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Aporo  

Peter Cooke

End-blown trumpet of the Labwor and Nyakwai peoples of Karamoja, Uganda. It is an open tube of aporo wood (hence the name) up to 91 cm long and 5.5 cm in diameter. The aporo is played by women, chiefly for their acut dance and is blown into at either end with the cheeks well distended and the hands holding it in the middle. It sounds not unlike a foghorn. A number of ...

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Apwanga  

F.J. de Hen

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Ardin  

K.A. Gourlay

Angle harp played by Moorish women of Mauritania. It usually has 11 to 14 strings and a neck more than 100 cm long. The neck is inserted into a hemispherical calabash resonator, about 40 cm in diameter, which is covered with a stretched sheepskin. The strings are attached to a curved wooden rod on the soundtable, into which each end of the rod disappears, and to tuning pegs at the upper end. Circular metal discs with small rings round the edges are fixed on the soundtable. The harp is played with its body in front of the seated player, the neck to the left of the player’s head. It can be played with both hands or only with the left, the right then providing a percussive accompaniment on the soundtable.

The ardin is used to accompany solo singing, usually by women (sometimes two harps accompany two women singers), together with either the drum ...

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Arekwa  

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Ari (i)  

Peter Cooke

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Arigo  

F.J. de Hen

[drigo, rigo]

Trapezoidal or tulip-shaped Slit-drum of the Mangutu of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. In the region of Watsa Gombari the trapezoidal arigo is reserved for the use of the chief.

LaurentyTF, 139 F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 48, 59...

Article

Aro  

Amanda Villepastour

Combined rattle and concussion Clappers of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria and Benin. The instrument comprises two metal rings, each holding three containers, inside which are pellets. The player holds the instruments more or less horizontally and strikes the sides of the rings together. The aro can be incorporated into the ...

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Arote  

F.J. de Hen

Article

Christian Poché

[‘arṭab, ‘arṭāba, ‘urṭuba]

Abyssinian drum, lyre, or lute of the early Islamic era. The word sounds foreign to the language and has no known derivation in it, but an Ethiopian origin remains plausible. Some Arab lexicographers have identified the instrument as an Abyssinian drum, similar to the kūba, but there is no solid evidence for this. Others have identified it as a ṭunbūr, which might be a lyre or a long-necked lute. Evidence presented by the 9th-century historian al-Hamdān (Iklīl, viii, 160–65) suggests a lyre as the more likely, but the possibility of a lute cannot be rejected. Since the classical era (9th and 10th centuries) the instrument has been classed with the ‘ūd, as have other types such as the kinnāra, barba , muwattar, and mizhar. Andalusian writers specify the quality of the instrument’s strings, which they call ma ḥbad (‘bow string or string of a wool-carder’), but Abbasid authors are more general in their descriptions. The instrument was finally integrated into the lute family and the name transformed by metathesis into ‘atraba’, as mentioned by the 16th-century writer Ibn Ḥajar al-Haythamī (...

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Arub  

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Asei  

F.J. de Hen

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Asok  

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Jeremy Montagu

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Laurence Libin

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Assogi  

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Asuba  

F.J. de Hen

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Atabule  

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Atang