Nancy, March 29, 1773; d Paris, Sept 26, 1849). French cellist, teacher and composer. He and Lamare joined Baillot in Paris in 1792 to play Boccherini quintets. He was a pupil of the elder Janson and became a cello professor (second class) at the newly founded Paris Conservatoire in 1795. His appointment was suspended in 1802 but he resumed office from 1805 until 1827 when he retired to undertake a number of tours. During the Empire he continued to perform chamber music with Baillot and other faculty members, and joined the Opéra orchestra. He became principal cello in the imperial chapel and retained the post during the Restoration. In 1818 he became a member of the Société Academique des Enfants d’Apollon. Although he was much esteemed in France, the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung of April 1820 described his playing as cold. Fétis, too, inclined to that view, though he praised his pure tone and fine intonation. Baudiot played a Stradivari cello of ...

Article

Luise Marretta-Schär

(b Rorschach, Nov 15, 1820; d Zürich, March 17, 1867). Swiss pianist, teacher and composer. His father died when he was young, but his exceptional intelligence assured him of a place at his school and the continuing of his education. In 1833 he was adopted by Joseph Waldmann, a clergyman from Messkirch, Baden, who educated him further. At the age of 14 he was composing and giving music lessons. He attended the Gymnasium in Zürich from 1836 to 1838, and then studied at Zürich University. Resolving to become a professional musician, he studied the piano and theory with Alexander Müller, the director of a number of choirs; Baumgartner was occasionally asked to conduct in his master’s absence. Having concluded his apprenticeship after three years, he moved in 1842 to St Gallen, where he taught the piano, gave recitals and composed songs. During this period he was in close contact with Friedrich Kücken, with whom he frequently discussed his compositions; he also became interested in German literature and theology....

Article

Gérard Streletski

(b Marseilles, Sept 4, 1816; d Paris, July 2, 1878). French composer, teacher and conductor. He became a student at the Paris Conservatoire in 1834, and studied composition with Henri-Montan Berton and Halévy. He won premiers prix for harmony and accompaniment (1836), counterpoint and fugue (1836) and for organ playing (1839). The jury of the Prix de Rome awarded him a second prize on 30 April 1839, and the first prize on 23 May 1840. His cantata written for the competition, Loÿse de Montfort, was performed at the Opéra on 7 October 1840.

On completing his studies he divided his time mainly between teaching and composition, and worked occasionally as a conductor. He held an unsalaried post as teacher of harmony and accompaniment at the Conservatoire from 1838 to 1 April 1841 and was appointed accompanist to the opera class on 1 December 1839...

Article

Giovanni Carli Ballola

revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin

(b Brescia, March 11, 1818; d Milan, Feb 10, 1897). Italian violinist, composer and teacher. He was a pupil of a Brescian violinist, Faustino Camisani (Camesani); encouraged by Paganini, he began his concert career at an early age and became one of the most highly regarded artists of his time. From 1841 to 1845 he lived in Germany, where he was much admired by Schumann both as a violinist and a composer, as well as by Mendelssohn (Bazzini gave the first private performance of his Violin Concerto). After a short stay in Denmark he returned to Brescia to teach and compose. In 1846 he played in Naples and Palermo. In 1849–50 he toured Spain and from 1852 to 1863 lived in Paris. He ended his concert career with a tour of the Netherlands in 1864. Returning once more to Brescia, he devoted himself to composition, gradually abandoning the virtuoso opera fantasias and character-pieces (such as the well-known ...

Article

Marie Fitzpatrick

(Eveline )

(b Streetly, Staffs, Dec 17, 1937). British composer and teacher. She studied at Birmingham University between 1956 and 1964 (BMus 1960, MA 1968) and with Alexander Goehr. During the 1960s she worked as a freelance horn player and as a music lecturer at colleges of education; in 1972 she was appointed lecturer at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama. She was a founder member of the Scottish Society of Composers and the Scottish Electro-Acoustic Music Society and in 1988 formed the contemporary music ensemble Soundstrata. During 1992 she was visiting composer at the Meistersinger-Konservatorium in Nuremberg; in 1996 she was appointed lecturer in music technology at the University of Glasgow. As a composer, she has acknowledged the influence of Bartók, Stockhausen and oriental music, and she was a pioneer of British electronic music. She combines natural and artificially generated or mediated sound, often using tape, as in ...

Article

[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...

Article

Kara Gardner

(b Detroit, March 28, 1866; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1945). American violinist, conductor, musical director, teacher, and composer. Bendix was born to Jewish parents who had emigrated from Germany. His father William was a music teacher. Bendix began formal study at the Cincinnati College of Music where, at the age of twelve, he performed with the college orchestra, directed by Theodore Thomas. This began a long association between the two men, leading to Bendix’s appointment as first violinist and concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1886. In August 1893 Thomas resigned his position as music director of the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition following a series of unsuccessful concerts. Bendix took Thomas’s place as conductor of the Exposition orchestra. This created tension between the two men, and Bendix left the Thomas orchestra in 1896. He went on to serve as conductor at the Manhattan Opera House and to conduct orchestras for world fairs in St. Louis (...

Article

Marie-Thérèse Buyssens

(Leonard Leopold)

(b Harlebeke, Aug 17, 1834; d Antwerp, March 8, 1901). Belgian composer, conductor and teacher. He received his first music lessons from his father and then studied the piano and the organ with Carlier, verger and organist at Desselgem. In 1851 he became a pupil at the Brussels Conservatory, where he took courses in piano, harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition, winning first prize in harmony and composition in 1854. His chief teacher was the director, François-Joseph Fétis. Having completed his studies at the conservatory, he continued to study with C.-L. Hanssens, director of the Théâtre de la Monnaie. During these years Benoit was in severe financial straits and was obliged to take a post as additional triangle player with the Monnaie orchestra. In 1856 he became conductor of the Park Theatre at Brussels. He won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1857 with his cantata Le meurtre d'Abel...

Article

Jernej Weiss

[Emerich, Emerih]

(b Brno, Czech Republic, Oct 17, 1868; d Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 11, 1940). Czech composer, cellist, and music educator. Immigrated to Slovenia in 1898. After playing the cello at the Secondary School of Music of the Music Society in Brno (1884–85), he began in 1885 to study at the Organ School in Brno, where he attended composition and instrumentation classes under Leoš Janáček. He graduated with honours in 1888 and passed the national examination in Vienna in 1892. From 1889 to 1890 he was a cellist in the opera orchestra of the City Theatre in Brno. From 1890 to 1898 he taught music at the Czech Men’s College of Education in Brno and was a teaching assistant at the Brno Organ School. In 1897 he appeared before the general public in Brno (where he wrote the majority of his compositions) for the first time as a composer; he achieved his first major success as a composer with ...

Article

Mary Cyr

[not Jean-Baptiste]

(b Lunel, 1710; d Paris, Dec 1, 1772). French haute-contre singer, music teacher, cellist and composer. His début in 1733 at the Paris Opéra, according to La Borde, was in the monologue of Pélée, ‘Ciel! en voyant ce temple redoutable’ from Act 3 of Collasse's Thétis et Pélée (1689). He soon joined the Italian troupe, performing in divertissements between the acts of operas. After three years he returned to the Opéra and took several minor roles between 1737 and 1745 in Rameau's works: Un Athlète in Castor et Pollux (1737), Un Songe in Dardanus (1739), Lycurgue in Fêtes d'Hébé (1739), and Tacmas (replacing the well-known haute-contre Tribou) in the third entrée of Les Indes galantes (1743 revival). In 1743 he sang the title role in the première of Boismortier's ballet-comique, Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse, with the famous soprano Marie Fel as Altisidore. Two years later he retired from the opera to devote himself to teaching and playing the cello. He became first cellist of the orchestra at the Comédie-Italienne in ...