(b Kvemo Khviti, 14/Aug 27, 1900; d Tbilisi, July 18, 1965). Georgian composer and conductor. He studied at the Tbilisi Conservatory (1920–28) and then helped to found a music school at Batum, where he was both director and teacher of music theory. From the 1930s he was active as a conductor in Tbilisi as well as teaching the opera class at the conservatory (1937–9) and directing its opera studio (from 1951). His operas Gantiadi (‘Daybreak’, 1926) and Deputat (‘The Deputy’, 1940) were both performed in Tbilisi. He also published writings on Rimsky-Korsakov and Shalyapin and studies of several operas.
(b Rome, Nov 13, 1873; d Copenhagen, Nov 5, 1951). Italian conductor . He first studied engineering, then music at the Naples Conservatory, making his conducting début in Venice in 1893. He was an assistant conductor at La Scala in 1895–6, and active at Berlin (Theater des Westens) from ...
(b Constantinople, 1837; d Smyrna, Feb 25, 1898). Armenian composer and conductor . He studied in Constantinople, then at the Milan Conservatory (1861–4). On his return to Armenia he took part in the activities of the Armenian Musical Society; he also worked with the Gusanergakan Music Theatre and with the Arevelyan T‘adron, the theatre of the Constantinople Armenians. In 1868 he completed the opera Arshak Erkrord (‘Arshak II’), to a libretto by T. T‘erzian, which marked the beginning of Armenian national opera. Excerpts were performed in Constantinople, Venice, Paris and Vienna during the composer’s lifetime. The score, which was thought to have been lost, was discovered in Erevan in 1942, and a version revised by Shahverdyan and Khodjia-Eynatov to a libretto by A. Gulakyan was given in 1945. In the 1870s Tchukhatjian wrote the comic operas Arifi khardakhutyunê (based on Gogol’s comedy The Inspector General), Kyose K‘ehya...
(b Melbourne, June 6, 1926). Australian conductor and musicologist. He studied in Melbourne and London, where he made his conducting début in 1953 as assistant to Beecham with the RPO, and worked with Knappertsbusch at Bayreuth. As a scholar he became absorbed by textual inaccuracies between autograph and published texts of operas by Verdi and Puccini, and was drawn into dispute with the Ricordi publishing house. He published papers on Verdi (La Scala, no.104, 1958, pp.11–15, 71–2) and on Puccini’s orchestration (PRMA, lxxxvii, 1960–61, pp.1–14), and the article ‘“Tradition” in Verdi and Puccini’ (Opera, xii, 1961, pp.301–5). He became adviser to UNESCO on musical copyright and its abuses (1962–7) and was largely responsible for the 1967 Stockholm revision of the Berne International Copyright Convention.
Vaughan was music director for the Elizabethan Trust Opera Company, Sydney, in 1966, and in the 1970s he worked at the Munich and Hamburg opera houses. He returned to Australia as music director of the State Opera of South Australia at Adelaide (...
(b Buenos Aires, Aug 18, 1940; d Buenos Aires, Dec 18, 1997). Argentine conductor. He studied in Argentina and conducted widely in South America before moving to Europe in 1970, initially working with the Stuttgart Opera and in Milan. He was artistic director of the Liceu theatre, Barcelona, and music director of the Avignon Opera. Best known for his vigorous performances of operas by Verdi, he conducted Giovanna d’Arco at Parma (1980), Macbeth and Un ballo in maschera at Avignon (1980–81), Don Carlos at Macerata and Marseilles (1983–4) and Aida at Orange (1983). He returned regularly to South America, giving Otello and La forza del destino in Buenos Aires and I due Foscari and La traviata in Santiago. His repertory included Francesca da Rimini (1982, San Diego) and Tosca, Samson et Dalila and Andrea Chénier (1983–5, Santiago). He conducted ...
(b Budapest, 1807; d Bucharest, 1863). Hungarian composer and conductor active in Romania .
He represents one of the frequent examples of foreign artists who settled in Romania in the first half of the 19th century, who initiated the long-term process of professionalization in the musical field and have encouraged the effort of building a Romanian identity in composition. He worked as a conductor of various Romanian and foreign lyrical-dramatic ensembles and as a music teacher of various Bucharest schools. His musical creation was tightly connected to his engagements in successful Romanian theatre groups (including those of Costache Caragiale and Matei Millo). Besides the music written for current theatre shows, he wrote many vaudevilles (including Triumful amorului (‘The Triumph of Love’) and Judith și Holopherne (‘Judith and Holopherne’)) and fantasies (Fata aerului (‘The Maid of the Air’), Roza magică (‘The Magic Rose’), and Lampa minunată (‘The Magic Lamp’)) – works that followed the European genre models of the moment. Like his generational peers (A. Flechtenmacher and L. Wiest), he was interested in local music (primarily from the urban environment, but also from the rural one), from which he borrowed certain characteristic intonations and melodic ideas for a tinge of Romanian colour. He published, at the H. Müller publishing house in Vienna, four notebooks with rigorously collected ‘original’ melodies, as he claimed....
Barry Millington, John Deathridge and Christa Jost
Member of Wagner family
(b Tribschen, nr Lucerne, June 6, 1869; d Bayreuth, Aug 4, 1930). Composer, conductor and director, son of (1) Richard Wagner. The youngest child of Wagner and Cosima von Bülow, he studied composition with Humperdinck, as well as architecture in Berlin and Karlsruhe. During a journey to India and China in 1892, he decided to pursue a professional career as a composer. From 1908 to 1930 he was director of the Bayreuth Festival. Following his marriage in 1915, he was supported in his diverse artistic activities by his wife Winifred (née Williams), Klindworth's adopted daughter. Thanks to numerous concert and lecture tours over a 10 year period, he secured the necessary financial means to resume theatrical work in Bayreuth in 1924. In his productions, which adopted the style of poetic realism, he attempted to reconcile his openness to dramatic reform with his father's original intentions. He opposed the increasing politicization of the Festival and the attempts made by populist-nationalistic circles to monopolize it....
(b Waging, Nov 13, 1942). German conductor . He was a member of the Regensburg Boys’ Choir, and studied conducting in Munich and Essen and with Swarowsky in Vienna, as well as with Kertész, Karajan and Maderna. He won international prizes in Rome and Milan and worked at opera houses in Salzburg, Kiel and Darmstadt, 1967–73. After working as chief conductor of the Austrian RSO, 1982–5, he was music director at the Paris Opéra, 1986–8, where he conducted the première of Höller’s Der Meister und Margarita (1989), in which his expert direction of a complex score was much admired. He is also noted for Berg’s Wozzeck and Lulu, and his close connection with contemporary works (including Zimmermann’s Die Soldaten) extends to the Ensemble InterContemporain in Paris and the London Sinfonietta. His British opera début was with the Glyndebourne Touring Opera’s Le nozze di Figaro (1984...