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Anne-Marie Riessauw and Jean Hargot

(b Huysse, nr Oudenaarde, July 31, 1828; d Brussels, Dec 24, 1908). Belgian musicologist, teacher and composer. He first studied music with the organist J.-B. Christiaens, a relative, and gave early evidence of an exceptional gift. At the age of 13 he entered the Ghent Conservatory to study the piano with De Somere and harmony with Mengal. Two years later he became a piano teacher himself; subsequently he was the organist at the Jesuit college in Ghent. In 1847 his Flemish cantata België won first prize in a competition organized by the Société des Beaux-Arts de Gand, and in the same year his cantata Le roi Lear won him the Belgian Prix de Rome. Because of his age he was permitted to postpone his foreign tour for two years, during which time he composed the operas Hugues de Zomerghem and La comédie à la ville. They were both published by the Gevaert family, who ran a music printing shop first in Huysse and later in Ghent. From ...


George J. Buelow

(b Burg auf Fehmarn, 1612; d Minden, Oct 20, 1682). German composer, theorist and teacher. In 1629 he fled from a plague in Burg (of which his father died) and moved to Brunswick to live with relatives. In 1631 he began to study both theoretical and practical music with Heinrich Grimm (who had himself studied with Michael Praetorius). After three years' study he became Kantor at Stadthagen. He remained there until 1642, when he was appointed a teacher at the Gymnasium, and also assistant Kantor, at nearby Minden. Six years later he was made Kantor, a position he held for the rest of his life.

Although he lived in relative obscurity, Gibelius was well known throughout Germany as a teacher, composer and particularly as a theorist. His treatises were referred to frequently by other writers on music theory well into the 18th century. As late as 1740 Mattheson could say of him: ‘I believe that thousands have gone to universities and spent many years there without becoming the equal of this man who had never attended one’. His significance for music historians is as an observer and teacher of German music theory. His five brief books are primarily instruction manuals for teaching singing in church schools. He was an erudite scholar who had read widely in most of the major treatises of antiquity as well as in those of the 16th and 17th centuries. He singled out Grimm, Lippius and Baryphonus as the most important writers to influence his own publications. In his ...


Inna Barsova

revised by Yelena Dvoskina

(b Rostov-na-Donu, Feb 2, 1883; d Moscow, May 5, 1957). Russian composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied at the Rostov Technical Institute (1892–9) and began music lessons with O.O. Fritch before he left school. From 1901 to 1909 he studied composition with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory; in 1905 he was expelled for taking part in a revolutionary student strike, but he was allowed back in 1906. After graduating, and until 1923, he lived in the Rostov-na-Donu region and in Yekaterinodar, teaching, lecturing and taking a part in the direction and development of musical life. In the summers of 1912 and 1913 he worked in Meyerhold’s St Petersburg studio. He visited Germany and France (1911) and Palestine (1914 and 1921). From 1925 to 1936 he was professor of composition at the Moscow Conservatory, and from 1923 held a similar post at the Gnesin Academy, founded on the site of the music school by his sisters Yelena, Yevgeniya and Mariya. He was professor at the Leningrad Conservatory (...


Zdravko Blažeković

(b Struga, Oct 30, 1937). Macedonian musicologist and composer. He studied music privately with Vlastimir Nikolovski in Skopje, and later took composition at the Ljubljana Academy of Music, at the same time studying philosophy and sociology at the philosophy faculty of the University of Skopje. He took the MA in composition with Lucijan Škerjanc in 1964. He worked as a radio producer in Skopje (1964) and taught theoretical studies at the Pedagogical Academy there (1966–85). He participated in the Darmstadt summer courses (1970, 1972), and studied composition in Munich with Günter Bialas, in Cologne with Stockhausen, and in Berlin with Frank Beyer (1973–4). He took the doctorate with Vladimir Mošin at the University of Skopje (1985) with a dissertation on music manuscripts from Ohrid and the oldest known Slavic-language triodion. In 1985 he became professor of musicology in the University’s music faculty. He received the 11 Oktombri award in ...


(b Odessa, Nov 8, 1917; d Hamburg, Aug 7, 1989). Ukrainian composer, musicologist and teacher. He began studying the violin with Stolyarsky, the teacher of Milstein and Oistrakh, and aged 13 entered the Moscow Conservatory where he studied the violin with Yampol′sky, conducting with Saradzhev and composition with Myaskovsky, graduating in 1936. Although a prolific composer, he is best known as the perpetrator of a hoax: he was the ‘discoverer’ of a Symphony no.21 in G minor, written ‘for the dedication of the Odessa Theatre, 1809’ by an actual historical figure, N.D. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky (1768–1846), a landowner who is known to have presented his serf orchestra at the Odessa Theatre in 1810. But Goldstein had actually written the work as a response to a critic who had claimed that Goldstein, having composed a piece on Ukrainian themes, could not ‘understand’ Ukrainian music because he was Jewish. So, as an elaborate and elegant riposte against racism, the work was faked (Dunayevsky supposedly provided a theme for the finale), deposited in the archives of the Odessa Conservatory and duly ‘discovered’ by Goldstein in ...


Mladen Marković

(b Belgrade, April 3, 1954). Serbian ethnomusicologist and composer. He studied ethnomusicology, composition, and singing at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Since 1979 he has taught ethnomusicology at the Department of Ethnomusicology. At the same faculty in 1987 he defended his doctoral thesis in ethnomusicology, entitled Folk Music of the Podrinje Region. For more than 20 years he has been the head of the department, and for over ten years visiting professor at the University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

His ethnomusicological work is based on remarkable fieldwork experience. As a researcher, he visited and explored traditional music in about 600 villages throughout Serbia, Montenegro (Boka Kotorska and seacoast regions), Bosnia and Herzegovina (northeastern and northwestern part), and Macedonia (northern part). Those explorations resulted in numerous studies, published both domestically and internationally. Most prominent are the study on specific forms of refrain in folk singing (...


Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Havana, Jan 24, 1920; d Havana, Oct 3, 1999). Cuban composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He studied music in Cienfuegos then Havana, where he attended classes by Jascha Fishermann (piano) and Ardévol (composition). He was a member of the Grupo de Renovacion Musical founded by Ardévol at the Municipal Conservatory, and – together with Orbón – wrote the manifesto Presencia cubana en la musica universal (Havana, 1945). In the 1940s he was a notable music, film and theatre critic. He lived in Caracas (1947–60), were he taught the piano, directed the Coral de Venezuela, was musical adviser to the Teatro Ateneo of Caracas (1950–58) and provided incidental music for plays. On his return to Cuba he taught the piano and worked in the media. He was a musicologist at the National Museum of Music from its foundation in 1971, and researched the works of Salas y Castro and Caturla....


Katarina Tomašević

(b Belgrade, Serbia, Jan 3, 1923; d Belgrade, Serbia, Sept 21, 1998). Serbian musicologist, aesthetician, and composer. He graduated in history of art from the Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy in 1950 (diploma thesis Paris School and Serbian Painting) and in composition and conducting from the Music Academy in 1951, in the class of Milenko Živković (thesis composition Belgrade, a symphonic poem). From 1952 to retirement in 1988 he was employed at the Institute of Musicology at the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, where he gradually rose through the ranks, first after habilitation in 1961 (Managing Musical Time), and then after obtaining the doctorate in comparative aesthetics in 1965 (Faculty of Philosophy, Art in the Evolution of Styles). In the period 1974–8 he served as the director of the Institute.

As a composer he was active until the mid-1970s. His oeuvre includes about 40 works, belonging to a moderately toned modernism with a neo-classical orientation. His witty, skilfully composed choral works and solo songs were often inspired by folklore, and he also wrote chamber, concerto, and stage music works. His compositions won awards in his own country and abroad (...


Hanspeter Krellmann

revised by Daniel Harrison

(b Graz, May 12, 1886; d Bolzano, July 3, 1969). German teacher, theorist and composer. He took a doctorate in law (1909) and from 1910 studied composition in Leipzig with Reger, becoming his assistant in Meiningen (1912). In 1913 Pfitzner invited him to the Strasbourg Conservatory as a theory teacher; after 1918 he held similar posts in Heidelberg and Mannheim. He moved back to Leipzig in 1924, first as a lecturer in composition at the conservatory, then as university music director (1930) and professor (1932). Finally, he lectured in Berlin at the Musikhochschule (1938–45) and the conservatory (1950–51). His importance lies chiefly in his work as a theorist and teacher. Starting from Riemann's notion of harmonic function and its symbology, Grabner rejected its basis in harmonic dualism, which had become a pedagogical handicap. His ‘monistic’ function theory proved both durable and influential, helping to maintain function theory as the leading method of harmonic analysis in Germany. Grabner's pupils included Fortner, Riisager and Distler, whose own harmony textbook shows Grabner's influence. His compositional style evolved directly from that of Reger, though in some works, particularly those for organ, he introduced more modern features....


Pamela Jones


(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1914; d Buenos Aires, Jan 22, 1993). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher, later an Argentine citizen. He studied composition with Pisk and Hindemith. In 1939 he emigrated to Argentina, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His early compositions are strongly influenced by Hindemith, but from the 1950s his style evolved beyond that of his mentor into realms of polytonality, atonality and serialism. His music displays a refined sense of orchestral texture and colour. He delved deeply into his Jewish roots (Canciones hebreas, 1940) and also into the indigenous culture of his adopted Latin America (La creación según el ‘Pop wuj maya’, 1989).

As a musicologist Graetzer edited both scholarly and practical editions of early music and directed the Collegium Musicum of Buenos Aires, which he founded in 1946. His philosophy was grounded in a humanist belief in the essential role of music in the development of a fully integrated human personality. He taught advanced students at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and undertook important work in music education for the young. His achievements in this area include an adaptation of Orff’s ...


(b Wilster, Holstein, Oct 15, 1761; d Copenhagen, Dec 30, 1825). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer of German birth. After studying in Kiel (1782–5), where he came to know C.F. Cramer, Grønland took up a post as an official of the German chancellery in Copenhagen. Though he remained a civil servant all his life, his musical activities covered a wide field: he was the teacher of C.E.F. Weyse and acted as correspondent for a number of German and Danish music periodicals. His most important work, however, was concerned with the preservation of Scandinavian folksongs. In about 1810 work on a wide scale had begun in Denmark to rescue extant traditions from the oblivion threatened by the development of communications, especially roads. A valuable outcome of this work was the recording of folksongs, both texts and tunes, and particularly their publication in five volumes (1812–14) by Abrahamson, Nyerup and Rahbek. This newly aroused interest in folksong further resulted in a number of piano arrangements of folktunes. Grønland’s contributions include two manuscript collections, in the Royal Library of Copenhagen, and his publication (...


Jiří Vysloužil

(b Vizovice, June 21, 1893; d Prague, Nov 18, 1973). Czech composer, theorist and teacher. He acquired his first musical skills in singing and playing the violin and the double bass in his father's folk band, which regularly performed at dances. His mother, Theresia Trčková, was an excellent folksinger who taught Hába peasant songs from Moravian Wallachia, the intervals of which sometimes deviated from the semitone system. Hába's conventional music education began at the teachers' training institute of Kroměříž (1908–12) where he became familiar with the standard repertory and the Czech tradition from Smetana and Dvořák to Suk and Novák. While still at the institute he began to compose; on leaving he taught himself for two years before taking a teaching position in Bílovice, in the Uherské Hradiště district of Moravian Slovakia. There he made a study of theoretical literature and attempted composition of greater complexity. The organ Fugue on H–A–B–A and the orchestral piece ...


(Abdul Huseyn)

(b Agjabedï, nr Shusha, Sept 17, 1885; d Baku, Nov 23, 1948). Azerbaijani composer, musicologist and teacher. He was the founder of modern art music in Azerbaijan and of a national school of composers. It was while he was at the teachers’ seminary in Gori (1899–1904) that his youthful interest in folk music developed into a professional one, for he sang in the choir as a baritone, played the violin, the cello and folk instruments and also began to compose. From 1905 he lived in Baku, where he worked as a teacher, engaged in compiling textbooks and dictionaries, translated Gogol into Azerbaijani and published newspaper articles on issues of the day, criticizing retrograde social attitudes. In 1907 he created the first opera of eastern Islam, Leyli i Mejnun, in which only the parts for chorus and European orchestral instruments were fixed. For the majority of cases he indicated only ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Dresden, Oct 13, 1792; d Leipzig, Jan 3, 1868). German composer, theorist and teacher. After studying the violin and composition with Spohr (1811), Hauptmann worked as a violinist in Dresden (1812–15). From 1815 to 1820 he was the private music teacher to Prince Repnin's household in Vienna. After two more years in Dresden he went to Kassel as court chapel violinist under Spohr and remained there for 20 years. During that time he developed a reputation as composer and theorist. In 1842 he was appointed Kantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, on the recommendation of Spohr and Mendelssohn. The next year he was appointed teacher of theory and composition at the newly founded Leipzig Conservatory. Also in 1843 he was editor of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. In 1850 he became a founder-member of the Bach-Gesellschaft; he edited three volumes and remained president of the society until his death. Hans von Bülow, Ferdinand David, Salomon Jadassohn, Joseph Joachim and C.F. Weitzmann were among his many students....


Ramona H. Matthews

(b Inman, KS, Dec 9, 1896; d Chapel Hill, NC, May 8, 1966). American musicologist, music educationist and composer. He studied music at the University of California, Berkeley (BA 1918, MA 1921), and later in Paris, taught in the Berkeley public schools (1920–25), and worked as a professional clarinettist in the San Francisco area. From 1925 he was a member of the music faculty at the university in Berkeley, serving as department chairman from 1929 to 1931. After further study at the University of Vienna he took the doctorate in 1932 with a valuable dissertation on the evolution of the 6-4 chord. He directed the music department at the University of North Carolina from 1934 until his death, and served as guest professor and lecturer at other universities, including Michigan (1947) and Harvard (1956), and at the Library of Congress.

Haydon had a keen interest in professional matters: he served as president of both the Music Teachers National Association (...


Veijo Murtomäki


(b Tampere, May 18, 1948). Finnish composer and musicologist. He studied at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki (1971–5), where he was taught the piano by Liisa Pohjola and composition by Kokkonen. He then studied composition in Berlin with Szalonek (1975–7) and musicology at the University of Helsinki, where he lectured between 1977 and 1985. He received his doctorate in 1984 and has been professor of musicology at the University of Turku since 1986. As well as holding other administrative positions, he is chairman of the Society of Finnish Composers.

One of the most versatile personalities of Finnish musical life, Heiniö successfully combines roles of both composer and musicologist, and his pioneering research into modern Finnish music has had influence upon his creative work. His early compositions were neo-classical and freely tonal, in which he also experimented with serial, aleatory, colouristic and minimalist procedures. His mature work can be described as post-modernist, characterized by a Mahlerian plurality: dodecaphonic features are juxtaposed with melodic borrowings, Latin rhythms and popular dances. His music refreshingly mixes structural awareness and spontaneity and evokes an emotional response thanks to its Mediterranean sensuality and rhythmic energy, while the dramaturgical contours of his works are always easy to grasp. As the composer has said, ‘My ideal is of music in which the great surface spans and the spirit of the piece are immediately discernible.’...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Eyrarbakki, Nov 3, 1914; d Sept 18, 1994). Icelandic musicologist, composer, teacher and conductor. He attended the Reykjavík College of Music (1931–3) and subsequently studied at the Copenhagen Conservatory (1935), the Leipzig Conservatory (1936–9) and Leipzig University (musicology with Schultz, Husmann and Prufer). He continued his violin and composition studies at the Zürich Conservatory, graduating in 1949. He also took the doctorate in musicology at the University of Zürich in 1954.

His many appointments include roles as secretary of the newly founded Society of Musicians (1940–46) and of the Composers' Society (1945–7). In addition, he was a board member of STEF, the Icelandic performing rights society (1946–8), and was president of the State Cultural Fund's music committee (1962–6). He was assistant head of music at the Icelandic State Broadcasting Service (1959–66), professor at the University of Saskatchewan (...


Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...


Wilfried Brennecke


(b Braunau am Inn; fl 1580–87). German composer, music theorist and schoolmaster of Austrian birth. From an entry in the accounts of the Stuttgart church administration dated 15 November 1580 it appears that he was converted to the Protestant faith while a member of the Jesuit college in Vienna and that he made his way to Stuttgart with an introduction from the Protestant authorities in Austria. In Stuttgart he received a grant to study for one year from Duke Ludwig of Württemberg and matriculated at Tübingen. In the autumn of 1581 he became a Kantor at Lauingen, near Ulm, and in 1582 a schoolmaster at the town’s grammar school, which, as a ‘Gymnasium illustre’ (or rectorial school), was not just an ordinary grammar school, but one at which theologians and lawyers also received their training. In his Perfacilis, brevis, et expedita ratio componendi symphonias, concentusque musicos (Lauingen, 1585...


Inessa Nikolayevna Rakhunova

(b Kiev, Jan 8, 1954). Ukrainian composer and musicologist. In 1970 he entered the composition faculty at Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Kiev where he studied with Shtogarenko. He continued his studies at the Moscow Conservatory with A.I. Pirumov, and after graduating in 1976 returned to the Kiev Conservatory firstly as a postgraduate in the music theory department, and then as senior lecturer (1979) and reader (1984). He teaches composition, analysis, harmony, polyphony and orchestration and has delivered lectures on the work of Denisov, Schnittke and Sil′vestrov. He is a member of the Union of Ukrainian Composers, and is active as both composer and musicologist. Among his research work is his dissertation Architectonics on the compositions of D. Shostakovich, and writings on the cluster as a harmonic phenomenon, jazz as a stylistic element in the music of Stravinsky and dodecaphony and diatonicism. Despite his employment of various contemporary compositional means and technical methods, one of the most noteworthy facets of his work is its eclecticism....