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Article

Martin Stokes

(b Boscobel, WI, Aug 8, 1952). American ethnomusicologist. He received the BM in piano at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1975, and the MM in 1980 and the PhD in 1984 in musicology and ethnomusicology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with Bruno Nettl and Alexander Ringer; he also studied for two years at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with Amnon Shiloah, 1980–82. He was assistant professor at MacMurray College (1982–4) and the University of Illinois at Chicago (1985–7) before joining the faculty at the University of Chicago, where he was appointed professor in 1999. He was visiting professor at the University of Vienna, 1995–6. In 1997 he was awarded the Dent medal.

Bohlman's work may be characterized as a sustained critique of modernity, canon-formation and the monumentalization of 19th-century Austro-German musical practice through an ethnographic engagement with the ‘others’ of Europe, whether on, or within its margins. His earlier work investigated music-making among immigrant Jews in early 20th-century Palestine; his later work brings ethnographic critique back to the centre, exploring popular religious, street and folk musics in Vienna and elsewhere in Central Europe. Other areas of research include immigrant and ‘ethnic’ folk musics in America, and the intellectual history of ethnomusicology. In addition to extensive publications in these areas, Bohlman is editor of the series Recent Researches in the Oral Traditions of Music and co-editor (with Bruno Nettl) of ‘Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology’....

Article

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...

Article

Lisa Summer

(b Rockford, IL, March 31, 1921). American music therapy clinician, educator, and researcher. She received degrees from Oberlin College Conservatory (BM violin performance 1943), the University of Kansas (music therapy equivalency 1964, MME 1968), and Union Institute and College in Cincinnati, Ohio (PhD 1976). She is acknowledged as the first pioneer in humanistic/transpersonal music psychotherapy for the method she developed in 1970: Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), alternatively referred to as the “Bonny Method.” GIM sessions combine a relaxation procedure with evocative classical music. A trained therapist assists the client in experiencing music as a vehicle for psychological and spiritual transformation. After developing GIM, Bonny was director of music therapy at Catholic University (1975–9). She also disseminated her method and its adaptations through her Institute for Music and Consciousness in Baltimore, Maryland (1972–9), and at the Bonny Foundation for Music-centered Therapies in Salina, Kansas (...

Article

Elaine Brody

revised by Pierre Guillot

(Marie Anne)

(b Rochecorbon, nr Vouvray, May 12, 1863; d Toulon, Nov 8, 1909). French music scholar, teacher and composer. He was taught composition by Franck and the piano by Marmontel and was maître de chapelle and organist at Nogent-sur-Marne from July 1887 until March 1890 when the minister of education commissioned him to assemble a collection of early Basque music (published in 1897 as the Archives de la tradition basque). In 1890 he went to Paris where, as maître de chapelle at St Gervais-St Protais, he organized (1892) the Semaines Saintes de St Gervais, a series of musical services at which the best-known works of French and Italian Renaissance composers were performed by Bordes’ singers, the Chanteurs de St Gervais. Indeed, he dedicated most of his short life (sometimes at the expense of his other creative work) to the revival of sacred and secular Renaissance polyphony, much of which had been completely neglected for centuries, and to encouraging young musicians to look to the past for inspiration....

Article

Janet Regier

(b New York, Aug 2, 1925). American musicologist and composer. The daughter of pianist Marie Bergersen and (Albert) Ramon Borroff, a tenor who sold carillons by trade, she was raised in a home of extraordinary musical and artistic talent. At the age of 16 she entered the American Conservatory of Music, Chicago (MusB 1946, MusM 1948), where she studied the piano with Louise Robyn and composition with Irwin Fischer. In 1958 she earned a PhD in music history from the University of Michigan. She was a visiting professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1972–3 and in 1973 joined the faculty of SUNY-Binghamton, where she taught until her retirement in 1992. Noted for her work in early music, Borroff has also championed American music, women in music and liberal arts in the 20th-century. She is the author of more than 15 books, including the comprehensive ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Carrara, Italy, Nov 16, 1947). American music educator and scholar of Italian birth. He attended McPherson College and Wichita State University in Kansas, and received degrees from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana (BME 1973, MM 1974, EdD 1980). He taught low brass, jazz, and courses in music education at Mars Hill College in North Carolina (1974–81). Since 1981 he has been on the music faculty at Brandon University, Manitoba, Canada, where he teaches primarily graduate courses in music education and music education philosophy. During some of this period he has been chair of graduate music studies, and he took a leave of absence to serve as a visiting professor at the University of Toronto (1995–7). Bowman’s book, Philosophical Perspectives on Music (Oxford, 1998), was named an Outstanding Academic Book by Choice. He served as associate editor of the journal published by the MayDay Group, ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Gravette, AR, Sept 1, 1934). American music educator and scholar. He received degrees from the University of Arkansas (BSE 1956) and University of Kansas (MME 1960, PhD 1968). He taught music in the public schools of Cassville, Missouri (1956–9) and Lawrence, Kansas (1960–63), and was on the music faculties at Moorhead State College in Moorhead, Minnesota (1967–8), Pennsylvania State University (1968–81), and the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida (1981–2000). At the University of Miami he was chair of the Department of Music Education and Music Therapy (1981–92) and associate dean for graduate studies in music (1992–2000). Boyle’s research interests include the writing of instructional objectives and evaluation of competencies; program evaluation, particularly of arts programs and comprehensive musicianship; and the psychology of music. He has published more than 50 articles and research papers, and co-authored (with Rudolf E. Radocy) four English editions, two Japanese editions, and a Korean edition of ...

Article

Richard Will

(Robert)

(b Arlington, VA, April 4, 1958). American musicologist and composer. He studied at the University of California, Santa Cruz (BA 1981), the New England Conservatory (MM 1986), and Cornell University (DMA 1991), and taught at the State University of New York, Binghamton (1992–2003) before joining the faculty of McGill University in 2003. His Interpreting Popular Music is a landmark study in its marshaling of analytical and social-historical perspectives to address a wide array of music, including rock, soul, and country. He has also written extensively on issues of genre and categorization and edited a collection of source readings on popular music. From 1998 to 2000 he served as president of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, US chapter. A composition pupil of Karel Husa, Steven Stucky, and David Cope, he has had works performed at many new music festivals and through the Society of Composers, and has won grants from the NEH and Meet the Composer among others....

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Binghamton, NY, April 18, 1928; d May 25, 2004). American musicologist. He attended the University of Rochester and the Eastman School of Music, receiving the BA in 1949 and the MA in 1951. He continued his studies in Germany, working at Heidelberg University in 1954 and at Göttingen University under Gerber from 1954 to 1960; he received the PhD at Göttingen in 1960 with a dissertation on Tartini. After teaching at Ohio State University from 1960 to 1961 he was appointed to the faculty of Brandeis University, where he was chairman of the school of creative arts (1965–7) and chairman of the department of music (1969–72). In 1981 he was named Scheide Professor of music history at Princeton University; he was director of graduate studies there from 1982 to 1984. He was Tangemann Professor of Musicology at Yale University Institute of Sacred Music from ...

Article

(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...

Article

Raina D. Katsarova

revised by Magdalena Manolova

(b Sofia, Feb 11, 1929). Bulgarian musicologist, daughter of Stoyan Brashovanov and the Swiss pianist Mathilde Kurz. She studied the piano with Dimiter Nenov and Lyuba Encheva at the Bulgarian State Music Academy in Sofia, graduating in theory (1951) and performance (1953). She began to publish musicological articles in 1949, and until 1965 also taught the piano. From 1967 she worked as a music editor and has lectured at international music conferences, universities and music schools and on the radio in Bulgaria and abroad (Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Poland). Her chief subjects are the history of music in Bulgaria (particularly the Middle Ages) and western European music history; she has written books on Handel, Mozart and Berlioz, and is a contributor to the major music encyclopedias. She continues to work as a freelance music critic and publicist.

Mozart (Sofia, 1958) Berlioz (Sofia, 1959, 2/1964)...

Article

Howard Schott

( b Lausanne, May 5, 1944). Swiss clavichord player and musicologist . After piano studies in Lausanne (1963–7) and Vienna (1968–9), he became increasingly attracted to the clavichord and its repertory. He made his European début at Fribourg, Switzerland, in 1972 and his American début at Marlboro College, Vermont, in 1973. He studied musicology at the New England Conservatory with Julia Sutton (MMus 1976) and began research in early Iberian clavichord music with Macario Santiago Kastner in Lisbon in 1977. He regularly tours Europe and North America, performing and recording a wide repertory of Renaissance and Baroque clavichord music, with an emphasis on Iberian composers. He has won high praise as a sensitive and tasteful performer. In contrast to most other modern clavichord players, he restricts himself to the fretted form of the instrument. Brauchli has given summer courses in many European countries, has lectured at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and was appointed professor of clavichord at the New England Conservatory in ...

Article

Jiří Sehnal

(b Jarošov, nr Uherské Hradiště, Moravia, Feb 12, 1874; d Kroměříž, Aug 8, 1937). Czech historian and archivist. After studying at the theological faculty in Olomouc (1892–6), he was ordained priest in 1896; for two years he was a student prefect in the archiepiscopal seminary in Kroměříž. He began studying history in 1898 at the University of Innsbruck and took his doctorate there in 1903. On his return he taught history at the archiepiscopal Gymnasium in Kroměříž until 1924. He became librarian in the archbishop’s palace in Kroměříž in 1915 and archivist in 1921; he performed both functions with great zeal and devotion until his death.

From 1927 Breitenbacher began to build up the music archive in Kroměříž Castle, gradually acquiring the music collections of the Olomouc bishops between 1664 and 1831 and the musical archives of the churches of the Panna Marie and St Mořic at Kroměříž and the Piarist college there. The leading Czech music historians of the time, Helfert, Trolda and Vetterl, assisted him in classifying and cataloguing the music. The archives established by Breitenbacher have become a basic source for music of the Viennese cultural circle from ...

Article

F.E. Sparshott

(Jeanne Marie Noémie)

(b Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, March 6, 1915; d Sèvres, June 21, 1973). French musicologist and pianist. She studied the piano at the conservatories of Nantes (under G. Arcouet) and Paris (under Lazare Lévy), and biology and philosophy at the Sorbonne (doctorat d'Etat in philosophy 1949). From 1950 she directed the Bibliothèque Internationale de Musicologie, and in 1952 was appointed solo pianist to the RTF for whom she also lectured and produced musical programmes. She published extensively in the aesthetics of music, with special emphasis on the status of music as the art of time and on the privileged role of the virtuoso performer.

Brelet's work elaborates the view of music borrowed from Pierre Souvtchinsky by Igor Stravinsky, to whom she assigns the central place in 20th-century music. Her three books develop a single argument. The first contrasts the traditional poetics of music, according to which a system of intervals forms the basis of harmonic and melodic structures, with an alternative poetics of temporal form. The second book elaborates this theme into an encomium on music. Since time is the form of the inner life, music must be the most perfect art, for it directly imparts formal perfection to experience itself. From this standpoint, modern non-tonal music appears as aberrant, since the absence of a tonal centre eliminates expectation and thus makes significant temporal form impossible. The third book uses this view of music to prove that the virtuoso performer is the only true musician. Music, being a form of temporal experience, can exist only as and when it is performed. The composer merely provides possibilities which he leaves to performers to actualize in various ways. It follows that performers should not strive to recreate the original effect of a work, or respect a composer's intentions: historical fidelity is not aesthetic fidelity....

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Jere T. Humphreys

(b Elgin, IL, May 25, 1914; d DeKalb, IL, Feb 17, 2003). American music educator, scholar, and administrator. He obtained degrees in instrumental music (BS 1937) and in education and English (MA 1939) from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, and in musicology from University of Michigan (PhD 1950). He taught music and English in the public schools of Griffith, Illinois (1938–41), and in the laboratory school at Eastern Illinois State Teachers College (1941–3). After serving in the US Army during World War II (1943–6), he completed his doctoral studies and joined the music faculty at the University of Michigan (1949), where he established a leading doctoral program in music education and directed 51 doctoral dissertations. He served as dean of the School of Music (1969–79) and retired from the faculty in 1984. Britton was president of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Carrollton, GA, Nov 9, 1929). American musicologist. He graduated from Converse College in South Carolina (BMus 1951) and took graduate degrees at the University of Michigan (MMus 1956) and Florida State University (PhD 1967). He began his teaching career as assistant professor of piano at Mount Union College, Ohio, in 1956. He joined the faculty of Indiana University in 1962, where he was appointed professor of music in 1976; he became professor emeritus in 1994.

Brown has studied Russian music and musical life of the 19th and 20th centuries, with particular interest in Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev and Shostakovich. From 1987 to 1992 he aided in negotiations for the exchanges of composers, musicologists, music theorists and ethnomusicologists between the USA and the USSR. He is founding editor and general editor of Russian Music Studies, the only series in any language or country exclusively devoted to the scholarly study of Russian music; he was also Russian area editor for RILM (...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Aug 3, 1906; d Marlborough, Sept 27, 1975). English writer on music. At London University he took the BSc (1929) and BMus (1939). After teaching music at Belle Vue High School, Bradford (1939–44), and serving as a radio and telegraph instructor with the RAF, he taught physics at Marlborough Grammar School, where he was head of the science department (1945–66).

Brown was the leading Schubert scholar of his generation. His work was notable for its disciplined accuracy and depth, balance and perception, and was informed both by his thorough knowledge of the progress of Schubert research and by his enthusiasm for the music under discussion. His knowledge of and delight in literature contributed greatly to his understanding of the devices of word-setting in lieder. The other major subject of his research was Chopin: he compiled the standard thematic index of his works and studied their publishing history....

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...

Article

Irina Boga

(b Ploieşti, Romania May 18, 1916; d Bucharest, Romania, July 23, 1998). Romanian conductor, composer, musicologist, and professor. He began his studies at the Bucharest Conservatory (orchestra conducting with Ionel Perlea 1933–40). He specialized in Salzburg (1941–2 with Klemens Krauss), and also graduated from the Philosophy Department of the Bucharest University (1933–6). He was conductor (1957–76) and director (1957–9) of the Romanian Opera in Bucharest, and conductor at the Alhambra Theatre, at the Company for Comic Opera, and at the Bucharest Philharmonic (1947–62). He was also conductor and director at the Romanian Opera in Cluj (1948–52), professor at the Department of Music History and Orchestral Conducting (1952–76) at the Bucharest Conservatory, the first conductor and director of the Cinematography Orchestra in Bucharest (1953–68), and director of music and advisor in the Ministry of Culture (...

Article

Jasmina Talam

(b Sarajevo, Oct 6, 1937). Bosnian/Croatian musicologist. He finished the study of English language and literature at the Faculty of Philosophy in Sarajevo (1961) and later on, the study of musicology at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo (1963). He completed his doctoral studies in musicology at Oxford University with a dissertation on the topic of Anglo-Italian Interactions in Fourteenth-Century Music (1967). After completing the doctorate, he taught at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo. At the same time, he founded the ensemble ‘Musica Rediviva’ which performed music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. From 1969, he has lived in Great Britain. Between 1969 and 1978, he was lecturer in music at Reading University. He was conductor of a choir ‘Palestrina’ whose repertoire included music from the Renaissance and early Baroque polyphony. From 1978 until 2005, he was lecturer (later reader) in musicology at Magdalen College in Oxford. He had taught music from the Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance and early Baroque, the history of interpretation, the aesthetics of music, and the music of Viennese modernism. He has held several visiting fellowships at Cornell University (New York, USA) and was a visiting lecturer at King’s College, London. Nowadays, he is emeritus fellow at Magdalen College in Oxford....