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Article

Single-headed, footed conical drum of the Digo, Giryama, and other peoples of Kenya. On some examples the head, made of cow or antelope hide or goatskin, is secured by a thick ring and a small number of cords; on others it is pegged to the body, which is typically about 48 cm tall and 28 cm in head diameter. The Digo use their ...

Article

Natalie M. Webber

[bummändiya]

Clay drum of Sri Lanka. It is shaped as a bulbous pot with a short neck that flares to make a wide mouth which is covered by a skin from the spotted iguana (talagoya). At the base of the pot another short neck is left open. The total length varies from 38 to 51 cm. The drum hangs diagonally from a hemp sling secured around both necks and across the player’s shoulder. One hand beats the skin head; the other covers and uncovers the aperture at the base, altering the tone and pitch.

The bummädiya appears to have ritualistic origins, because it was made before sowing paddy, probably to propitiate the earth goddess. Superb examples, often engraved and painted, exist in Sinhalese museums and temple treasure-houses. It is now comparatively rare but in the 1980s was still used occasionally in the hill-country villages around Kandy, to accompany songs for sowing and harvesting....

Article

Bungas  

Valdis Muktupāvels

[celma bungas]

Term for various cylindrical drums of Latvia. Though the name appears in written sources since the 17th century and quite frequently in folklore, there is little evidence of the drums’ shapes before the 20th century. The earlier drums were sounded at weddings and other occasions and were played by town and military musicians. Iconography and a few museum specimens show a cylindrical one- or two-headed drum, about 40 cm in diameter and 50–60 cm tall, played with two wooden sticks.

At the end of the 19th century a significantly bigger cylindrical drum was used. It was double-headed, 60–80 cm in diameter and 30–40 cm tall. The dog-skin heads were attached with wooden or metal hoops held by metal hooks. The instrument was placed on the ground, and the player used one beater having a soft head. The bungas was used with other instruments to play dance music at weddings and outdoor dance parties....

Article

Burburi  

Article

Jan Stęszewski

revised by Zbigniew J. Przerembski

[mrëczk, mruczek] (Pol.: ‘grumble bass’)

Friction drum used in the Pomerania and Warmia regions of Poland. Formerly it was used in magic and annual folk rituals, mainly during Christmas and Shrovetide. Nowadays many folk ensembles use it to provide a rhythmic bass, and as a musical attribute of Kashubian cultural identity. The barrel-shaped body is about 25–30 cm tall and made of wooden staves, or sometimes a hollowed log. The bottom of the barrel is made of leather or wood with a centrally attached strand of horsehair or a metal chain that is rubbed rhythmically with wetted or rosined hands. A smaller version called the ...

Article

(Basque: ‘lever’)

Idiophone of the Basque region, known also as a palanka or satai. It is an iron bar, about 1 metre long, which is struck with small iron or wooden beaters, creating a bell-like sound. It used to be played in the lobera (or burdinbarra) serenade, performed to a couple at dusk on the day their marriage banns were called....

Article

Bwi  

Article

Byàw  

John Okell

Double-headed barrel drum of Myanmar. It is 60 to 70 cm long, with cowhide heads 40 cm in diameter, laced together and beaten with a pair of stout sticks. The byàw is associated particularly with ceremonies for happy events such as a son entering the monkhood as a novice. A typical ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Shallow barrel drum of the Santal people of eastern India. It is 25 to 30 cm deep, 32.5 cm in diameter at the right-hand head, and 35 cm at the left. The shell is of gambhari wood, and the heads are of goatskin stretched on creeper hoops and laced with leather thongs and metal tuning-loops. The right head has a hardened tuning paste of earth, oil, gum, and vermilion. The drum is hung either vertically and played with sticks on the upper (right) head, or horizontally and beaten with the hands on both heads....

Article

Cang  

Alastair Dick

[cangu]

Indian name for frame drum in Gujarat and Rajasthan (cang), and in Orissa (cangu), denoting two different types in each region. The Gujarati cang and the cangu of the Orissan Khondh people are large (up to 60 cm wide) wooden-rimmed drums, their heads laced by dense strapping passing around a small metal ring held suspended by the straps in the centre of the open left head. They are played with hands or sticks, or both. The cangu of the Juang people of Orissa and the Rajasthani cang, however, have pasted heads, as on the Middle Eastern daf or Indian ḍaph model. The Juang cangu is 40 cm wide, held by a sling on the left shoulder and played with two bamboo sticks. The Rajasthani cang (about 60 cm wide) is played by one musician with both hands, sometimes also with a stick, while another player strikes it with two long sticks. It is associated with the spring festival ...

Article

David K. Rycroft

(pl. tussúmbi)

Open-ended, footed drum of the Chokwe of the Lóvua/Lunda district, Angola. The name derives from the word for ‘hen’, and the instrument is said to make a ‘cackling noise’. In construction and playing technique it closely resembles the mucundo drum, and it is played in conjunction with that and with the ...

Article

Pribislav Pitoëff

[ceṇḍe]

Double-headed drum of Kerala, south India. The body is a cylinder of jackwood, 55 cm tall and 22 cm in diameter. The heads are glued to two hoops of wood or bamboo, 32 cm in diameter and 4 cm high, and held very taut at either end of the body by W-shaped lacings, each tuned by a movable ring placed on the lacings. On some modern ce ṇḍa the heads are attached with metal screw rods. The heads are of cow- or calfhide: one head is made of a single layer, the other has six or seven extra layers glued on the inside. The drum is held vertically by a fabric strap passed over the player’s shoulder; a great variety of strokes is obtained on the thin head, either by two curved sticks or by one stick and a hand; the other head is occasionally beaten to mark the time....

Article

Elaine Dobson

Article

Michael Suing

[chancega, cancega](Lakota: ‘wood kettle’)

Generic Sioux Indian term for frame drums. The term refers both to single- and double-headed drums used in personal, powwow, and ceremonial settings, while čháŋčheğa miméla refers specifically to the hand drum. Historic Euro-American accounts often refer to the large drums as war drums; however, this is a misconception as specific drums did not exist for this purpose. Lakota construction methods and materials are representative of traditional drummaking in the Northern Great Plains. A likely predecessor of the Lakota frame drum was a solitary hoop of bent branches with no drum head, played by striking the hoop with a beater. This idiophonic frame was a talismanic object employed by healers and shamans. After idiophonic frames, longitudinally split and bent sections of wood with increased structural integrity for supporting a drum head were used. The two ends were overlapped and lashed with sinew and hide passing through holes cut through the wood. Later, vegetal twine, iron tacks, and wire replaced or were used to repair lapped joints. The use of cross-sections of hollowed trees is common in larger powwow drums, but smaller handheld drums sometimes employed this method. Other lumber, typically from discarded shipping crates, provided wood of ideal thickness and length for use as bent drum frames, and other collected materials, such as large snapping turtle shells, large iron hoops, small shipping crates, wooden buckets, and cast iron kettles were used as drum frames or bodies....

Article

John Okell

Set of six drums used in the hsaìng-waìng percussion ensemble of Myanmar. The set consists of four graduated barrel drums standing on end, the sahkún (large double-headed barrel drum) resting on a low trestle, and the pat-má (large barrel drum) suspended from an ornate rack carved in the shape of a fabulous beast. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Single-headed conical drum of the Tuutsi people of Rwanda. The struck head is laced to another skin that covers the closed end of the drum. The chihumurizo is the largest and lowest-pitched in a set of 15 drums; others include the ishako (ishaakwe, ‘high pitched one’), nterero (the second smallest), ...

Article

Chijin  

David W. Hughes

revised by Henry Johnson

Double-headed drum of the Amami Islands and Okinawa, Japan. The pronunciation of the same character in mainland Japan is tsuzumi (‘hourglass drum’), but chijin generally refers to a small shallow barrel drum played by dancers in certain group ritual dances and as accompaniment to songs and during festivals. Hourglass drums, namely the ōtsuzumi and the kotsuzumi, spread at least to Okinawa’s Yaeyama archipelago as a part of the instrumental ensemble, but were there called ufudō (‘large body’) and kudō (‘small body’). In Okinawa, the chijin has its two drumheads tacked to the body. Also called tidimi, tsuzun, and taiko, in Amami, the chijin in this context is about 20 to 29 cm in diameter and 13 cm deep, and the animal hair, made of cow, horse, or goat, is often left on the heads. The lashed heads do not extend beyond the body as on the shimedaiko, and the lashings are tightened by driving around 14 to 20 small wooden wedges under them around a groove in the circumference of the wooden body, a feature unique to this drum in Japan. The player often holds the side of the instrument in one hand with the heads almost vertical, while striking one head with a single, long wooden beater held in the other hand....

Article

Robert C. Provine

Large Korean barrel drum supported on a four-legged stand. It is related to the Chinese jingu and is the largest Korean drum in current use. Two cowhide heads (about 110 cm in diameter) are tacked to the slatted wooden body (about 155 cm long), which is painted a plain red; the struck head has a yin–yang symbol in the centre and multi-coloured decoration around the edge. The standing player strikes only one head, in the centre, with a large soft-headed mallet. The sound can be very deep and imposing, but in humid weather the drumskin might be too slack to produce a resonant sound.

The chin’go was imported from China as part of a large gift of instruments from the Song Chinese emperor in 1116, and its use has always been restricted to ceremonial music. At present it is played only in Seoul in the twice-yearly Sacrifice to Confucius, the annual Sacrifice to Royal Ancestors, and the sacrificial music for the 19th-century Kydǒgmo Shrine. It appears in the ...

Article

Chindon  

Henry Johnson

Composite Japanese instrument consisting of two membranophones and one idiophone. The onomatopoeic term chindon, referring to the high (chin) and low (don) notes of the instrument, is related to the word chindonya, which denotes a group of street performers who help with advertising local businesses; ya means shop. The instruments that comprise the chindon are the hiradaiko (larger drum), shimedaiko (smaller drum), and atarigane (bowl metallophone). The instruments are attached to a wooden frame that is strapped to the front of the player’s body. The hiradaiko is double-headed and shallow-bodied with its heads nailed to the wooden body. It is attached to the frame with its heads perpendicular to the ground so that the player can strike either head. The atarigane is suspended from an inverted V-shaped frame above the hiradaiko and the player strikes the inside of the bowl with a long beater held in the right hand. The ...