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J. Bunker Clark

(b England; d Philadelphia, PA, or nr Philadelphia, Sept 1780). American composer, teacher, organist, and harpsichordist of English birth. He may have been related to the Edinburgh and London publisher Robert Bremner. He came to America in 1763 and settled in Philadelphia, where he taught harpsichord, guitar, violin, and flute, and served as organist at St. Peter’s Church. By 1767 he was organist at Christ Church, where he remained until 1774 or later, but he may have spent some of this period in England, for a “J. Bremner” published music in London during the years 1770–75. Bremner and one of his pupils, Francis Hopkinson, often presented public concerts together. Hopkinson substituted as organist at Christ Church during Bremner’s absence and wrote an ode on the occasion of Bremner’s death. Four short harpsichord pieces and one arrangement by Bremner are in the Hopkinson manuscript collection at the University of Pennsylvania....


Walter Ojakäär

(Mikhaylovich )

(b Moscow, June 9, 1944). Russian pianist, teacher, and composer. From 1962 to 1966 he led a trio at the Vserossiyskoye Gastrol’no-kontsertnoye Ob’yedinenie (All-Russian society for guest performances). He played with Aleksey Kozlov in the big band VIO-66 (the Vocal Instrumental Orchestra, directed by the composer Yuri Saulsky) and also in a quartet drawn from the band which recorded at a festival in Moscow in 1967. Thereafter he worked in a duo with German Luk’yanov (1969–70) and led various groups ranging in size from quartet to sextet (1969–91); these groups made several recordings, among them Pered zakhodom solntsa (1985, Mel. C60 21873003) and Live at the Village Gate (1988, Mobile Fidelity 861). Bril performed at festivals and concerts in Europe, Indonesia, Cuba, and the USA. From 1991 he led the group New Generation, which included his twin sons, the saxophonists Dmitry and Alexander (...


Sven Hansell

(b Milan, ? end of the 17th century; d Milan, ? c1758). Italian composer, possibly an impresario, singing teacher and violinist. 18th-century sources (e.g. BurneyH; GerberL; GerberNL and La BordeE) blur the distinction between two or more musicians active in Milan by failing to give first names. Only the revised edition of Mancini (1777) supplies Giuseppe Ferdinando as the composer’s first names and describes him as a prominent Milanese singing teacher without identifying him with the violinist, composer and impresario also active in Milan. In fact a family of Brivios could be involved, including an older singing teacher, Carlo Francesco Brivio, who appeared in Milanese operas of 1696, Teodolinda and L’Etna festante, the librettos for which call him ‘musico di S.E. il Castellano’ (the castle commander’s musician). Suggested as Giuseppe Ferdinando’s father (Martinotti in DBI), this Carlo Francesco may have been the bass employed in the ducal court chapel until ...


Gary Galván

(Ellen )

(b Schenectady, NY, March 17, 1949). American composer, educator, and pianist. She studied briefly at the University of California at Santa Barbara and Michigan State University before settling at the University of Michigan to complete a BMus in music theory and embark on graduate studies in composition with George Balch Wilson, leslie Bassett , and wallace Berry . Immersed in electronic and experimental music, she also worked with the recently retired ross lee Finney and distinguished herself as the first woman to earn a DMA in composition from the University of Michigan in 1977.

Fellowships from the Fulbright Foundation, the Alliance Française, and a Rackham Prize enabled her to study with Max Deutsch and Eugene Kurtz in Paris and Vienna. Other notable honors include a Sigvald Thompson Composition Competition Prize for her first orchestral piece and a Sundance Institute Film Composers’ Lab Fellowship to work with Bruce Boughton, Henry Mancini...


Barton Cantrell

revised by Michael Meckna

(b Brooklyn, NY, Nov 22, 1870; d New York, Feb 20, 1951). American composer, pianist and teacher. He studied piano with H.O.C. Kortheuer and in 1890 went to Berlin, where he remained for five years, studying composition with Otis Boise and piano with Heinrich Barth. A successful concert of his chamber and orchestral pieces was given by the Berlin PO on 23 February 1895. Returning to the USA, he gave many concerts and taught at the Peabody Institute (1903–9), Mannes College and, from 1910 to 1940, the Institute of Musical Art (which was taken over by the Juilliard Musical Foundation in 1926). He produced few original works after 1911, but his arrangements of Kentucky folksongs, collected with Loraine Wyman, enjoyed popularity in the USA and England. Brockway was a gifted composer, whose works display a rare sensibility and warmth of melody and harmony, best expressed in his numerous song settings. Notable among his larger-scale works are the Violin Sonata and the Cello Suite....


Gary W. Kennedy

(Ray )

(b Hernando, MS, March 28, 1954). American pianist and composer. He grew up in Memphis in a musical family and played drums, baritone horn, and trumpet, on which he won several awards in his youth, before taking up piano. At Memphis State University (1972–5) he focused on piano and was encouraged to explore jazz by his classmate James Williams. He then worked locally before replacing Williams in Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers (1981). While with Blakey he toured internationally and appeared in the video Jazz at the Smithsonian:Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers (1982). In 1982 rheumatoid arthritis forced Brown to leave the group. From 1983 to 1985 he was a member of the faculty at the Berklee College of Music, and in 1988 he began teaching jazz history and leading student ensembles at the University of Tennessee. Although his activities have been limited by arthritis, he has occasionally worked with Freddie Hubbard, Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis, and the ...


Arlan R. Coolidge

(b Newburyport, MA, April 6, 1818; d Stamford, CT, June 23, 1891). American pianist, composer, and teacher. He lived for a time in Boston, where he was a protégé of Jonas Chickering. After an injury to his hand prevented study abroad, he went to Providence in 1849 and became organist there at the First Baptist Church in America. In 1856 he moved to New York, where he joined the faculty of the Spingler Institute on Union Square. Following the Civil War he built a conservatory with a 400-seat concert hall in Stamford, and expanded his teaching to Bridgeport and other communities in southern Connecticut. Brown published more than 200 compositions as well as several pedagogical works, including the Institute Chorus Book (1857). Many of his songs and piano pieces were very successful: “Will you come to my mountain home?” (1845) sold 60,000 copies, and ...


Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...


Margery Morgan Lowens

(b Wyoming, NY, April 17, 1885; d Madison, WI, July 28, 1980). American composer, violinist, and teacher. He studied violin and theory as a child, and while in high school composed incidental music and began improvising at the piano. From 1903 to 1905 he attended the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory, Berlin, where he studied violin with Anton Witek and composition with Leichtentritt. Upon his return to the United States he enrolled at the Chicago Musical College, studying violin with Emile Sauret and composition with Felix Borowski. He appeared as a soloist with major orchestras and in joint recitals in Canada and the United States between 1907 and 1909; he then taught violin at the Western Institute of Music and Drama in Denver until 1911, violin and theory at Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa (1911–14), and at Montana State University, Missoula. He left teaching in 1919 to resume his studies in New York: violin with Auer, composition with Bloch, and orchestration with Rothwell. He also played violin professionally. From ...


Colin Mason

revised by Hugo Cole and Derek Watson


(b London, Dec 22, 1900; d Watford, Oct 31, 1995). English composer, pianist and teacher. He studied music at the RAM (1918–22) with Corder for composition and Matthay for piano, winning numerous scholarships during this period. In 1921 he met Ireland and in the following year began to study composition with him privately, continuing until 1927. He took further piano lessons privately from Moiseiwitsch, Mabel Lander and Schnabel (1924–9). To complete his training he studied philosophy and musicology at the University of Berlin (1929–31). In 1925 he was appointed a professor of composition at the RAM; he was elected FRAM in 1938 and continued teaching there until 1978. From 1925 he took an active role in working-class movements, joining the Communist Party in 1935. In 1929 he succeeded Boughton as music adviser and conductor to the London Labour Choral Union (until 1940...


Trena Jordanoska

(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).

His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...


Irati Antonio

(b São Paulo, June 18, 1918). Brazilian composer, pianist and teacher. The daughter of an Italian luthier, Angelo Del Vecchio, she studied the piano with Léo Peracchi and music theory with Furio Franceschini, Caldeira Filho and Oswaldo Lacerda. It was not until 1958 that she took up composition, which she studied with ...


Stan Britt

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Dumfries, Scotland, April 21, 1933; d London, Feb 25, 2009). English trumpeter, flugelhorn player, bandleader, composer, writer, and teacher, brother of Mike Carr. His mother played ukulele and banjo. Carr grew up in northeast England, where he took piano lessons from the age of 12 and taught himself trumpet from 1950. After studying at King’s College, Newcastle upon Tyne (1952–60, degree, English literature, diploma, education) he served in the army (1956–8), then played with his brother in a band, the Emcee Five (1960 – August 1962). He briefly joined Don Rendell in November 1962 and, after recovering from illness, formed a long-lived quintet with Rendell from 1963 to July 1969; during this period he also worked with Joe Harriott (recording in 1969), Don Byas, and John McLaughlin. In September 1969 he formed his own band, Nucleus, which rapidly became recognized internationally for its experiments with jazz-rock. As a result of its performance at the Montreux International Jazz Festival in ...


Gerald R. Benjamin


(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...


Boris Schwarz, Michelle Garnier-Butel and Michelle Garnier-Panafieu

(b Avignon, May 28, 1765; d Paris, 1841). French violinist and composer. The son of a dancing-master, he studied with the Abbé Walraef. In 1783 he went to Paris, where he joined the select circle of students of Viotti. Two years later, Viotti recommended him for the post of accompanist to Queen Marie Antoinette. From 1791 to 1821 he was assistant leader of the Paris Opéra orchestra. In addition, he was a member of the court orchestra from 1804 to 1830, serving under both Napoleon and the Bourbon regime. He died in comparative obscurity.

In spite of his brilliant technique, Cartier did not aim to be a soloist and seemed satisfied with his career as an orchestral musician. He had many private students but never belonged to the faculty of the Paris Conservatoire, even though the Conservatoire accepted the dedication of his major work L’art du violon (Paris, ...


Gerald R. Benjamin

(b Nazas, Durango State, Feb 7, 1864; d Mexico City, Nov 28, 1907). Mexican pianist, composer and teacher. In 1877 his family moved to Mexico City and he enrolled in the conservatory, studying composition with Melesio Morales and the piano with Julio Ituarte. Castro represented his government while still a student in 1883 (the year of his graduation) at the Bolívar centenary in Venezuela as a pianist and composer, performing his Aires nacionales mexicanos (subtitled Caprichos); in 1885 he made his first international tour, representing Mexico at the New Orleans Cotton Festival and performing in Philadelphia, Washington and New York. From 1885 to 1902 he played chamber music and formed societies (Sociedad Filarmónica Mexicana) for its promotion; he also completed his opera Atzimba and much of his typically Schumannesque piano music. After giving a number of concerts in Mexico, he travelled to Paris, studying the piano with Eugen d’Albert, playing at the Salle Erard, composing new works (the première of the Cello Concerto was given on ...


Octavian Cosma

revised by Antigona Rădulescu

(b Iaşi, 22 May/June 3, 1841; d Iaşi, April 15, 1924). Romanian composer, violinist, and teacher. After studying the violin in Berlin with Hubert Ries, in Frankfurt with Vieuxtemps, and in Paris with Massart and Alard, he worked as a violinist at the court of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Iaşi. During the early part of his career he was a concert violinist in Romania and abroad. He established himself in Iaşi as a violin teacher (1861–1901) and director at the Conservatory (1893–1901), director of the National Theatre, and teacher of musical aesthetics at the university (1875–7), working in parallel as a music critic. He played an important part in the development of the young George Enescu. He produced a series of salon music anthologies, arrangements of folk music, and symphonic and choral music.

Although influenced by the German romantic tradition, Caudella along with contemporaries such as George Stephănescu, Gavriil Musicescu, Constantin Dimitrescu, and Gheorghe Dima struggled to found a Romanian school of composition. The national character is limited to the level of quotation or imitating folk music, or employing certain modal scales (considered by Caudella to be ‘national scales’); these elements permeate, from a colour perspective, the Western technical and style parameters. In his own compositions he made use of liberal, rhapsodic structures, which he called fantasias. Among his many eclectic works, Petru Rareș distinguishes itself through the pronounced use of Romanian folk elements, for the unified character of its form and expressive dramatism....


Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

(b Lowell, MA, Nov 13, 1854; d Boston, MA, April 4, 1931). American composer, teacher, conductor, pianist and organist. He was a leading figure of the Second School of New England composers. Highly regarded in his lifetime as a composer, he was also largely responsible for the effective reorganization of the New England Conservatory and was one of the most influential teachers in American music.

Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

Because of his mother’s early death and his father’s remarriage, Chadwick was left to his own resources at an early age. He thus developed the self-reliance and independence that were to characterize his music as well as his academic life. He learned music from his older brother and by the age of 15 was active as an organist. From this time on he had to pay for his own musical instruction, as his father, a businessman, was opposed to his pursuing a career in music. He did not complete high school, but went to work as a clerk in his father's insurance office. By ...


Marcia J. Citron

(Louise Stéphanie)

(b Paris, Aug 8, 1857; d Monte Carlo, April 13, 1944). French composer and pianist. While it is striking that nearly all of Chaminade’s approximately 400 compositions were published, even more striking is the sharp decline in her reputation as the 20th century progressed. This is partly attributable to modernism and a general disparagement of late Romantic French music, but it is also due to the socio-aesthetic conditions affecting women and their music.

The third of four surviving children, Chaminade received her earliest musical instruction from her mother, a pianist and singer; her first pieces date from the mid-1860s. Because of paternal opposition to her enrolling at the Paris Conservatoire, she studied privately with members of its faculty: Félix Le Couppey, A.-F. Marmontel, M.-G.-A. Savard and Benjamin Godard. In the early 1880s Chaminade began to compose in earnest, and works such as the first piano trio op.11 (...


Scott Alan Southard

[Josef Horymír Capek]

(b Jestrebice, Bohemia, March 12, 1860; d Chicago, Aug 1, 1932). Czech violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer active chiefly in the USA. In 1867, Chapek’s father, a violinist and conductor, moved the family to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following education there, Chapek entered the Prague Conservatory, studying violin with Bennewitz, theory and composition with Foerster, and meeting Dvorák. Upon graduation, he toured Europe (1882–3). Returning to America, Chapek continued to concertize widely (1883–93). In Milwaukee, he joined the Mendelssohn Quintet Club (1883–5) and later formed the Chapek String Quartet (1885–7). He was also concertmaster of Milwaukee’s Bach Symphony Orchestra (1885–8) and musical director of the Capital Theatre, Little Rock, Arkansas (1887–8).

In 1888, Chapek moved to Chicago to direct the violin department of the Chicago Conservatory (1888–1902); he would later head the violin departments of the Apollo (also until ...