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Article

John Morehen

(b 1591; fl c1641). English music editor and composer. He may well have been the John Barnard who was a lay clerk at Canterbury Cathedral between 1618 and 1622, and whose age at the time of his marriage in 1619 was given as ‘about 28’. Barnard, who was a minor canon of St Paul's Cathedral, London, in the early 17th century, was the compiler of The First Book of Selected Church Musick (London, 1641/R). This anthology of church music by 19 leading composers of the late 16th and early 17th centuries was the only printed collection of English liturgical music to appear between Day's Certaine notes (London, 1565) and the Civil War. It comprised ten partbooks – Medius, Primus and Secundus Contratenor, Tenor and Bassus, for each side of the choir, Decani and Cantoris. Only 38 partbooks are now extant, of which 33 are imperfect. No printed organbook exists, and it seems most unlikely that one was ever published, though it may be that the ‘Batten’ Organbook would have served as a source for one. A much larger collection of English liturgical music which Barnard assembled in manuscript between about ...

Article

Raoul F. Camus

(b Grafton, WV, March 20, 1865; d Oskaloosa, IA, Nov 18, 1929). American music publisher, bandmaster, and composer. As a child, he was given cornet lessons by his uncles. He became a proficient soloist, and by the age of 16 was director of the Grafton Band. He then toured for several years with musical comedy companies. In 1886 he moved to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, where he directed the local band and set up a music publishing business. He moved his family and business first to Burlington, Iowa, in 1888, and then to Oskaloosa in 1891. For many years he directed the Iowa Brigade Band, for which he provided a rehearsal hall. He published more than 100 of his own band compositions, including cornet solos, marches, galops, waltzes, and dirges; some works appeared under the pseudonyms Jim Fisk and A.M. Laurens. A number of his marches are recorded in the Heritage of the March series compiled by Robert Hoe, Jr. (6, A, G, O, FF, ZZ, RRR). His publishing business flourished, becoming one of the largest in the country. In addition to his own compositions, he published the works of such important composers as Fred Jewell, J.J. Richards, Karl King, Russell Alexander, and Walter English. The company bearing his name continues to publish band music of high quality....

Article

William Brooks

revised by Deniz Ertan

(b Bethel, CT, July 5, 1810; d Bridgeport, CT, Apr 7, 1891). American impresario, author, publisher, philanthropist, and politician/reformer. He produced theatrical matinées, blackface minstrelsy, melodramas, circus tours (the first to own private trains), farces, baby and beauty contests, and temperance lectures. After an early success exhibiting Joyce Heth (advertised as George Washington’s 160-year-old nurse) in 1835, he capitalized on the enthusiasm for Tyrolean acts by introducing the often parodied “Swiss Bell Ringers” in 1844. His management of such novelties as the celebrated midget Tom Thumb had established him as America’s leading showman, and the lecture hall at the Museum became an early venue for “family” minstrelsy and variety. Barnum’s greatest triumph, however, was a tour by soprano JENNY LIND (1850–51); under his management she gave 95 concerts in 19 cities, attracting unprecedented receipts of $712,161.34 (see also Taylor, Bayard). This was the first major tour in the United States to be managed by a nonperformer, marking the rise of a separate class of agents and promoters. He also sponsored the Irish soprano Catherine Hayes on a tour of California (...

Article

Thomas W. Bridges

revised by Maureen Buja

(b Langres; fl Rome, 1551–72). French printer. He was a singer in the Cappella Giulia intermittently from March 1552 until at least the end of 1554, and was also active as a composer: in 1552 his Madrigali a quattro voci were printed in Rome by Valerio and Luigi Dorico.

In 1555 he began to print music, publishing a series of collections entitled ‘delle muse’, Vicentino’s L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna pratica (1555; in 1551 Barrè had been a witness at the famous debate between Vicentino and Lusitano in Rome) and a few volumes devoted to single composers. His first publication, Il primo libro delle muse a cinque (1555), set a high standard, with canzone settings by Barrè himself, Berchem, Vincenzo Ruffo and Arcadelt, including Arcadelt’s superb setting of Petrarch’s Chiare, fresch’e dolci acque. Barrè’s Primo libro delle muse a quattro voci (1555) includes his own setting of four stanzas from Ariosto’s ...

Article

Mimi Tashiro

(Phillips) [Todd Mayfield, Ann; Todd, Ann E.]

(b Denver, CO, Aug 26, 1931). American music librarian, editor, and publisher. Daughter of composer Burrill Phillips and Alberta Phillips, and wife of composer Robert Basart, she was raised by her maternal grandparents who named her Ann Todd Mayfield. As Ann E. Todd, she was a child actress featured in more than twenty films such as Intermezzo, All This, and Heaven Too, and Three Daring Daughters. In 1953 she graduated from University of California, Los Angeles in Music History and continued her studies at the University of California, Berkeley earning an MLS in 1958 and MA in 1960. She had a distinguished career as reference librarian at the UC Berkeley Music Library from 1960–61 and 1970–90, during which time she founded and edited the library’s newsletter, Cum Notis Variorum, which gained a national audience. It contained news, reviews, and substantial articles, including bibliographies, checklists, and indexes on various topics and sources. Basart also wrote numerous reviews for ...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Plainfield, NJ, March 14, 1949). American composer, engraver, author, and editor. Báthory-Kitsz has written under a wide array of aliases, including Kalvos Gesamte, Grey Shadé, D.B. Cowell, Brady Kynans, and Kalvos Zondrios. He is a self-proclaimed humanist and believes strongly in the power of everyday people to create and perform music. He has also advocated for locally-centered performances and has been a tremendous force in the creative life of Vermont, where he has made his home. While Báthory-Kitsz remains a highly prolific composer, penning over one thousand works since the late 1960s, he is also recognized as an important writer, both on music and on other topics, such as computers and Vermont country stores. Báthory-Kitsz’s commitment to the life of music reaches out from his own compositions, which he allows people to download and perform for free, and also to his advocacy for the performance of contemporary music, seen especially in his involvement with several festivals and projects that keep “modern” music in the forefront. He has served on the board, directed, and founded many of these events himself. He was the director and founder of Dashuki Music Theater (...

Article

Shirley Beary

revised by Harry Eskew

(b Lebanon, AL, Dec 8, 1887; d Dallas, TX, Jan 21, 1960). American publisher and composer of gospel songs. He attended singing schools of Thomas B. Mosley and Anthony J. Showalter and became proficient in writing both words and music of gospel songs, probably composing more convention songs than any other gospel music publisher of his time. A compilation of his songs, Precious Abiding Peace, was published in 1960. He was an outstanding singing school teacher and conducted his own schools until 1922, after which he managed the Showalter office in Texarkana, Texas. In 1926 Baxter joined with Virgil O. Stamps in establishing the Stamps-Baxter Music Company in Jacksonville, Texas. When the company moved to Dallas in 1929, Baxter opened a branch office in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Stamps-Baxter became the foremost publisher of gospel music in seven-shape notation. Following Stamps’s death in 1940, Baxter moved to Dallas and became president of the firm. By ...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

(b Rowley, MA, June 27, 1729; d Newburyport, MA, Feb 29, 1792). American tune book compiler and publisher. He worked as a potter and shopkeeper, and served as a clerk and possibly chorister at St Paul’s, Newburyport; his son Daniel, with whom he has been confused, played the organ at St Paul’s from 1776. Bayley began a prolific career as a compiler by bringing out A New and Complete Introduction (5 edns, Newburyport, 1764–8), a composite drawn from successful works by other compilers. In 1768 he published Tans’ur’s Royal Melody Compleat (London, 1754–5 and later edns; 2 edns, Boston, 1767–8), then combined it with Aaron Williams’s Universal Psalmodist (London, 1763 and later edns), and under the title The American Harmony issued four editions between 1769 and 1774. Towards the end of the American Revolution, Bayley pirated the title and partial contents of another popular work, Andrew Law’s ...

Article

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

[Basilicus, Ciprianus; Cyprian z Sieradza; Ciprianus Sieradensis]

(b Sieradz, c1535; d 1600). Polish writer, poet, composer and printer. In printed volumes of music he was referred to as ‘C. B.’ and ‘C.S.’; on 1 September 1557 he was knighted and admitted to the family of Heraklides Jakub Basilikos. He studied at Kraków Academy in 1550–51 and then worked for a while in the chancellery of King Sigismund II August. In 1558 he moved to Lithuania and worked at Wilno (now Vilnius) and Brześć Litewski (now Brest) as a member of the court of Duke Mikołaj Radziwiłł. He was engaged mainly as musician, but later he worked as a writer and as a translator of Calvinist publications. In 1569–70 he owned a printing house at Brześć Litewski and was a member of the household of Albrecht Łaski, the Voivode of Sieradz. Subsequently with financial assistance from the king, he continued his work as a translator, mainly of Latin works on history and politics; he also wrote a number of occasional poems. His writings are notable for the distinction of their language. He published his last literary work in ...

Article

Erik Kjellberg

revised by Paul Whitehead

(fl 1650–70). German composer, editor and musician. He is known to have been the principal musicus ordinarius in Frankfurt. He was nominated in 1650 but was expelled a few years later for indecent behaviour; he returned to the position in 1670. His name is connected with two collections of dance music for four-part string ensemble and basso continuo. Continuatio exercitii musici (Frankfurt, 1666), includes 50 dance pieces bearing his name, presumably as composer, arranged into suites and according to the title pages he arranged and edited the anonymous pieces of this volume and of its successor, Continuatio exercitii musici secunda (1670). The 1666 volume was the second edition of Exercitium musicum (1660); this publication makes no mention of Beck, although it is possible that he had an editorial role here too. It includes pieces in scordatura and features a wider range of genres than its successor volumes. The latter, however, contain information on the optional deletion of parts, apparently to accommodate varying levels of skill in the performers. Indeed, the idea of bringing together performers with differing levels of ability in an instructional setting may well have had some bearing on the titles of the collections. (Å. Davidsson: ...

Article

Raymond A. Barr

(b Erfurt, April 9, 1752; d Gotha, March 28, 1822). German writer and publisher. The son of a schoolteacher, he graduated in theology from Jena University, and then taught at a school in Klettenberg am Harze for a short time before returning to Erfurt as a tutor. In 1782 he took a teaching position in Dessau, but in 1784 moved to Gotha to help found a teachers’ institute. There he continued his career as a writer, established several periodicals and in 1795 founded his own publishing house.

Becker is best known for his literary works, particularly the Versuch über die Aufklärung des Landsmanns (1784) and the remarkably popular Noth- und Hülfsbüchlein für Bauersleute (1787), both of which deal with his imaginary utopian village of Mildheim. His importance to music rests in the songbook he compiled for the village – the Mildheimisches Liederbuch von 518 lustigen und ernsthaften Gesängen über alle Dinge in der Welt und alle Umstände des menschlichen Lebens, die man besingen kann, gesammelt für Freunde erlaubter Fröhlichkeit und echer Tugend, die den Kopf nicht hängt...

Article

Sally Drage

(bap. Sunningwell, Oxon., June 23, 1700; d after 1758). English psalmodist and singing teacher . He was a farmer's son. One of the first itinerant singing teachers to engrave and print his own music, he was arguably the ‘father’ of the fuging-tune, which became popular in England and America during the late 18th century. A psalmody book, apparently produced in the mid-1720s, has not survived, but four later publications, all undated, make a substantial contribution to our knowledge of country psalmody. The different editions had identical titles, but the use of separate engraving plates meant that contents could vary according to the purchaser's requirements. The music, which Beesly collected but may not have composed, exemplifies the bare harmony and unresolved dissonance of much early Gallery music. Although a few previous examples exist, his claim that the 20 new psalm tunes were ‘Compos'd with veriety of Fuges after a different manner to any yet extant’ is fully justified; his tune to Psalm viii was widely reprinted....

Article

Richard Crawford

(b Stoughton, MA, March 29, 1751; d Farmington, ME, June 9, 1836). American composer and tunebook compiler. He began a career as a merchant in Boston, but by 1776 he was back in his hometown, where he purchased a farm and operated a tavern; he was also a member of the Stoughton Musical Society. In 1785 he and his family moved to Maine and spent six years in Hallowell (now Augusta). In 1796 a local newspaper reported of a public ceremony marking the Hallowell Academy’s first year of operation: “The exercises were enlivened by vocal and instrumental music under the direction of Mr. Belcher, the ‘Handel of Maine.’” Belcher then settled in Farmington, where he spent the rest of his life. He played a leading role in the community, as town clerk, magistrate, representative to the state government, selectman, and schoolmaster, and was also known as a violinist and singer; he is said to have organized the town’s first choir....

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by David Warren Steel

(b Framingham, MA, Feb 9, 1771; d Pawtucket, RI, Oct 31, 1815). American composer, tunebook compiler, and singing master. The son of Jeremiah Belknap Jr. and Hepzibah Stone, he grew up in Framingham, where he received a common-school education. He then worked as a farmer, mechanic, and militia captain, and taught singing-schools from the age of 18. Around 1800 he married Mary Parker, with whom he had five children by 1809. In 1812 he and his family moved to Pawtucket, where he died of a fever.

Most of his 86 known compositions were first printed in his own tunebooks, an exception being his most widely published piece, “Lena,” which was introduced in The Worcester Collection (Boston, 5/1794). His ambitious Masonic ode, “A View of the Temple,” was sung at the installation of the Middlesex Lodge of Framingham in 1795. Belknap’s The Harmonist’s Companion (Boston, 1797), a brief 32-page collection, contains only his own compositions, which are written in an American idiom untouched by European-inspired reform. His later compilations, ...

Article

Susan Bain

(b Liège, 1526; d Antwerp, Oct 15, 1595). Flemish publisher, printer and editor. In 1553, the year of his marriage, he became a citizen of Antwerp and received a licence to print; he was elected a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1559. His first book was published there in 1555. One of the most important figures of his time, he published a wide variety of books, including classics, literature, history, science, Spanish books and French translations from Latin, Italian and Portuguese. He journeyed regularly to Frankfurt and had business dealings with a wide circle of printers and humanists, including Plantin.

From 1570 he collaborated with Pierre Phalèse family (i) and together they issued some 50 volumes, both vocal and instrumental. During this association, Phalèse also issued some music alone, although Bellère is not known to have done so, nor to have owned music type. When Pierre Phalèse (i) died, Bellère worked extensively with his son, Pierre Phalèse (ii) for over 20 years. After Bellère’s death, his widow Elisabeth published two volumes jointly with Pierre Phalèse (ii), in ...

Article

Richard Beattie Davis

(b St Petersburg, 10/Feb 22, 1836; d St Petersburg, Dec 28, 1903/Jan 10, 1904). Russian music publisher. He was the son of Peter Abramovich Belyayev, a rich timber merchant, and was educated at the German-speaking Reform School in St Petersburg where he learnt the piano, violin and viola. When he was 15, he joined his father’s flourishing business. He became an active participant in an amateur symphony orchestra directed by L.W. Maurer, and after its dissolution on the death of its conductor in 1878 a nucleus of its members, including Belyayev, continued to meet. Here Belyayev first came into contact with the group’s conductors, Lyadov and Borodin. A wide range of contemporary Russian music was promoted to which Belyayev appears to have been exposed for the first time. Belyayev was introduced to Glazunov and after hearing his Symphony no.1 in 1882 resolved to publish it. He achieved this in ...

Article

Adolf Layer

(bap. Würzburg, Oct 30, 1649; d Augsburg, Dec 24, 1720). German publisher. He started publishing in Frankfurt, and in 1670 took over the Jesuits’ academic press in Dillingen an der Donau. In 1694 he moved to Augsburg. He produced mainly theological literature, and also occasionally printed music, including masses and ...

Article

Jérôme de La Gorce

(bap. Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, June 6, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711). French designer. After beginning his career in Paris as an engraver, he was summoned to Versailles in 1674 to work on the festivities celebrating the conquest of the Franche-Comté. That year he was appointed Dessinateur de la Chambre et du Cabinet du Roi, succeeding Henry Gissey. Thereafter he was to provide all the models of costumes for the operas performed at the royal residences and on the operatic stage of Paris, replacing Carlo Vigarani as designer of the sets and stage effects there in 1680. Until at least 1707 he prepared designs at the Académie Royale de Musique for the works of Lully and his successors, Collasse, Marin Marais, Charpentier, Desmarets, Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre, Campra, Destouches and Jean-Féry Rebel (for illustration see Ballet de cour.

Berain won fame in other areas as well, notably in naval decoration and ‘grotesques’ (styles of ornament widely diffused through engravings) and many of his designs for operatic performances have survived in collections in Paris, Stockholm and London. He drew inspiration for his scenery from the Italians Torelli, Grimaldi, Burnacini and Vigarani, although he was less of an innovator than the Galli-Bibienas; he continued to respect the principle of frontal representation, with regular and symmetrical disposition of the lateral frames, and never used the oblique perspective known as ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(d Munich, 1610). German printer. He took over the Schobser publishing house in Munich in 1564 and by 1568 had expanded it sufficiently to necessitate the purchase of a larger building. Under the patronage of the Bavarian Dukes Albrecht V and his son Wilhelm V, it soon became the most important business of its kind in Bavaria. Apparently not a native of Munich, Berg was Protestant, but, after having been jailed for his religious beliefs in 1569, he became a Roman Catholic and served the Counter-Reformation which his patrons enthusiastically supported. After his death his widow, Anna, ably managed the business until 1629, when she turned it over to their son Adam (d 1634). However, the lead in music publishing had been taken over by Berg’s son-in-law and main competitor in Munich, Nikolaus Henricus.

An expert craftsman, Berg became the leading Bavarian printer of the Counter-Reformation and one of the most important German printers of his time. In addition to the official notices and reports required of him as court printer, he published a variety of books on religious and scientific topics and in the fields of literature and particularly music (which accounts for over 80 of his some 300 publications). His great interest in music reflects the brilliance of the musical establishment at the Bavarian court under the direction of Orlande de Lassus. Berg published a variety of motets and German lieder by Lassus himself and by other composers who worked in southern Germany, including Ivo de Vento, Jacobus de Kerle, Johann Pühler and Georg Victorinus. His ...

Article

Susan Jackson

[Montanus; vom Perg, Johann; von Berg, Johann]

(b Ghent, ?c1500–15; d Nuremberg, Aug 7, 1563). German printer. He studied in Paris, and after becoming a Protestant emigrated to Nuremberg in a state of penury. He there was befriended by Veit Dietrich, the powerful preacher at St Sebald and important Reformation theologian; Berg later printed virtually all of Dietrich's writings. The earliest extant documentary evidence concerning him is the Nuremberg record of his marriage in 1541 to the widow Katherina Schmidt (née Bischoff); he was granted citizenship shortly thereafter. With Ulrich Neuber he founded a printing house on his wife's property, known (according to the firm's colophon) as ‘auf dem Neuen Bau, bey der Kalkhütte’, in 1541 or 1542. A daughter, Veronica, was born in 1545. In 1549 the firm acquired additional premises, and the colophon changed to ‘auf dem zwölf Brüder Platz, bey dem Cartauser Closter’.

The firm of Berg and Neuber was one of the most prolific publishers of polyphonic music in the 16th century, and is known to musicologists primarily for its editions of motet anthologies. It published at least 122 editions of music, including Latin motets, German polyphonic lieder, Kirchenlieder and treatises, besides works of literature and books on theology, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. It also sold books published by other firms. The firm's first volume of music was Hans Gamersfelder's ...