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Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Penaranda, Nueva Ecija, May 1, 1912; d Manila, Dec 2, 1992). Filipino composer and conductor . He studied at the Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines, where he received a teacher’s diploma in composition and conducting (1939), and where he remained as a teacher of theory and composition. Thereafter he was director of the music school at Union College, Manila, and then, during the war, he founded his own music academy; later he lectured on Philippine music in many parts of the country. Formerly music critic for the Manila Times and Taliba, he was director of cultural affairs for the city of Manila; he also held appointments as state cultural adviser (1972), president of the National Music Council of the Philippines (until 1973) and president of the Filipino Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. Among the many honours he received are the Republic Cultural Heritage Award (...

Article

Margaret Campbell

(b Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, Jan 29, 1960). American violinist of Chinese extraction. He played in his first concert at the age of seven and in 1972 won the Taiwan National Youth Competition, enabling him to study with Robert Pikler at the Sydney Conservatorium until 1975. He was a pupil of Dorothy DeLay at the Juilliard School, New York (1975–8), and in 1977 won first prize in the Queen Sophia International Competition in Madrid. He made his US début in 1979 at the Mostly Mozart Festival and in 1981, through the influence of Isaac Stern, undertook an extensive tour of mainland China and East Asia. He has since achieved an international reputation as a soloist and chamber musician (in a trio with the pianist Yefim Bronfman and the cellist Gary Hoffman) and is also on the faculty of the Juilliard School. Outstanding among his many recordings are the violin concertos of Sibelius, Stravinsky and Prokofiev. His elegant playing is based on perfect intonation, an impeccable technique and a strong feeling for the architecture of the music. He plays a Guarneri del Gesù violin ‘The Duke of Camposelice’, dated ...

Article

Joyce Lindorff

(b Qingmuguan, nr Chongqing, Sichuan, April 30, 1942). Chinese composer and writer on music. He studied composition at the conservatories of Shenyang and Shanghai, from where he gained the MA. In 1980 Yang was the first Chinese composer to be sent abroad for study after the Cultural Revolution, taking courses in composition and the piano at the Hochschule für Musik in Hanover and graduating with honours. He became a teacher at the Shanghai Conservatory on his return to China in 1983, becoming a professor and Chair of the Department of Composition and Conducting in 1991 and rising to vice-president in 1996. In 1990 he was guest professor at the Mozarteum in Salzburg. Yang has received many grants and commissions from institutions worldwide and his orchestral pieces have been performed in Asia and Europe. He has also lectured internationally on Chinese contemporary music. In his large-scale works he combines traditional Chinese instruments with a colourfully scored Western orchestra. After his years in Germany his compositions veered stylistically between Romanticism and modernism. A key figure throughout China in promoting knowledge of international contemporary music repertory and techniques, Yang has consistently supported and encouraged young Chinese composers....

Article

Jennifer Spencer

(b Borisovka, Kursk province, 25 March/April 6, 1812; d Gatchina, 11 /May 21, 1885). Russian choral conductor, teacher and composer. At the age of ten he joined Count Sheremet′yev's choir in St Petersburg (his father was one of Sheremet′yev's serfs); there he was taught music by Antonio Sapienza. When his voice broke in 1830 he became a singing teacher to the choir, and was later appointed director (1850–72). Under his leadership it became one of the most important musical institutions in Russia, giving concerts of traditional church music, folksongs and contemporary choral works. When the choir was disbanded in 1874 Lomakin conducted Sheremet′ev's male-voice choir, but ill-health soon compelled him to resign. In 1862 Balakirev invited him to help him found the Free School of Music, and for eight years Lomakin conducted the student choir. He also taught at the court chapel (...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, January 31, 1956; d Glendale, Feb 24, 2001). Armenian composer and pianist. He attended the Komitas Conservatory in Yerevan where he studied composition with Sar‘ian, with whom he undertook postgraduate work (1975–83), and in 1981 completed studies in the piano faculty with G. Saradzhev. He taught harmony and composition at the Yerevan Conservatory from 1984, later becoming a senior lecturer. From 1992 to 1997 he was deputy Minister of Culture and Sport. He won various awards in Armenia and the former Soviet Union. His style was based on both Near Eastern and Armenian traditions. His piano compositions, which are similar to early 20th-century works of the region (especially those of Komitas and Tigranian), and his vocal cycles are notable for their transparent texture and linear writing which is both ascetic and fluid. The principle of variation of short motifs and an improvisational manner of development are characteristic of Lusikian; this trait begins with the Cello Sonata (...

Article

Gulbat Toradze

(b Gori, 23 Sept/Oct 6, 1913; d Tbilisi, Dec 30, 1995). Georgian composer and teacher. In 1936 he graduated from the Tbilisi Conservatory and then completed his post-graduate studies in 1939 in the composition class of P. Ryazanov. From 1940 he was taught musical and theoretical disciplines at the conservatory; he later was professor of composition there (1963–92). He was artistic director of the Georgian State SO (1956–8). From 1953 he was the deputy chairman, and later the Chairman (1962–8), of the Georgian Composers’ Union; he was also the secretary and a board member of the USSR Composers’ Union (1962–73). He served as an adjudicator in international competitions of musicians and performers on several occasions, and was a laureate of the USSR State Prize.

Machavariani’s work is notable for the variety of themes and genres; it has played an important role in establishing musical art in modern-day Georgia as well as gaining international acclaim. The music is characterized by vivid national colouring and romantic elation. He combines strong, energetic and sublimely poetic ideas in an original musical language. His developmental path and evolution is rich in events: the early works are strikingly different from those of the 1970s and 1980s which approach the stylistic norms of Western music of the first half of the 20th century. In his formative years he came under the powerful influence of Georgian folk art; in particular, the polyphonic tradition ‘became an integral part of my everyday life’, wrote the composer. Of almost equal importance were the classical traditions (including those of Georgia), and the works of his older Russian contemporaries such as Prokofiev and Shostakovich. He first gained artistic maturity with his Piano Concerto (...

Article

Leah Dolidze

(b Tbilisi, Dec 15, 1930). Georgian composer, musical theoretician and teacher. In 1956 he graduated from the Tbilisi Conservatory where he studied composition with Andria Balanchivadze. From 1955 to 1969 he taught theory and composition in Tbilisi music colleges, from 1962 ran a course in harmony and analysis in the music theory department at the Conservatory of Tbilisi, and from 1965 to the present time he has taught orchestration, polyphony and composition in the department of composition. An authoritative teacher (assistant professor since 1972), Mamisashvili advocates an original understanding of the content and aims of contemporary musical art. During the 1960s he began to take an active part in the work of the Georgian Composers’ Union and was elected secretary of the board (1973) and then chairman (1990). In 1989 he was invited to the Tbilisi Spiritual Academy where he ran a lecture course on the History of Orthodox Church Music. He is an Honoured Representative of the Arts of Georgia (...

Article

Hooman Asadi

(b Mashhad, April 9, 1927; d Tehran, Feb 2, 1999). Iranian ethnomusicologist and composer. He was educated at the Tehran Superior Conservatory of Music and the University of Tehran, where he took the BA in law in 1950. Then he moved to Paris, where he studied with Line Taluel, Georges Dandelot and Noel Gallant at the Paris Conservatoire and the Ecole Normale de Musique. In 1954 he moved to Leipzig to continue his studies in composition with Ottmar Gerster and Johannes Weyrauch at the Hochschule für Musik, where he received the Superior Diploma in composition in 1963. Afterwards he studied musicology with Karl Gustav Fellerer and ethnomusicology with Marius Schneider at the University of Cologne and took the PhD in 1968. Upon finishing his postgraduate studies he returned to Iran and began teaching in the music department of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, where he held the position of professor of music....

Article

Karen Monson

revised by Jonathan E. Blumhofer

(b Bombay [now Mumbai], India, Sept 25, 1908; d Santa Monica, CA, Oct 19, 2002). Violinist and conductor of Indian birth. He studied at the University of Bombay and at Trinity College of Music, London. Mehta founded the Bombay SO in 1935 and served as its concertmaster for ten years before becoming its conductor. In 1940 he formed the Bombay String Quartet, which he led for 15 years. Encouraged by Efrem Zimbalist, he studied for a time with Ivan Galamian at the Juilliard School, then served as assistant concertmaster of the Hallé Orchestra in Manchester, England, under Barbirolli (1955–9). He returned to America in 1959, at which time he joined the Curtis String Quartet in Philadelphia, performing with them throughout the United States for five years. In Los Angeles, where he settled in 1964, Mehta founded the American Youth SO (1964) and served on the faculty of UCLA (...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Kiziyar, northern Caucasus, Oct 1, 1883; d Tbilisi, March 30, 1935). Armenian composer and teacher. He graduated from the Rostov music college in 1905, and then studied in Moscow with Ippolitov-Ivanov, Taneyev and Yavorsky (1905–7) and at the St Petersburg Conservatory with Kalafati and Steinberg (1910–15). In 1908 he organized in Tbilisi the Music League, an Armenian society which did important work in education. Melik‘ian was appointed director of music at the House of Armenian Culture in Moscow (1918), and in 1921 he founded a music workshop (from 1923 the conservatory) in Yerevan. He was founder-director of the Yerevan Theatre of Opera and Ballet (1933); he also established a choral association there. As a composer he made a brilliant contribution to Armenian song, both in original pieces and folksong arrangements. The national quality in his music, established through modal harmony, had an influence on later Armenian composers, such as Step‘anian. In the cycle ...

Article

Razia Sultanova

(b Tashkent, Feb 10, 1942). Uzbek rubāb player, teacher and composer. He came from a family of musicians and began to study the rubāb at the age of six with his father, the composer and instrumental performer Muhammadjan Mirzayev. At the age of 14 Shavkat was invited to work with the Uzbek Philharmonic Society, and in 1960 he began to compose songs in the traditional Uzbek classical style. Between 1958 and 1972 he took part in tours of several countries including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Russia, and from 1960 to 1970 he worked for the Uzbek State Philharmonia. He studied Uzbek classical music with Fakhriddin Sadyqov at the Tashkent State Conservatory from 1972 to 1977, at the same time teaching singing and the Uzbek rubāb; he continued to teach at the Conservatory until 1982. From 1980 to 1982 he directed the makom ensemble at Uzbek State Radio, and in ...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Gori, Georgia, May 12, 1921). Armenian composer and teacher; son of the composer M. Mirzayan (1888–1958). His family settled in Yerevan in 1924. He studied at Yerevan Conservatory with Vardkes Tal‘ian (1936–41) and then at the music school attached to the House of Armenian Culture in Moscow with Litinsky and Peyko (1946–8). He began to teach composition at Yerevan Conservatory in 1948 and was later made head of department (1972–86). His students include Ter-T′at′evosian, Chaushyan and Terteryan. He was chairman of the Union of Armenian Composers (1957–91) and in 1977 became president of the Peace Foundation of Armenia.

Mirzoian has received numerous honours in Armenia, and was made People's Artist of the USSR in 1981. In 1997 he became a member of the International Academy of Sciences, Education, Industry and Arts, California.

Armenian national traditions and the work of Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Bartók were the formative influences on the dramatic style of Mirzoian's music, which combines inner intensity with the lyricism of Armenian folksong. These characteristics are prominent in the neo-classically tinged Symphony for string orchestra and timpani (...

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(Jesus)

(b Manila, Dec 26, 1894; d Manila, Jan 29, 1980). Filipino composer and conductor. He studied at the S Juan de Letran College (BA) and the University of the Philippines Conservatory (teacher’s cello diploma 1933); his composition teacher was Nicanor Abelardo. Later he joined the staff of the University of the Philippines, where he was secretary of the conservatory until 1941. He taught and lectured outside the university as well, also conducting choral groups, church choirs, opera and orchestral concerts. In 1956 he was made director of the Cosmopolitan Academy of Music, and also directed the Centro Escolar University Conservatory (1948–71). He received an honorary doctorate from the university in 1953 and was made dean emeritus of the conservatory on his retirement. In 1973 he was made National Artist, the highest state recognition accorded a Filipino musician. His compositions show a daring departure from the traditional Romantic style of his colleagues: he employed the whole-tone scale, augmented 4ths, unresolved dissonances, parallel 5ths and Debussian progressions, all with a meticulous care for detail....

Article

J. Michele Edwards

(b Niigata-ken, Feb 13, 1948). Japanese composer and teacher. She attended the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, studying music (BA 1971), composition (MM 1975) and musicology and solfeggio (MM 1978); her composition teachers included Tomojirō Ikenouchi, Akio Yashiro and Teizō Matsumura. In 1979 she became a lecturer at the same university as well as at Aichi Gakuin University. She is a founding member of the Federation of Women Composers in Japan.

Mori’s compositions are regularly performed and broadcast in Japan and the USA. Characteristics of French impressionism evident in her songs and piano works reveal the influences of her composition teachers. Her lyrical, melodic writing displays linear clarity, and the texture frequently involves a melodic foreground with accompaniment. Although she often uses triadic harmonies, her harmonic vocabulary extends beyond referential tonality. Several works, including Autumn Mist and Imagery, have been recorded.

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Article

Masakata Kanazawa

(b Tokyo, Aug 7, 1903; d Tokyo, March 24, 1977). Japanese composer and teacher. He graduated from Tokyo University in 1928, presenting a dissertation on musical forms. At this time he headed the Suruya group, which gave seven concerts of new music between 1927 and 1931. From 1932 to 1934 he was in Berlin, studying composition with Schrattenholz and orchestration with Gmeindl at the Hochschule für Musik. While there he composed the Piano Concerto in C and the First Symphony, both of which were performed in Berlin for broadcasting; they were played again in Tokyo soon after his return, establishing him as the principal advocate in Japan of the German school. The years between 1936 and 1944 proved to be his most fruitful period, during which he wrote, among many other works, two symphonies and three concertos (some of these were heard in Germany as well as Japan); after the war he devoted himself to teaching, producing only a few works. He has served as jury member of the Japanese music competition (...

Article

Nana Kavtaradze

(b Tbilisi, May 28, 1904; d March 5, 1984). Georgian composer, teacher and ethnomusicologist. A representative of the first generation of Georgian composers, he studied at the Tbilisi Conservatory, graduating from the composition class of Bagrinovsky and Barkhudarian (1930). As a postgraduate in Leningrad, he finished his studies with V. Shcherbachyov in 1933. From 1929 to 1984 he was a teacher and later (1942) professor of the Tbilisi Conservatory; he was also head of the composition department, dean of the faculty of theory and composition, later assistant director and then director. He directed the Paliashvili Opera and Ballet Theatre (1950–52) and was also chairman of the Georgian Composers’ Union (1940–51). He has been awarded many Soviet state prizes and the Nehru State Prize of India.

Although Mshvelidze’s development coincided with the isolation of Soviet culture from the newest compositional thinking of Western countries, his style is notable for its orginality and is based on Georgian musical folklore, especially of the Pshava mountain region in the north-west part of the country. He used as his starting point the severe and courageous character of Pshavian folk song with its characteristic monody consisting of a descending improvisatory melody over the range of seventh and set in an original mode similar to the phrygian but with a sharpened sixth and named by him the ‘Pshavian’ mode. This scale and declamatory monody were organically assimilated into the stylistic system of his symphonic works; since this treatment found a response in the creative process of many other Georgian composers Mshvelidze can be considered the founder of Georgian epic symphonism. In his conception of epic cycles, the rhapsodic unfolding of the material through the course of consecutive sections is carried out by means of continuous development; the general structure, however, sometimes falters through looseness of construction. The depiction of Vazha-Pshavela’s poetry in the symphonic poems ...

Article

Leah Dolidze

(b Tbilisi, March 17, 1927; d Tibilisi, Sept 21, 1996). Georgian composer and teacher. He graduated from the Tbilisi Conservatory in 1951 from the piano class of A. Svanidze, and then in 1955 from the composition class of Tuskia. From 1963 to the end of his life he taught polyphony and composition there, occupying the posts of lecturer (from 1963), assistant professor (from 1972) and professor and head of the composition department (from 1979). He was also dean of the faculty of theory and composition (1969–74), and in 1974 he was invited to become artistic director of the Georgian State Philharmonia. He was involved in the activities of the Georgian Composers' Union; he was twice elected secretary (1962, 1979) and later chairman of the board (1992). His works have received European broadcasts and have appeared in international festivals and concert series. He was awarded the title Honoured Representative of the Arts of Georgia (...

Article

Alina Pahlevanian

[Oganyan, Aleksandr]

(b Soganlug, Georgia, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 31, 1932). Armenian k‘emanch‘a player, teacher, theorist and composer. He began to play the k‘emanch‘a at the age of seven and joined a sazander ensemble in which he played the tiplipito and the duduk as well as the k‘emanch‘a. He became a soloist in the composer Anton Mailian's Eastern Orchestra in Baku in 1905 and often appeared with the instrumental ashugh group Haziri in Tbilisi. In the same year he toured the Transcaucasian region, Central Asia and Iran with two mugam performers, the singer D. Karyagdogli and the t‘a player K. Pirimov. During the period 1906–12 recordings of his performances of classical mugam and Armenian dance music were released by the companies Kontzert-Rekord, Patye and Sport-Rekord. He studied the k‘emanch‘a with Oganez Oganezov, an authority on the Persian mugam, and took the pseudonym Oganezashvili (‘son of Oganez’) in his honour; Oganezashvili added a fourth string to the ...

Article

William Y. Elias

revised by Nathan Mishori

(b Gelsenkirchen, Aug 21, 1926). Israeli composer and teacher of German origin. In 1933 he moved to Palestine, where he studied the violin with P. Kimari (1934–42) and R. Bergman (1942–7), and composition with Ben-Haim (1941–6) and Tal, graduating from the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem, in 1947. He went to the USA in 1949 to study with Copland at Tanglewood and to attend Kurt Sachs’s lectures at New York University. In 1950 his symphony Ha-sui Yisra’el (‘The Beauty of Israel’) was introduced by the Israel PO under Bernstein, and in 1950 his biblical cantata Sipur ha-meraglim (‘The Story of the Spies’) won him the International Koussevitzky Competition, enabling him to continue his studies at Tanglewood, where the work was first performed in 1952. He also studied under Fine, Shapero and Levi at Brandeis University (1960–61), receiving the MFA in musicology. In Israel he has worked as supervisor (...

Article

Jessica Duchen

(b Kamakura, Nov 8, 1947). Japanese conductor, son of Hisatada Otaka . He attended the celebrated Toho Gakuen College of Music in Tokyo and came to Europe to further his studies at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik. He rejoined the Toho Gakuen College as a faculty member in 1970. That appointment was followed by prestigious conducting appointments within Japan: from 1974 to 1992 he was principal conductor of the Tokyo PO and from 1981 principal conductor of the Sapporo SO. Otaka's career was established in the West when in 1987 he became principal conductor of the BBC National Orchestra of Wales in Cardiff, an appointment which took him to the Proms in 1991. In 1991 he also made his début with the WNO, conducting Salome. The following year he was appointed principal conductor of the Yomiuri Nippon SO in Tokyo, and in 1995 he became principal conductor of the newly formed Kioi Sinfonietta. He has also appeared as a guest conductor with the LSO, BBC SO, Oslo PO, Royal Liverpool PO and other orchestras. Admired both for his spacious, expressive readings of the central symphonic repertory and as an exponent of 20th-century music, Otaka has given a number of world premières, including Elena Firsova's ...