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Konin Aka

Single-string harp of the Senufo people of the Ivory Coast. The string extends from a curved neck and is plucked by one hand while the other strikes the skin-covered calabash resonator. An ensemble may consist of nine harps, eight tuned in unison, the ninth a fourth higher. The music played by ...

Article

Bolu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

K.A. Gourlay

Nose flute of the Nkundo and Konda Bowele peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from a hollow pawpaw stem; the ends are sealed with resin and a small hole pierced in each. A thumb hole is made 2 cm from one end on the dorsal side and opened or closed as the instrument is blown with a nostril. The players are mainly children who use the nose flute for amusement. The ifonge na ndzulu of the Mongo is similar except that a small leaf is placed over each end to seal it and there is no thumb hole. Other nose flutes reported from the Democratic Republic of the Congo include the Bali, Mbo, and Ndaka aduteli, Bira bukanga and Kumu and Lega kabili.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960) G. Knosp: Enquête sur la vie musicale au Congo belge 1934–1935...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

David Font-Navarrete

[kongkong, kabombolon, elembele, ebereng]

Slit drum of the Jola people of Senegal and the Gambia. A bombolon can range from 40 to 150 cm long and often has a roughly cylindrical extension carved at each end of the hollowed log beyond the longitudinal slot. It is usually placed horizontally, resting on four small feet. The two sides of the slot produce different pitches. The instrument is played exclusively by males, using wooden sticks or bare hands. It is played in wrestling music (kongkong; also sometimes the name for the associated drum), funerary music, and during male initiation/circumcision ceremonies. Bombolon is also often used as a generic term for several Jola wooden slit drums; while all these instruments appear similar, they are used for different purposes depending on whether they are consecrated or not.

L.-V. Thomas: ‘Les Diola: Essai d’analyse fonctionnelle sur une population de Basse-Casamance’ (Dakar, 1959).

See also Kabisa ; Slit drum ...

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Bompete  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Bondjo  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[ekungu, bongo]

Side-blown ivory horn of the Konda people of the northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It retains the natural pointed tip of the tusk and therefore has no fingerhole. Sometimes it is made in two parts: the upper of ivory and the lower (wider) of wood, the joint rendered airtight by a sleeve of goatskin (formerly human skin). Its use is reserved for chiefs, whose power it represents, and only they may own and blow it or empower another to blow it on their behalf....

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Kettledrum of the Mbwanja and Eso peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head is usually made of an elephant ear, affixed to a clay pot resonator by fibre or leather thongs. It is known among the Ngando as ebondza and by the Nkundo as ilonga.

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Bongoo  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Bonkeli  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Bonkolo  

Rainer Polak

[bon, bonjalan, sogolon]

Conical drum of the Bamana, Boso, and Somono peoples of Mali. The hardwood body is 50 to 70 cm tall and 25 to 30 cm in diameter. A single head of goatskin or antelope rawhide is sewn to a rope lacing affixed to small holes near the bottom. The head is beaten by one bare hand and with one light stick, which produces a sharp cracking sound. The drum can be tuned by screwing short sticks into the staggered lacing. Ensembles usually consist of two to four bonkolo, one as the lead drum, the other(s) for ostinato accompaniment. Ensembles are complemented by a gangan (cylindrical drum of the dunun type) and a kettledrum (cun) up to 70 cm in diameter, which produces powerful bass lines. The most prominent focus of bonkolo-led drum ensemble performance is masquerade and puppetry of the Ségou region in central Mali. Bonjalan and ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Scraper of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Various types of scrapers bear this or a similar name. The Lia and Oli peoples call it bonkwasa and the Nkundo call it bonkwata. The Konda and Kala know it also as bokwese. Typically it is a bamboo tube with one or several slits notched on both edges or sometimes only on one edge. Wooden ones are rare and mostly confined to the Lower Congo. Here variant forms exist, such as a wooden box with a grooved stick attached to a board; an anthropomorphic body covered with skin; or a box shaped like a goat, with a notched bamboo tube replacing the vertebrae and scraped with two sticks, one solid and the other partly slit. Lemba-type wooden slit drums sometimes have the sides of the slot notched to serve also as scrapers.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Boonzu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[mpongi]

Side-blown animal horn of the Nkundo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a fingerhole in the tip. This term can also be applied to a side-blown ivory trumpet with carved mouthpiece and pointed tip, of the Kala people of the northwestern DRC.

J.S. Laurenty: Systématique des aerophones de l’Afrique centrale...

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Boro  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Whistle of the Barambo people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of two pieces of wood shaped to form a slender conical bore and bound together with animal skin. To make it airtight before playing, water is poured in. Many other names designate the same instrument among the Barambo (e.g. ...

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Bote  

Bowl-shaped kettledrum used in northern Sierra Leone by Susu, Mandingo, Yalunka, and Koranko musicians. It is approximately 40 to 50 cm in diameter and is played suspended at waist level. The player strikes the head with his right hand, while clapping together metal rings (baba) on the thumb and two fingers of the left hand. ...