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Article

Jelena Jovanović

(b Vranje, Serbia, June 11, 1897; d Feb 21, 1969). Serbian singer (pesmopojka) and song writer. She was one of the most prominent performers of the 20th-century Serbian and Balkan urban vocal tradition. Widely known as a veseljak (lively character), she was respected for her fidelity to local traditions, for her intensely expressive and nuanced vocal style, and for her dedication to bring out the meaning of the texts she sang. She started singing at a very early age; as a young girl she was paid for her singing. She sang in her own home on everyday occasions, to guests, and at family and public celebrations. Her repertory encompassed love, family, and narrative songs, mainly concerning specific events, places, and personalities of Vranje. She is the author of the song ‘Dimitrijo, sine Mitre’, one of the hallmarks of Vranje vocal tradition, which traces its roots in tradition found in written sources from the late 19th century onwards and still practiced today....

Article

revised by Martin Marks

(b New York, NY, 19 April 1888; d Ukiah, CA, 13 Feb 1959). Composer and conductor. After private music study in Berlin, he conducted for Oscar Hammerstein's Manhattan Opera Company, which closed in 1910, and then for productions on Broadway. By 1921 he had become an assistant conductor at the Capitol Theater, where silent films were presented with full orchestral accompaniment; in 1923, in partnership with David Mendoza, he replaced Erno Rapée as principal conductor. In addition to conducting, he composed incidental film music for the Capitol as needed, including 57 pieces published in the Capitol Photoplay Series (New York, 1923–7). From 1925 to 1929 he collaborated with Mendoza in New York on compilation scores for at least 20 MGM films, beginning with The Big Parade. Their collaboration continued with the music for Don Juan (1926), the first feature film score to be presented using the Vitaphone process, which mechanically synchronized the playback of music recorded on wax discs with the projection of the film. In ...

Article

Cathy Ragland

(b General Terán, Nuevo León, México, June 29, 1911; d Donna, TX, Dec 1, 1990). Mexican accordionist, songwriter, and composer, active in the United States. Ayala was born into a musical family: his father played clarinet and accordion, his sisters played violin, and his brothers played accordion and guitar. In order to make a living, the Ayalas crossed the border to live in Donna, Texas, working in agriculture. Ayala accompanied his father at the age of ten on the tambora (small hand drum) playing polkas and huapangos in traditional Mexican tamborliero (drum and clarinet ensemble) style. He briefly played guitar in a local orquesta and with popular accordionist, Chon Alanis. Greatly influenced by Alanis, he switched to the accordion in the mid-1930s. Though he played professionally in the Rio Grande Valley region, he did not record until 1947, more than ten years after his contemporaries Narciso Martínez and Santiago Jiménez. His first recordings were made for an early Mexican American record label, Mira, which eventually became Falcón Records. His recordings earned him the title “El monarca del acordeón” (the Monarch of the Accordion) for his rapid-fire, uniquely syncopated playing style and eloquent articulation. He is also recognized for following Jiménez’s lead by featuring the ...

Article

Christoph Wolff and Ulrich Leisinger

Member of Bach family

(46) (b Weimar, March 8, 1714; d Hamburg, Dec 14, 1788). Composer and church musician, the second surviving son of (7) Johann Sebastian Bach (24) and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the most important composer in Protestant Germany during the second half of the 18th century, and enjoyed unqualified admiration and recognition particularly as a teacher and keyboard composer.

He was baptized on 10 March 1714, with Telemann as one of his godfathers. In 1717 he moved with the family to Cöthen, where his father had been appointed Kapellmeister. His mother died in 1720, and in spring 1723 the family moved to Leipzig, where Emanuel began attending the Thomasschule as a day-boy on 14 June 1723. J.S. Bach said later that one of his reasons for accepting the post of Kantor at the Thomasschule was that his sons’ intellectual development suggested that they would benefit from a university education. Emanuel Bach received his musical training from his father, who gave him keyboard and organ lessons. There may once have been some kind of ...

Article

Michael J. Budds

(b Kansas City, MO, May 12, 1928). American composer and pianist. He learnt the cello, drums and piano from an early age and developed a particular interest in jazz. He played as a night club pianist, and then served in the army, touring as a pianist (1950–52). He went on to study music at the Mannes College of Music, New York, the New School of Social Research, McGill University, Montreal and gained a scholarship to the Music Academy of the West, Santa Barbara, California. His composition teachers included Milhaud, Martinů and Cowell. Bacharach became an accompanist for Vic Damone, subsequently working with such performers as Polly Bergen, Steve Lawrence, the Ames Brothers and Paula Stewart, to whom he was married from 1953 to 1958. From 1958 to 1961 he toured internationally with Marlene Dietrich. Bacharach began writing arrangements and composing songs in the mid-1950s, working at the Brill Building and collaborating with the lyricist Hal David (...

Article

Andrew Clements

(b Klagenfurt, June 25, 1926; d Rome, Oct 17, 1973). Austrian librettist. She studied in Vienna, completing a doctoral thesis on the philosophies of Wittgenstein and Heidegger, before establishing her reputation as a poet with Die gestundete Zeit (1953) and Anrufung des grossen Bären (1956). She first collaborated with Henze in 1952 on the ballet-pantomime Der Idiot after Dostoyevsky, and her poetry supplied the texts for his orchestral song-cycle Nachtstücke und Arien (1957) and the Choral Fantasy (1964). She acted as librettist for Der Prinz von Homburg (1960), an adaptation of Kleist’s Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, and for Der junge Lord (1965), which is based on a short story by Hauff. The two operas are sharply contrasted: Der Prinz von Homburg is less overtly nationalistic than Kleist’s drama, and Bachmann and Henze emphasize the poetic aspirations of the central character at the expense of his military ambitions; ...

Article

Thomas Bauman

(b Lyck, East Prussia, June 8, 1756; d Königsberg, March 27, 1823). German librettist. At 21, after studying law at Königsberg, he went blind. Thereafter he taught history at an artillery academy and wrote novels, several works on Prussian history and musical texts for local use. Three of his librettos were published in ...

Article

André Clergeat

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Mr. Swing ]

(b Paris, April 16, 1931). French tenor saxophonist, clarinetist, pianist, composer, and leader. His father was a lyric singer, and he grew up in a musical family; he studied classical singing as a child and took up clarinet in 1950. After playing traditional jazz with Michel Attenoux (from 1952) and working with Bill Coleman, Peanuts Holland, Lil Armstrong, Sidney Bechet, and Jimmy Archey, he joined Claude Bolling’s trio (1955) and toured Europe, Africa, and the Middle East with Bolling and with Jazz aux Champs Elysées, led by Jack Diéval. From 1958 his principal instrument was the tenor saxophone, which he played for many years with Bolling and as a freelance in studios. He also worked with Roger Guérin and Geo Daly (both 1957), Alice Babs and Duke Ellington (1963), Jean-Claude Naude (1963–4), Cat Anderson (recording in 1965), Paul Gonsalves (...

Article

Jeff Pressing, John Whiteoak and Roger T. Dean

[Judith Mary ]

(b Auckland, New Zealand, Oct 3, 1935). New Zealand pianist and composer. After arriving in Sydney in 1960 she quickly became a prominent studio musician. She led a succession of trios and larger groups and worked with many important Australian players, including Don Burrows and Errol Buddle; she was also active in education, notably as a staff member of the New South Wales Conservatorium of Music (from 1990, the Sydney Conservatorium of Music) and as music director of the Sydney Youth Jazz Ensemble. Her compositional output increased considerably during the 1970s, when she wrote film scores and music for children. Bailey participated in performances of Don Banks’s Nexus for jazz quintet and orchestra, and made several recordings. In the 1980s she undertook several tours of Asia and in the 1990s she remained active, recording again as a leader in 1992.

Article

Frank Büchmann-Møller

(b Copenhagen, Feb 7, 1958). Danish pianist, keyboard player, saxophonist, and composer. He began to play professionally in 1978 and studied music education at the Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen in 1981. Besides leading his own quartet he worked in the groups Blast (1980–84), Santa Cruz (1980–85), Buzstop (1982–3), Hans Ulrik’s Fusion (recording in 1988), Det Glatte Lag, and Jazzgruppe 90 (recording in 1992), and recorded as the leader of a big band which included Randy Brecker and Bob Berg (1992). From the 1980s onwards he has composed and arranged for, and played in, numerous productions at recording studios, in theaters, on radio and on television, both in jazz and in other genres. Bak has taught from 1986 at Det Rytmiske Musikkonservatorium in Copenhagen.

Article

Paul Griffiths

(b Szeged, Aug 4, 1884; d Budapest, May 17, 1949). Hungarian librettist . His libretto Bluebeard’s Castle, a response to the Maeterlinck play set by Dukas, was written for either of the two composers to whom he was tied by links of friendship and nationalist artistic ideals: Bartók and Kodály. The former took it on, and also used a Balázs scenario for his second stage work, the ballet ...

Article

Johs Bergh

(b Hamar, Norway, June 7, 1955). Norwegian pianist, composer, and arranger. He grew up in Oslo and began his career in jazz-rock groups in the early 1970s. He then played with Arild Andersen (1974–6), Radka Toneff (1975–82), and the guitarist Jon Eberson (1978–9), among others, and internationally with the quintet Masqualero (1982–7). From 1990 he has performed all over Europe with the trumpeter Per Jørgensen and the drummer Audun Kleive in the free improvising trio Jøkleba. For the winter olympic games at Lillehammer, Norway, in 1994 he was commissioned to write Magnetic North for an 11-piece orchestra, and in 1995–6 he toured in Japan, the USA, and Europe with this band. Balke has also composed music for various theater productions and larger works for many Norwegian jazz festivals. A musician with a broad scope, he performs in a regular modern jazz style, in a completely free manner, and in styles influenced by different worldwide ethnic musics....

Article

Dale Cockrell

(b Cleveland, OH, July 21, 1878; d Santa Ana, CA, May 3, 1927). American composer and singer. After studying music at the Cleveland Conservatory he went to New York, where he became a pianist in vaudeville theaters and a founding member of ASCAP. From 1907 to 1927 he was a staff pianist and composer at M. Witmark and Sons. His first success came with the ballad “Will you love me in December as you do in May?,” written in 1905 to lyrics by Jimmy Walker. Many of his most popular songs thereafter were composed for the Irish tenors John McCormack and Chauncey Olcott, with whom he also collaborated. Ball composed some 400 songs, including such standards as “Mother Machree” (1910), “When Irish Eyes are Smiling” (1913), and “A Little Bit of Heaven” (1914). Much of the last decade of his life was spent performing in vaudeville. His film biography, ...

Article

Barry Long

[Walker, William Vincent]

(b Mobile, AL, Sept 20, 1947; d Harlem, NY, April 11, 2011). American jazz violinist and composer. He moved with his mother to the Bronx as a young child and attended school in Harlem where he played the conga. Bang took up violin at the age of 12 and played it in his school orchestra. After studying with a scholarship at the Stockbridge School, MA (1961–3), he served a tour of combat duty in the Vietnam War and subsequently joined the anti-war movement. Bang was inspired to take up violin again by the records of Ornette Coleman and Leroy Jenkins. He purchased an instrument at a pawnshop in 1968 and was playing professionally by 1972 after studying with Jenkins and practicing with Eric Dolphy records. He was active in the New York avant-garde loft scene, leading the Survival Ensemble and playing with Sam Rivers and Frank Lowe, and in ...

Article

(b Chicago, Jan 9, 1921). American composer. Between 1940 and 1960 he played the cello in several American orchestras; he also played the viola da gamba in the New York Pro Musica. During the 1960s he taught at Rutgers and at the New England Conservatory. A sojourn in Paris in 1952 fostered Barab’s interest in composition. He is best known for his more than 30 operas, most of which are in one act and ideally suited for student or amateur productions. The most frequently performed are Chanticleer, A Game of Chance, Little Red Riding Hood and The Toy Shop.

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Article

Charles Fox and Digby Fairweather

(b Welwyn Garden City, April 17, 1930). English jazz trombonist, arranger and bandleader. He studied the trombone and the double bass at the GSM in London, and formed his first traditional jazz band in 1949. In 1953 he helped to organize a band that was led by Ken Colyer, at that time the most ardent British propagandist for traditional New Orleans music. The following year Barber took over the band; Colyer was replaced by Pat Halcox, and the ensemble soon became one of the most popular and technically accomplished groups of its kind. From the mid-1950s Barber helped foster British interest in blues by bringing over such American musicians as Muddy Waters, the harmonica player Sonny Terry and the guitarist and singer Brownie McGhee. He made several tours of the USA beginning in 1959, and also recorded two albums with his American Jazz Band, which included Sidney De Paris, Edmond Hall and Hank Duncan. Barber expanded his interests, recording classic rags (scored for his band) long before the popular rediscovery of Scott Joplin, and working with musicians from other areas of jazz (notably the Jamaican saxophonists Bertie King and Joe Harriott). Renewed interest in traditional jazz in the early 1960s brought wide success to Barber and his group, which included as its singer his wife, Ottilie Patterson. After rhythm-and-blues achieved general popularity in the early 1960s he re-formed his group as Chris Barber’s Jazz and Blues Band, and, while retaining his roots in New Orleans jazz, engaged rock and blues musicians guitarist John Slaughter and the drummer Pete York. During the 1970s the band toured frequently in Europe. In ...

Article

Chadwick Jenkins

(b Lisle, IL, Nov 8, 1955). American singer, pianist, composer, and bandleader. Her father played with the Glenn Miller band and her mother was a professional blues singer. After studying psychology and classical piano at the University of Iowa, Barber returned to Chicago and began playing five nights a week at the Gold Star Sardine Bar, where she attracted varying critical attention for her husky voice and the inclusion of pop songs, including “Black Magic Woman” and “A Taste of Honey,” in her repertoire. She recorded her first album, Split (Floyd), in 1989 and her second album, A Distortion of Love (Antilles) in 1991. She subsequently moved to the independent label Premonition, which was bought by Blue Note in 1998. In 2003 Barber became the first songwriter to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. Under its aegis she composed a song cycle based on Ovid’s Metamorphoses. She is the subject of a documentary, ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(fl Castleton, Derbys., 1723–53). English psalmodist and ?composer. In 1723 he published the first edition of A Book of Psalmody in conjunction with John Barber. A second edition, by Robert Barber alone, followed in 1733, and a third, entitled David’s Harp Well Tuned, in 1753. He also published The Psalm Singer’s Choice Companion in 1727. A Book of Psalmody enjoyed a good deal of popularity in the north Midlands. It was similar to other parochial collections, and most of its contents were derivative. The second edition, however, had a remarkable feature: it included, as well as chants for the canticles, a complete musical setting of Morning Prayer, litany and ante-communion on cathedral lines, but for alto, tenor and bass only. Barber made it clear on the title-page that this was designed for ‘our Country Churches’. He thus brought to its logical conclusion the trend begun by Henry Playford, who published anthems for parish church use in ...

Article

Christopher Smith

(b Paris, April 29, 1805; d Nice, Feb 13, 1882). French poet . He was renowned as an acerbic satirist from the time of the July Revolution of 1830, and his election to the Académie Française in 1869 was interpreted as an anti-Imperial gesture. When Berlioz met him in Rome in 1832 he asked for a libretto after Romeo and Juliet; Barbier was unwilling to oblige, but later he had a large share in the preparation of the libretto for Benvenuto Cellini. In his Etudes dramatiques (Paris, 1874) Barbier recorded that Berlioz first asked the distinguished poet Alfred de Vigny (1797–1863) to compose the text; Vigny refused (though he was prevailed on to help at a much later stage) and recommended Léon de Wailly (1804–63), a minor dramatist and a translator of English and Scottish literature. The latter turned for aid, probably with versification, to Barbier. When after many delays and alterations ...

Article

Christopher Smith

(b Paris, March 8, 1825; d Paris, Jan 16, 1901). French librettist and playwright . His career illustrates the evolution of theatrical taste in Paris through the 19th century. He started by writing little comedies while in his teens, and his early works belong to the tradition of ephemeral entertainments spiced with topicality and enlivened by songs adapted to popular tunes of the day. Gradually he became more ambitious, and his Jeanne d’Arc (1873), for instance, in five acts and with incidental music by Gounod, was rated highly by contemporary critics; this play was one of the sources Tchaikovsky used in compiling his own libretto for The Maid of Orléans (1881). As a librettist he generally followed the Parisian practice of writing both plays and librettos in collaboration, mostly with the prolific Michel Carré until the latter’s death in 1872 and then with his own son, Pierre Barbier (...