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Article

Lewis Lockwood

revised by David Crawford

(b Bologna, bap. 1530, Jan 1, 1531; d Rome, Nov 30, 1592). Italian singer and editor of plainsong. He was at some point a pupil of Palestrina, with whom he was evidently on good terms and who admired his work. He was a singer in the papal chapel in 1575 and was chaplain to Pope Gregory XIII. In 1592 he received a printer's privilege permitting him to publish chant books in small format, in contrast to the large folio size then commonly in use for such books. His publications of plainsong are the most complete and authoritative manuals of their kind from the period following the Council of Trent. The chief one is the Directorium chori, inspected and corrected by Palestrina, which provides a standardized church calendar and useful plainsong formulae based on older traditions at Rome. Unlike the attempted plainsong revision of Palestrina and Annibale Zoilo, Guidetti seems not to have attempted to modify the melodic material available to him. Various printed chantbooks in both Spain and Italy had employed pseudo-mensural notation before the ...

Article

Stefano Ajani

revised by Bianca Maria Antolini

(b Florence, Oct 12, 1817; d Florence, Jan 17, 1883). Italian music publisher and double bass player. He played the double bass at the Teatro della Pergola, Florence (1849–53), and in 1844 opened his publishing firm under the name G.G. Guidi, Stabilimento Calcografico Musicale. He both founded the Società del Quartetto di Firenze and published the music performed at its concerts and competitions in the society’s journal, Boccherini (1862–82); he was also the publisher of the winning compositions at the Duea di S Clemente competition. His catalogue included a number of chamber works and overtures by Beethoven, Mozart and Mendelssohn, and compositions by contemporary musicians, including Bottesini and Francesco Anichini. He published many full scores of operas, including Rossini’s Guillaume Tell and Il barbiere di Siviglia, Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots and Robert le diable, and Peri’s Euridice (1863), transcribed directly from the 17th-century edition. The catalogue also contained operas by Morlacchi and Mancinelli, polyphonic music, including madrigals by Tromboncino and Arcadelt (...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Egham, April 3, 1838; d London, Jan 29, 1901). English clergyman, lecturer and writer. Haweis showed great aptitude for music and studied the violin with Antonio James Oury. At Cambridge University he formed a quartet society and became solo violinist of the Cambridge University Musical Society. Graduating in 1859, two years later he passed the Cambridge examination in theology and was ordained deacon, then priest in 1862. After some short-term curateships, he was appointed perpetual curate of St James's, Marylebone, in 1866, a position he held until his death.

Haweis was a Broad Churchman with powers of dynamic extempore preaching that drew packed congregations to St James's, where his Sunday evening services unconventionally included orchestral music and oratorio performances. In 1867 he married Mary Eliza Joy (1848–98), who gained prominence through her writings on household decoration. In 1884 Haweis supplanted J.A. Fuller Maitland as music critic of the ...

Article

Jeremy Siepmann

(b Treysa, Hesse, July 28, 1948). German pianist, editor and author. He studied in Mannheim, at the Hochschule für Musik in Stuttgart and finally at the Hochschule für Musik in Cologne, where his teachers were Aloys Kontarsky and Wilhelm Hecker. Since the start of his career he has concentrated almost exclusively on 20th-century works, about which he has written and published extensively. From 1980 to 1985 he edited and published the five-volume series of yearbooks Neuland, Ansätze zur Musik der Gegenwart. Henck has given frequent courses at Darmstadt and elsewhere and has made over 40 recordings, including the three sonatas by Boulez, Cage’s Music of Changes, Cheap Imitation and Music for Piano 1–84, three piano cycles by Gurdjieff/de Hartmann, Koechlin’s Les heures persanes, Stockhausen’s Klavierstücke I–IX and works by Schoenberg, Ives, Mompou, McGuire and Medek. Since 1984 he has recorded several discs of keyboard improvisations. He has also published many articles and books, including ...

Article

John W. Wagner

(b ?Dartmoor, June 4, 1770; d Boston, Aug 2, 1827). American conductor, composer and publisher of English birth, father of John Hill Hewitt. Apart from family records giving his place and date of birth, the first documented information about him is that he occupied 12 Hyde Street, Bloomsbury, London, during 1791–2. He arrived in New York on 5 September 1792. Although he advertised himself there as having had concert experience in London under ‘Haydn, Pleyel, etc.’, no evidence of this has been found. He lived in New York until 1811, his longest period of residence at one address being from 1801 to 1810 at 59 Maiden Lane. From 1792 until the end of March 1808, he was conductor of the orchestra at the Park Street Theatre, where his duties included arranging and composing music for many ballad operas and other musical productions. He also operated his own ‘musical repository’, where he gave lessons and sold musical instruments and music composed by himself and others....

Article

Stephen Ruppenthal

revised by David Patterson

[Richard Carter]

(b Cambridge, England, March 15, 1938; d Quebec, Oct 25, 1998). American composer, performer, writer, artist and publisher. He studied composition and orchestration privately with Harry Levenson (1953), with Cowell at Columbia University (BS 1960), and with Cage at the New School for Social Research (1958–9). In the late 1950s, partly as a result of his studies with Cowell and Cage, Higgins began to explore the areas between music and the other arts – the ‘intermedia’. He was associated with the first ‘happenings’ (1958) and was one of the original adherents of the Fluxus movement (from 1961), collaborating in performances with such artists as Cage, Corner, MacLow, Meredith Monk and Tenney. During the 1960s, Higgins became one of the chief exponents of avant-garde music through his writings and other activities. He founded and directed the Something Else Press (1964–73), a major publisher of avant-garde intermedia works, and ran its performance gallery (...

Article

Barbara Palfy

(b Kansas City, MO, Jan 12, 1884; d New York, Jan 12, 1964). American pianist, composer, music director, writer, and editor. Horst grew up in a German family that prized music and he first studied violin. After elementary school, the end of his formal education, he took up piano, honed his skills, and soon supported himself as a musician, playing ragtime and improvisations in dance and gambling halls, performing with theater pit orchestras, and accompanying solo classical recitalists.

On the West Coast in 1915, Horst encountered Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, who hired him as accompanist for their Denishawn company and subsequently as music director of their new school. He remained for ten years. Immersed in the developing new abstract form of dancing, he examined the relationship of music to dance, especially through St. Denis’s “music visualizations.” He began to study musical structure and composition, and left Denishawn to continue learning in Vienna and becoming better informed in contemporary theater, art, literature, and film—knowledge he passed on to future choreographers in his book (with Caroll Russell) ...

Article

Rita Benton

(b Paris, March 9, 1753; d Paris, April 15, 1832). French violinist and music publisher. As a boy he studied with Pierre Gaviniès; at the age of 17 he made his début in a concerto in which he showed great promise, according to the Mercure de France of 1 April 1770. A performance 11 years later elicited only mild enthusiasm, and the soloist’s ‘noticeable shyness’ was commented on (Mercure de France, April 1781). His later musical activity was for the most part confined to teaching and to participation in the orchestras of various societies (including the Concert Spirituel, the Concert d’Emulation, the Société Académique des Enfants d’Appollon, the Concert Olympique and, in 1810, the imperial chapel), although in these he sometimes performed as leader, and occasionally as soloist.

The music publishing house that Imbault founded operated during its first year in connection with the already established firm of Jean-Georges Sieber (their first joint announcement, in the ...

Article

Robert Orledge and Andrew Thomson

(b Paris, Mar 27, 1851; d Paris, Dec 2, 1931). French composer, teacher, conductor and editor of early music. His famed veneration for Beethoven and Franck has unfortunately obscured the individual character of his own compositions, particularly his fine orchestral pieces descriptive of southern France. As a teacher his influence was enormous and wideranging, with benefits for French music far outweighing the charges of dogmatism and political intolerance.

Andrew Thomson

D’Indy came from a military aristocratic family from the Ardèche region, a fact of the greatest importance in understanding his lifelong nationalist and right-wing political position. His mother died in childbirth, and he was brought up by his paternal grandmother, Thérèse (née de Chorier). Her strict regime, however, was mitigated by deep affection: she was not the tyrannical ogress of received opinion. D’Indy took lessons in piano from Louis Diémer and theory from Albert Lavignac; while showing definite promise, he showed more interest as a boy in military matters and the life of his hero Napoleon. At 18, having passed his ...

Article

L. Brett Scott

(Walter)

(b Port Colborne, ON, Oct 14, 1927; d Caledon East, ON, April 3, 1998). Canadian choral conductor, arranger, editor, and teacher. After graduating from the University of Toronto (BM 1950), he conducted the University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra and All-Varsity Mixed Chorus, was a choir member at St. Mary Magdelene Church under Healey Willan, and apprenticed with Sir Ernest MacMillan as assistant conductor of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir. In 1964 he was appointed conductor of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, a position he held until 1997. He taught choral music at the University of Toronto from 1965 to 1968, and was Adjunct Professor from 1997 until his death in 1998. After his death, the University of Toronto’s Elmer Iseler Chair in Conducting was established in his honor.

Iseler’s work with his professional choirs established his reputation in Canada and internationally. In 1954 he helped found Canada’s first professional choir, the Toronto Festival Singers. He founded the Elmer Iseler Singers in ...

Article

Michael Jacobson

(b London, Jan 1, 1896; d Brighton, Feb 2, 1976). English composer, pianist, adjudicator and publisher . He began to learn both the violin and the piano at the age of seven. At 16, a piano scholarship at the Modern School of Music, London, enabled him to receive lessons from Busoni. In 1916 he won a composition scholarship at the RCM, where, with a break for military service, he studied with Stanford and then Holst until 1922. Before leaving the RCM, Jacobson accompanied the tenor John Coates for two years. He also began a lifelong association with J. Curwen & Sons, originally as a reader and editor, becoming a director (1933) and chairman (1950–72). He resumed concert appearances during World War II, giving recitals, notably, with the contralto Kathleen Ferrier. Jacobson was highly regarded in festival adjudicating, with which he was involved for 50 years. As an extension of such work, he was chairman of the National Youth Orchestra’s executive committee (...

Article

Owain Edwards

(b Trecastell, Breconshire, Dec 30, 1848; d Aberystwyth, Dec 10, 1915). Welsh composer, conductor and editor. He was apprenticed to a tailor but showed early determination to become a musician, and taught himself Tonic Sol-fa. In 1874 he was one of Joseph Parry's first music students at the newly founded University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and four years later, as the college could not yet award degrees, took the Cambridge MusB externally. He was appointed instructor in music at Aberystwyth in 1882, lecturer in 1899 and professor in 1910. A prolific composer, he published most of his music himself, including some fine hymn tunes (‘Penlan’, ‘Builth’, ‘Gnoll Avenue’, ‘Bod Alwyn’). Of his larger works Job, The Storm, Arch y Cyfamod (composed for the National Eisteddfod, Caernarvon, 1876), The Psalm of Life (Cardiff Triennial Festival, 1895), The Galley Slave and Scenes in the Life of Moses (his last big work, dated ...

Article

John H. Baron

(b Kraków, c1798; d Paris, Aug 10, 1860). American pianist, composer and publisher of Polish birth. He was in New Orleans by 1818, when he is recorded as taking part in a concert; he frequently played the piano, as soloist and accompanist, until 1830. He is credited with the first performance in the USA of a piano concerto by Beethoven, in 1819. In 1824 he composed A Warlike Symphony, Grand Military March, and a comic opera, The Military Stay, all now lost. He became a music dealer in 1826 and opened his own store in New Orleans in 1830, but sold it in 1846 to W.T. Mayo (who sold it in turn in 1854 to P.P. Werlein). In the early 1830s Johns published jointly with Pleyel in Paris his Album louisianais, an elegant collection of songs and piano pieces, the first music known to have been written and published in New Orleans. A few pieces of sheet music also survive. He went to Paris in ...

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Meckna

(b Davenport, IA, March 15, 1924; d Seattle, March 5, 1977). American composer, music publisher and pianist . He studied composition with George McKay at the University of Washington (1938–42) and after military service joined the faculty there to teach piano and theory (1947–9). He was music director of the Eleanor King Dance Company (1947–50) and the pianist of the Seattle SO (1948–51); during these years he performed extensively throughout the Pacific Northwest in chamber ensembles and as a soloist.

In 1951 Johnson moved to New York, where he worked in the music publishing business as education director for Mercury Music (1951–4), head of the orchestral department at C.F. Peters (1954–8) and president of Dow Publishers (1957–62). After returning to Seattle, he served at the helm of the Cornish School of Music (1962–9) and in ...

Article

Nadia Turbide

(b Cleveland, OH, Aug 13, 1907; d New York, NY, March 13, 2002). American soprano, music publisher, and concert manager. She studied singing with Ruth Thayer Burnham while attending Abbot Academy, Andover, and later at Wellesley College (BA 1929). After two years as an actress at the Cleveland Playhouse, she sang in Gabriel Pierné’s La croisade des enfants with the Cleveland Orchestra (1932). She was then coached by Eva Gauthier in New York and made her debut there in 1934 at Town Hall in the North American premiere of Handel’s solo cantata La Lucrezia. Three years later she sang Butterfly and Tosca with the Royal Flemish Opera in Antwerp. After meeting Sibelius in Finland, she returned to the United States and introduced a number of his songs in concert (1938). During World War II Johnson escorted a convoy of refugees from Paris to Spain and as a result of the ordeal lost her voice. She joined the staff of ...

Article

(well )

(b London, Feb 28, 1917; d Chichester, England, Aug 1, 1993). English writer. He taught himself to play saxophone and clarinet and worked in dance bands from 1930. After abandoning his career as a performer in 1935, in the late 1930s he formed the High Wycombe Rhythm Club and the Challenge Jazz Club. He was the jazz editor of Challenge in 1941–2 and worked as a commentator for the BBC’s program “Radio Rhythm Club” from 1942 to 1943; he continued to work occasionally in radio during the following decades. In 1942 he was a founder, with Albert McCarthy, of the journal Jazz Music (which he edited in 1944 and again from 1946 to the early 1950s) and from 1944 to 1946 he was the editor of a series of pamphlets entitled Jazz Music Books. Jones had a long association with Melody Maker, first as an editor with Rex Harris of “Collector’s Corner” (from ...

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by Frank Howes

[née Kennedy]

(b Perth, Oct 1857; d Edinburgh, Nov 22, 1930). Scottish singer, folksong collector and editor. Her father, David Kennedy, was her first teacher, and she completed her studies under Mathilde Marchesi in Milan and Paris. From the age of 12 she acted as her father’s accompanist. This background, together with her striking musical abilities, brought her to a leading position in promoting interest in the Gaelic songs of the Hebrides, although she was neither the first nor the most highly qualified collector in this area. Her published arrangements were criticized as being too free, but she defended them on the ground of the variability of the songs according to time, place and singer. This she had learnt from her experience as a collector in the Outer Hebrides, which she visited first in 1905. She was married to A.J. Fraser, and her daughter Patuffa became a player of the cláirseach. In addition to her publications, her lecture-recitals – given with her daughter and with her sister Margaret – were of prime importance in introducing Hebridean song to scholars, singers and the general public. She took the title role in Bantock’s Celtic folk opera ...

Article

[Jan Antonín, Ioannes Antonius]

(b Velvary, June 26, 1747; d Vienna, May 7, 1818). Bohemian composer, pianist, music teacher and publisher. He was baptized Jan Antonín, but began (not later than 1773) to use the name Leopold to differentiate himself from his older cousin of that name. He received his basic music education in Velvary and then studied music in Prague with his cousin, who probably gave him a thorough grounding in counterpoint and vocal writing, and with F.X. Dušek, whose piano and composition school prepared him mainly for writing symphonies and piano sonatas. After the success of his first ballets and pantomimes (performed in Prague, 1771–8), Kozeluch abandoned his law studies for a career as a musician. In 1778 he went to Vienna, where he quickly made a reputation as an excellent pianist, teacher and composer. By 1781 he was so well established there that he could refuse an offer to succeed Mozart as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. By ...

Article

James M. Burk

(b Sipperfeld, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, July 22, 1840; d St. Louis, MO, Dec 3, 1923). American pianist, publisher, and composer of German origin. He came to the USA with his father and brother, Jacob (1846–82), in 1848, and settled in Cincinnati. He studied with Thalberg and Gottschalk, and played duets with Gottschalk in the latter’s recitals; he also played duets with his brother. In 1868 the Kunkel brothers moved to St. Louis, where they established a music store, publishing business, and the periodical, Kunkel’s Music Review (1878–1906), which included articles and sheet music. Kunkel founded the St. Louis Conservatory of Music in 1872 and Kunkel’s Popular Concerts (1884–1900). He also wrote piano works, including Alpine Storm, songs, and a comic opera, A Welch Rarebit (1901).

E.C. Krohn: “Charles Kunkel and Louis Moreau Gottschalk,” Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society, 21 (1965), 284...

Article

Leonard B. Smith and Raoul F. Camus

[Brockton, Lester]

(b Southville, MA, Oct 25, 1879; d Palisade, NJ, March 16, 1955). American composer, conductor, editor and arranger. He studied at the New England Conservatory and was playing the violin with professional symphony orchestras in Boston by the age of 16. From 1896 to 1910 he conducted various theatre orchestras, including the orchestra of the Teatro Payret, Havana, then one of the largest theatres in the western hemisphere. He later moved to New York, where he wrote arrangements for Victor Herbert, John Philip Sousa, Edwin Franko Goldman, Percy Grainger, Henry Hadley and George M. Cohan. In 1913 he became editor-in-chief of band and orchestral music at Carl Fischer, a position he held for 35 years. His textbook, The American Band Arranger, was published by Fischer in 1920. He taught at the Ernest Williams School, Columbia University and New York University. He also conducted his band, Symphony in Gold, for NBC radio. More than 3000 of his arrangements and compositions were published, some under the pseudonym Lester Brockton. The Heritage of the March series of recordings includes a sample of his work. Lake’s autobiography is entitled ...