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Stephen Tobriner

(b Naples, Jan 29, 1745; d Noto, Oct 17, 1820). Italian composer and music teacher. He was educated in Naples, where he met two wealthy citizens from Noto, a small city in south-eastern Sicily, who invited him to their city. Altieri arrived in 1766, became a music teacher, married and held the position of maestro di cappella for all the city’s churches. He worked in Noto until his death.

A collection of Altieri’s compositions was given to the Biblioteca Comunale of Noto by a local bishop who had acquired it from a relative of Altieri’s: it comprises 449 works, mostly sacred vocal music, but also secular vocal music and instrumental works.

D. Russo: Indice alfabetico delle opere e della Raccolta musicale del M.o Paolo Altieri, Biblioteca comunale di Noto (Noto, 1913) L. Modica: Catalogo tematico per autori del Fondo Altieri (diss., U. of Catania, 1988) [excludes Altieri’s works]...


John M. Schechter

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago de Chile, June 22, 1922; d Santiago, Feb 3, 1999). Chilean composer and writer. Introduced to music by his father, a cellist, he studied theory and the piano at the Catholic Conservatory from 1935 to 1939. After graduating in civil engineering from the University of Chile (1945), he pursued work in composition with Jorge Urrutia Blondel at the National Conservatory (1948–52). He made his first experiments in electronic music when he was planning music programmes for Chilean Radio (1953–6), and in 1956 created the Experimental Sound Workshop at the Catholic University of Santiago. He taught both at the Catholic University and on the arts faculty of the University of Chile.

Amenábar wrote for the voice, chamber groups, solo instruments, and ensembles, and he composed incidental music for the cinema and theatre. His electro-acoustic music carries special importance: such works as ...


Licia Mari

(b Venice, Aug 28, 1917; d Venice, Feb 20, 1995). Italian composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the Venice Conservatory, where he took his diploma in the piano (1938, with Tagliapietra), in composition (1946, with Gabriele Bianchi, a Malipiero pupil), and choral and orchestral conducting (1947, with Sante Zanon, Sanzogno and Scherchen). He had a concert career as a pianist, and was a coach for the opera seasons at La Fenice, where he also conducted from 1973 to 1985. He was awarded international prizes for composition, and received honours in recognition of his commitment to teaching, which manifested itself in a series of pedagogical texts, many of which remain in manuscript. The influence of the generazione dell’ottanta can be seen in his Sonata for string orchestra (1947), in which rigorous, economical contrapuntal writing is supported by a solid formal awareness, Classical in nature; melodies cultivate a French kind of archaism, tinged with modality. These elements remained typical of Amendola’s work, along with a predilection for the piano, for which he wrote some technically complex works (e.g. Fifth Sonata, ...


Juan Orrego-Salas

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago, Sept 2, 1911; d Santiago, Aug 2, 1954). Chilean composer and pianist. He studied with Allende for composition and Renard for the piano at the Santiago National Conservatory (1923–35), where he then held appointments as coach at the opera department (1935), assistant professor of the piano (1937), professor of analysis (1940), and director (1945). At the same time he taught at the Liceo Manuel de Salas in Santiago. He was secretary-general to the Instituto de Extensión Musical (from 1941), a founder-director of the Escuela Moderna de Música, Santiago (1940), and a member of various arts societies. In 1943 he went to the USA as a guest of the Institute of International Education and in 1953 he was in Europe for the performance of his Wind Sextet at the ISCM Festival. His early compositions show the influences of French music and Chilean folklore; from the late 1940s his work became more Expressionist and abstract....


Natan Shahar

(b Warsaw, Aug 8, 1909; d Yakum Kibbutz, Israel, Dec 18, 1993). Israeli composer and teacher of Russian descent. He received his early musical education in Moscow. In 1924 he emigrated with his family to Palestine, where he continued his musical studies with Shlomo Rozovsky (1928–9). He began to compose in 1930. From 1934 to 1936 he studied music education at Trinity College, London, and composition with Bantock and Rowley; at the same time he also studied at Tonic Sol-fa College, London. With the formation of the Israeli Army, he was appointed First Officer for music, founding the orchestras of both the army and the cadets. In 1949 he became the central inspector for music education at the Ministry of Education, a post he held until his retirement in 1975.

Amiran was one of the Ereṣ Yisrael composers who developed the character of what became known as typical Israeli folksong. His vast number of songs (around 600), many of which set biblical texts, were published in a wide array of pamphlets and song books. The most notable of these include: the nursery songs ...


Agustín Fernández

(b Cochabamba, Sept 23, 1912; d Cochabamba, Feb 15, 1998). Bolivian pedagogue, composer and architect. After fighting in the Chaco War he studied music and architecture in Chile (1936–42); thereafter, apart from a study trip to Madrid in 1959, he remained in his native Cochabamba. The Coro de los Valles, which he founded in 1954, was for several decades the mainstay of the city’s musical life. Wayra, Anaya’s most renowned composition, was originally written for this choir and subsequently arranged for various instrumental combinations.

Notwithstanding his prolific career as an architect – he served as dean of the faculty of architecture at the Universidad Mayor de San Simón de Cochabamba and designed university campuses in Cochabamba and Oruro – Anaya has earned national recognition mainly on the strength of his educational work. In 1961 he founded the Instituto Laredo, a school for gifted children, with the goal of promoting happiness through an ‘integral education’; this is characterized by a particular emphasis on music, based on the principle that, of all disciplines, music cultivates the widest range of human faculties. Witness to the integrity of Anaya’s ideas is the unusually high number of his pupils that have gone on to positions of leadership, both within and outside the arts....


Bayan Northcott

(David )

(b London, April 6, 1967). English composer, teacher and writer on music. While still at Westminster School he began studying privately with John Lambert, continuing at the RCM, where he took the BMus. He then studied with Goehr at Cambridge. He also attended the Contemporary Composition Course at the Britten–Pears School in 1992 and was Britten Memorial Fellow at Tanglewood in 1993, profiting from the guidance of Knussen. From 1994 to 1996 he was Constant and Kit Lambert Fellow at the RCM, where he was later appointed a professor of composition. He is also active as a broadcaster and writer, contributing to such periodicals as Tempo and The Musical Times.

Although he has followed the progress of his British peers with close sympathy, Anderson's initial enthusiasms were for such continental radicals as Xenakis, Vivier and the ‘spectral’ composer Murail (with whom he also took lessons) and for the various folk musics of eastern Europe. His early compositions tended to be study pieces, each concentrating upon a single technique – melodic decoration, for instance, or overtone-derived harmony. These he has mostly withdrawn, but the concerns they focussed have continued to evolve and interact in his published output....


(b Stockholm, Aug 22, 1851; d Stockholm, May 20, 1918). Swedish pianist, teacher and composer. At the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1867–74) he studied the piano first with Johan van Boom and then with Ludvig Norman, harmony with Otto Winge, the organ with Gustaf Mankell and composition with Berens. After further piano study with Hilda Thegerström (1874–6), he went to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Clara Schumann and Heinrich Barth and also studied composition at the Hochschule für Musik with R. Wüerst and Friedrich Kiel. During this period he frequently deputized as a teacher for Barth, both at the Hochschule and privately. He returned to Stockholm in 1884 and two years later founded a piano school, where at first he was the only teacher of the instrument, with Sjögren as teacher of harmony. The school gradually developed a more general curriculum, including courses in other instruments and in singing, and became the country’s outstanding private music school. Noted Swedish musicians who studied at the school (Anderssons Musikskola) include Stenhammar, Astrid Berwald, Wiklund, Fryklöf and Gustaf Heintze. Andersson was appointed professor of piano at the Stockholm Conservatory in ...


Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...


William Osborne

(b Wayne, OH, Jan 19, 1862; d Honolulu, HI, Aug 18, 1932). American organist, conductor, teacher, and composer. His family moved to Oberlin when Andrews was six; two years later he began study at what was then a department of music of Oberlin College. He graduated from what had become a Conservatory of Music in 1879 and only three years later joined its faculty, where he spent the rest of his career until retirement in 1931. He took two leaves for further study in Leipzig, Munich, and Paris and eventually became a nationally known organ recitalist. He was a founding member of the American Guild of Organists and later an honorary president of that organization. He was named organist and later director of Oberlin’s Musical Union and also of the Conservatory Orchestra, serving the former for thirty years, the latter for two decades. He also conducted choruses in Akron and elsewhere in northern Ohio. Oberlin conferred an honorary Master of Arts degree on Andrews in ...


(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, Dec 22, 1894/Jan 5, 1895; d Bucharest, Feb 4, 1974). Romanian composer, pianist, teacher, and critic. An erudite personality of Romanian music, he contributed to the formation of a Romanian school of composition during the inter-war years. At the Bucharest Conservatory (1906–13) he studied with Kiriac-Georgescu, Castaldi, Klenck, and Dunicu. In 1919 he graduated law school in Bucharest and then took the PhD in 1922 in Paris. During his stay in France, he participated in the courses of composition of Vincent d’Indy and Gabriel Faure. In 1920, he founded the Society of Romanian composers with other important musicians. At the Bucharest Conservatory (now the National University of Music Bucharest) he taught chamber music (1926–48) and composition (1948–59). His students include Stefan Niculescu, Dumitru Capoianu, and Aurel Stroe. He was not only a partner at the chamber concerts of George Enescu, but also promoted together with Enescu the new Romanian and French chamber music. He wrote for numerous publications on subjects ranging from music aesthetics to jazz and folk music, for instance, ‘George Enescu the Way I Met Him’ in ...


John Lade

(b Ghent, April 25, 1798; d Ghent, Jan 21, 1872). Belgian composer and teacher. He began his career in 1813 as a violinist in the orchestra of the Ghent theatre and from 1817 was its leader for more than 35 years. When the Ghent Conservatory was founded in 1835 Andries was appointed professor both of the violin and of instrumental ensemble. From 1851 until his retirement in 1859 he directed the conservatory and also taught harmony and composition. His music, all unpublished, includes a Concertino and La tempête for violin and L’orpheline, a three-act drama.

Aperçu historique de tous les instruments de musique actuellement en usage (Ghent, 1856) Précis de l’histoire de la musique depuis les temps plus reculés, suivi de notices sur un grand nombre d’écrivains didactiques et théoriciens de l’art musical (Ghent, 1862) Instruments à vent: la flûte (Ghent, 1866) Remarques sur les cloches et carillons...


Emilia Zanetti

(b Lucca, July 16, 1834; d Lucca, Jan 13, 1901). Italian composer, teacher and bandmaster. He studied with Michele Puccini, father of Giacomo, and spent his life in Lucca except for a period in Florence (1855–62). Of his activities, the most important was his teaching at the Istituto Musicale Pacini. As the institute's director, and especially as teacher of singing, the organ, harmony and counterpoint (1864–95), he educated several generations of young musicians, among them Alfredo Catalani and Giacomo Puccini, who remained devoted to him. His works include eight operas, five of which were performed between 1854 and 1871 and the last after his death, in 1902, though all were given only in Lucca or other small towns; the manuscripts of his Asraele degli Abenceraggi and Dramma in montagna are preserved in Rome ( I-Rsc ). Angeloni also produced a large number of sacred works distinguished by their originality, dignity of style and sound contrapuntal technique. These include a mass for the jubilee of Leo XIII (...


[Abbondio, Abondio, Abundii]

(b Fabrica, nr Viterbo; d probably at Rome, ? in or before 1629) Italian composer and teacher. According to Casimiri he must have taught music at the Seminario Romano, Rome, some time between 1602 and 1606. The first post he held that is specifically documented is that of maestro di cappella of S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, where he is recorded from 1 June 1611 to 20 July 1613 (there is no evidence to substantiate Pitoni’s and Baini’s statements that he was there by 1608); Tullio Cima was one of the boys who sang under him there. The title-pages and dedications of works that Antonelli published in 1614 and 1615 indicate that he was then maestro di cappella of Benevento Cathedral. That he had returned to Rome by February 1616 can be determined from the dedication of his print of that year. In 1619 he corresponded with Romano Micheli regarding what he considered to be Micheli’s excessive application of ...


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....


James Bash

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 13, 1967). American composer, pianist, and educator. Applebaum grew up in a musical family in Chicago. His father, Bob Applebaum, a high school physics teacher, studied classical music and composes. Applebaum graduated from Carleton College (BM 1989); his senior thesis took him to Mexico City to interview Conlon Nancarrow. He received his Masters (1992) and his Doctorate (1996) in composition from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), studying with Brian Ferneyhough, Joji Yuasa, RAND STEIGER, and ROGER REYNOLDS. He taught at USCD, Mississippi State University, and Carleton College before his current faculty position at Stanford University, where he also serves as the founding director of the Stanford Improvisation Collective.

Applebaum’s solo, chamber, choral, orchestral, operatic, and electro-acoustic work has been performed throughout the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia at numerous new music festivals. His music is mercurial, highly detailed, disciplined, and exacting, but it also features improvisational and whimsical aspects. As such, he is considered as much in the experimentalist camp exemplified by composers such as Cage and Zappa as part of the European modernist lineage represented by his principal teacher Brian Ferneyhough. He has drawn inspiration from jazz pioneers and maverick composers such as Nancarrow and Partch, who found it necessary to use or invent unusual instruments to realize their artistic visions....


Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period 1894–1901 he attended the school of music and drama (attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society) where he studied composition with A. Il′insky, and theory with S. Kruglikov (1894–1901), later improving his compositional technique with Grechaninov (1910–11). In 1917 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Archaeology. In 1897 he had started writing for the Russian and the Georgian press on musical matters, in 1901 became a member of the musico-ethnological commission at Moscow University, and in 1907 a member of the Georgian Society for Literature and Art in Moscow. He was an associate of the foremost Russian composers of the day – such as Taneyev, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Arensky and Pyatnitsky – and was one of the organizers of the People’s Conservatory in Moscow (...


Marina Lobanova

(b St Petersburg, Sept 12, 1905; d St Petersburg, Jan 27, 1992). Russian composer and teacher. He received his first music lessons as a child from his mother in Poltava, and later with the pianist Zaytseva-Zhukovich. He began composing at the age of nine. In 1921 he moved to Petrograd, where he studied the piano with Mariya Yudina and Samara Savshinsky; because of an injury to his hand he gave up his career as a pianist and in 1923 entered the Petrograd Conservatory where he studied composition with Shcherbachyov and M.M. Chernov. He then taught music theory at the Central Music School (1927–32) and at the State Institute of Art History (1929–30). In 1930 he started teaching at the Leningrad Conservatory, becoming professor in 1940, deputy director in 1945–6 and dean of the orchestral department in 1950. Among his students are B.I. Arkhimandritov, G.A. Armenian, Yu.A. Balkashin, G.I. Firtich, N.M. Shakhmatov, I.I. Schwartz, S.M. Slonimsky, D.A. Tolstoy and V.A. Uspensky....


E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Neef, Rheinland, Oct 28, 1856; d Los Angeles, Jan 28, 1932). American conductor, composer, and voice teacher of German birth. He was brought to America at age eleven, received his first musical training from his father, Clemens Arens, and later studied with John Singenberger at the Normal College in St. Francis, Wisconsin. After further studies with Joseph Rheinberger in Munich 1881–3 and with Franz Wüllner in Dresden 1883–4, where he earned a Preiszeugnis (one of six in a student body of 734), he settled in Cleveland as conductor of the Cleveland Philharmonic Society and the Cleveland Gesangverein.

He returned to Europe around 1890 to study vocal pedagogy with Julius Hey in Berlin. In 1891 and 1892 he conducted American Composers’ Concerts with orchestras in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Weimar, Hamburg, and Sondershausen, concluding his tour with an appearance at the Vienna Musical and Theatrical Exhibition on 5 July 1892...