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John Tyrrell

revised by Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...


Rufus Hallmark

b Château de Boncourt, 27–30 Jan 1781; d Berlin, 21 Aug 1838). German writer and naturalist. He is known in music history chiefly as the poet of the cycle Frauenliebe und Leben, which was set to music by Carl Loewe, Robert Schumann, and others.

Literarily Chamisso is known for his fable Der Wundersame Geschichte von Peter Schlemiehl (a Faustian tale of a man who sells not his soul, but his shadow), his travel account Reise um die Welt, and his numerous poems. Some portray ordinary people of the Biedermeier period in both serious and humorous verse, some are sensational narratives, others exotic tales, some inspired by his travels, and some are ironic poems of a liberal political cast; finally there are his lyrisch-episch cycles of first-person lyrics with a narrative outline, many in a woman’s voice (e.g. Frauenliebe und Leben, Tränen).

In science Chamisso is noteworthy as a collector and cataloguer. As the naturalist on a global circumnavigation of discovery (...


Adelbert von Chamisso, Painting by Robert Reinick (1831)


Malcolm Turner

(François Henri)

(b Paris, May 17, 1877; d Mussy-sur-Seine, Aube, July 16, 1952). French musicologist. He studied philosophy at Paris and music history at Berlin under Max Friedlaender, and then became music critic of the Revue hebdomadaire (1903–20) and of Excelsior (1911–21). He also contributed to several music periodicals, notably Le ménestrel, and edited the annual Année musicale with Michel Brenet, Louis Laloy and Lionel de La Laurencie (1911–13). He was secretary-general of the Paris Conservatoire (1923–37). His most important work was on Beethoven, several of whose letters and sketches he published for the first time. Chantavoine also rediscovered Bizet's Symphony and the supposedly lost operetta Don Sanche by Liszt, and made translations of texts of operas by Mozart, Wagner, Strauss and others.

ed. and trans.: Correspondance de Beethoven (Paris, 1903) Beethoven (Paris, 1907/R, new edn, 1948) Liszt (Paris, 1910, 4/1920/...


Andres Briner

(b Mulhouse, Alsace, Aug 22, 1888; d Zürich, Oct 15, 1964). Swiss musicologist. He came of French-Swiss family, but settled in eastern Switzerland and did most of his work in German. He first studied engineering, taking a diploma in 1911 and a doctorate in 1914. He received his musical training at the conservatories of Zürich and Strasbourg. From 1913 to 1916 he studied with Reger at Meiningen and Jena and during 1916 he worked in Berlin with Siegfried Ochs. In 1921 he became musical director in Chur, Graubünden. The University of Zürich appointed him lecturer in 1912, honorary professor and director of the musicological seminar in 1932 and reader in 1950. From 1938 to 1948 he was president of the Schweizerischer Musikpädagogischer Verband; from 1948 onwards he served as vice-president of the International Folk Music Council.

Cherbuliez has made important contributions to Swiss musicology. His book Die Schweiz in der deutschen Musikgeschichte...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


James Porter

(b Boston, Feb 1, 1825; d Boston, Sept 11, 1896). American ballad scholar. He was educated at Harvard and at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen and in 1876 he was appointed the first professor of English at Harvard. His fame rests largely on his masterly compilation, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882–98), a five-volume work in which he applied to the ballad the comparative and philological analysis he had brought to his work on Chaucer and Spenser. Although the majority of ballads in his edition of 305 ballad ‘types’ (i.e. plot types, in over 1000 versions) were from folk tradition, the texts were derived with few exceptions from books and manuscripts rather than from oral sources; he also corresponded extensively with scholars such as Svend Grundtvig, the editor of Danish ballads. The final part of Child’s work contains an ‘Index of Published Airs’ compiled by William Walker: it contains 447 references to Child’s ballad numbers and titles, a count raised to 500 by the printing of 53 tunes from manuscript, and shows Child’s awareness of the tunes and their importance. He acknowledged Walker’s assistance, and most of the latter’s work eventually appeared in the selection of Child material edited by Alexander Keith (...


Doris J. Dyen

(b Algiers, Aug 13, 1891). French ethnomusicologist. He studied music theory, composition and the viola, and took a diploma in classical Arabic. After World War I he moved to Rabat, where he was director of the Conservatory of Moroccan Music (1929–39, 1956–9) and professor of Arabic at the Collège des Orangers (1945–56). Concurrently he served as adviser to the Théâtre Mohammed V on the orchestration and interpretation of Arabic music. His writings, chiefly on Arab music, contain useful collections of Moroccan music, notably in his Corpus de musique marocaine and his Tableau de la musique marocaine.

‘Airs populaires recueillis à Fès’, Hespéris, 3 (1923), 275–85 ‘Airs populaires recueillis à Fès (nouvelle série: airs profanes)’, Hespéris, 4 (1924), 225–38 ‘Note sur le “nfîr”’, Hespéris, 7 (1927), 376–80 ‘La musique marocaine: vue d'ensemble’, Outre-mer, 1 (1929), 32–42 Les visages de la musique marocaine (Rabat, 1928); repr. in ...


George Grove

revised by David Charlton

(b Le Havre, April 16, 1819; d Paris, Jan 30, 1886). French writer and historian. His musical enthusiasms were fostered in Paris, where he studied for the baccalauréat. He returned to Le Havre in 1836 for four years before going to the USA, where he taught music in New York and wrote criticism for 16 years. A serious respiratory condition then obliged him to go to the south of France. In 1860, however, he moved to Paris and rapidly took an active part in writing for France musicale, Art musical and to a lesser extent Le ménestrel and the Gazette musicale. He also became known as the author of song texts, choral pieces and cantatas: his cantata David Rizzio was the text for the 1863 Prix de Rome, won by Massenet.

In 1864 Chouquet wrote his Histoire de la musique depuis le XIVe siècle jusqu’à la fin du XVIIIe siècle...


(b Lübtheen, Mecklenburg, July 8, 1826; d Bergedorf, nr Hamburg, Sept 3, 1901). German music scholar. The son of a miller, he started work as a private tutor in and around Rostock, later teaching at schools in Doberan and Schwerin. An intense interest in music led him to compose an opera, but he soon decided to concentrate on criticism and scholarly studies. His first publications were reviews and articles in local journals. In 1853 he published essays on folksong and oratorio, on the strength of which he was awarded a doctorate by Rostock University on 19 April 1855. By then he was already deeply interested in the study of Handel and had begun collecting material for a biography of the composer, the first volume of which appeared in 1858. The second followed in 1860 and part of the third in 1867; the work was never finished.

In 1856...


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski


(b Kraków, April 29, 1880; d Poznań, Oct 31, 1952). Polish musicologist. He received a rudimentary musical education in Kraków, where he studied classics and German, and in Munich. Between 1904 and 1908 he undertook a regular course of musicological study under Adolf Sandberger and Theodor Kroyer, while at the same time taking private composition lessons with Ludwig Thuille. In Munich he also attended lectures in art history and philosophy. In 1908 Chybiński took the doctorate at Munich with a dissertation on aspects of the beat in music and in 1912 completed the Habilitation at Lwów University with a work on the 16th-century Polish theories of mensural music. He was appointed reader in 1917 and full professor in 1921. He was in charge of the musicology institute at Lwów University from 1913 to 1941 and was, during this time, also a professor at Lwów Conservatory. From 1945 until his death he was head of the musicology institute at Poznań University. In ...


Viorel Cosma

(b Botoşani, Feb 2, 1890; d Bucharest, June 13, 1962). Romanian writer on music and critic. He studied music history and the violin at the Iaşi Conservatory (1906–8), and at the Leipzig Conservatory (1912–14) with Arnold Schering. He studied law in Paris, taking the doctorate at the Sorbonne. He taught music history at the Pro-Arte Conservatory in Bucharest (1936–9) and became director of the Enescu PO (1945–7). Ciomac wrote criticism and scholarly articles for numerous periodicals and also made Romanian translations of oratorio and opera librettos, including Ariadne auf Naxos, Prince Igor, Gounod’s Faust, and Enescu’s Oedipe. An excellent orator, he was much in demand as a lecturer in Romania and throughout Europe, and became one of the most respected Romanian teachers of the first half of the 20th century.

George Enescu (Bucharest, 1915) Viaţa şi opera lui Richard Wagner...


[Leo St. Damian]

(b Liebeshain?, near Chicago, Dec 23, 1858; d Zurich, Jan 27, 1917). American pianist, pedagogue, inventor, philosopher, theologian, and physiologist, mostly active in Germany. He was, according to Rudolf Breithaupt’s Die natürliche Klaviertechnik (3/1912), the “founder of the physiological school, and especially the shoulder mechanics” and offered “the oldest scientific explanation of the modern psycho-physiological method [of piano playing].” In 1882 he married Anna Steiniger (1848–91), a prominent Prussian pianist and Ludwig Deppe’s assistant, whose partially fictitious and romanticized biography, allegedly based on her diary, he published as Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne (London, 1896).

Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen, in his Über die physiologischen Fehler und die Umgestaltung der Klavier-Tehnik (1905), states that Clark can be given “the credit and the merit of a first scientific attempt” of applying physiologically based movements. Clark thus emerges as the world pioneer in the physiological approach to piano playing and the first scholar to offer a scientific explanation and graphic illustration of the rolling movement of arm and wrist, in his ...


Elisabeth Lebeau


(b Paris, Jan 13, 1822; d Paris, Jan 23, 1885). French historian and composer. After studying the organ (with Moncouteau) and composition, as well as classics, he decided in 1843 to devote himself to music, and for the next six years held several posts as organist and choirmaster, notably in Paris at the Collège Stanislas and at the Sorbonne. In 1849 he organized concerts of sacred music at the Ste Chapelle, where he conducted 13th-century music which he had discovered and edited himself, though unscholarly arrangements (which were published in several editions) provoked ardent controversy with Théodore Nisard. His official contacts and his report to a government ministry led to the foundation of the Ecole Niedermeyer. Though his various instruction manuals are now superseded, his many historical works retain some scholarly value, in particular his Dictionnaire lyrique, ou Histoire des opéras, published in 1867–81 with Pierre Larousse. This remains a valuable source of information on opera, especially French, but suffers from serious inaccuracies in dates and from a tendency to include as operas other genres such as incidental music; the comments are partisan and include considerable abuse of Wagner. Clément's other publications include editions of religious music, transcriptions of plainsong, and a number of works on non-musical topics. He also composed two operas, choruses for ...


(b Brussels, Dec 10, 1870; d Brussels, Dec 21, 1950). Belgian musicologist. He was self-educated in both music and musicology, and worked at the Museum of Musical Instruments at the Brussels Conservatory, first as assistant curator (1896–1924) and then in succession to Victor-Charles Mahillon, the museum’s founder, as chief curator (1924–35). Concurrently he was professor of music history at the conservatories of Brussels (1912–35) and Mons (1917–35), and a regular music critic for Indépendence belge (1920–40).

Closson’s enormous output of books and articles reflects an open, independent and receptive mind, yet without any touch of naivety; his boundless enthusiasm was tempered by a proper appreciation of the importance of supporting speculation by fact. This is evident, for instance, in the exhaustive documentation of his study of Beethoven’s Flemish inheritance (1928). A preoccupation with Flemish or Belgian music informs many of his other writings (e.g. his monographs on César Franck, Lassus, Grétry and Gevaert), his anthology of popular Belgian songs (...


Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....


(b Ipswich, June 13, 1870; d Bromsgrove, Jan 19, 1941). English organist and music scholar. He was a Gilstrap scholar at the RCM, where he was taught the organ by Walter Parratt (1888–93; FRCO 1892, ARCM 1893) and then studied music at New College, Oxford (1893–5, BMus 1895). After serving as organist at St Margaret’s, King’s Lynn, he returned to London (having become a Roman Catholic) as organist of the Italian Church, Hatton Garden (1898–1915); he was then organist of the Birmingham Oratory until his death. He edited the quarterly Music and Liturgy (1932–6), and for several years lectured on polyphony at the Oxford Summer School, and on Latin church music by early English composers at the universities of London and Birmingham.

Collins devoted nearly all his spare time to copying and collecting manuscripts of early church music in London (British Museum), Oxford, Cambridge, Tenbury and elsewhere, editing it initially for his own church and later for general use. His preference was exclusively for polyphonic music of the 15th and 16th centuries and he became the leading authority on its notation in English sources. After his edition of 15 offertories by Lassus was published in Düsseldorf (...


Elisabeth Bernard

(Léon Jean)

(b Cahors, Lot, Feb 5, 1859; d Paris, July 7, 1916). French musicologist. His musical education began at Cahors under Langlane; he studied at the Sorbonne and in 1888 left to follow the courses of Spitta in Berlin. He taught first in the French provinces and then in Paris at the Lycées Condorcet and Louis-le-Grand. Struck by the shortcomings in French music teaching, he established manuals and ministerial circulars to regulate instruction and promoted choral singing in the secondary schools. During the same period he founded the Revue d’histoire et de critique musicales (1901), the first French journal of its kind, which became the Revue musicale (1904) and in 1912 absorbed the journals of the Société Internationale de Musique. The journal’s first 12 numbers (1901–12) have been reprinted (Scarsdale, NY, 1969). He held a professorship at the Collège de France (...


Christopher Fifield

(Aloys Theodor)

(b Cologne, Jan 23, 1813; d Berlin, Aug 17, 1887). German music historian, editor, organist and composer. He was a pupil of Joseph Klein and Carl Leibl and in 1828 became organist of the Carmelite church at Cologne and a member of the cathedral choir. In 1832 he went to Berlin, where he studied with A.W. Bach (organ) and K.F. Rungenhagen (composition) and attended A.B. Marx’s lectures. His interest in old music was stimulated by his friendship with Carl von Winterfeld, whom he met in 1835, and by a commission to set in order the library of the Royal Institute for Church Music, which from 1845 held much of Forkel’s personal library. In 1839 Musica sacra, the first of Commer’s many important editions of early music, began to appear. In 1845 he became regens chori of the Hedwigskirche and singing teacher at the Elisabeth School, and he held several other similar positions. He was much decorated by royalty for his research. In ...