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(b Castelnuovo di Garfagnana; fl 1612). Italian music editor and composer. He edited Responsoria Hebdomadae Sanctae, psalmi, Benedictus, et Miserere, una cum missa ac vesperis Sabbati Sancti, for eight voices and continuo (Venice, 1612²). It includes pieces by 20 composers, among them Croce and Viadana, and two are anonymous; Argilliano himself, with 11 pieces, is the best-represented composer....


Maureen Fortey

English record company. Founded in London in 1952 by Harley Usill and Alex Herbage, it produced many outstanding recordings such as those by the Academy of St Martin-in-the-Fields under Neville Marriner, King’s College Choir, Cambridge, the Philip Jones Brass Ensemble and the Heinrich Schütz Choir under Roger Norrington. It also made many recordings of poetry, often read by the poets themselves, and a comprehensive recording of Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets (on 137 LPs). Although the company was purchased by Decca in ...



Alan Pope

German firm of music publishers. It was founded in Zürich in 1950 by Hermann Scherchen (1891–1966) to publish music by postwar avant-garde composers. The future of the Ars Viva catalogue was assured when in 1953 it was incorporated into the catalogue of B. Schott’s Söhne, Mainz (see...



Alexander Weinmann

revised by Rupert Ridgewell

Austrian firm of music publishers. It was founded in Mainz in 1765 and by 1768 was operating in Vienna, where it became the first important music publishing firm in the city.

The Artaria family originated in Blevio on Lake Como, Italy. On 15 January 1759 the brothers Cesare Timoteo (1706–85), Domenico (i) (1715–84), and Giovanni Casimiro Artaria (1725–97) obtained passes to visit the fairs in Frankfurt, Leipzig, and Würzburg; Carlo (1747–1808), son of Cesare, and Francesco (1744–1808), son of Domenico (i), accompanied them as giovini (commercial assistants). Cesare and Domenico (i) returned to their own country; Carlo and Francesco founded with their uncle Giovanni Casimiro the firm Giovanni Artaria & Co. in Mainz in 1765. By 1768, however, the cousins had moved to Vienna, where they at first carried on business without their own premises. According to the Wienerisches Diarium...




Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

[music management]

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, max Maretzek , bernard Ullman , and maurice Strakosch . These men travelled the musicians’ routes, sometimes with the performers and sometimes a week or two ahead, and were responsible for renting a performance venue, arranging publicity, and engaging supporting musicians and needed instruments. Managers also made travel arrangements, secured lodging, and negotiated terms with the managers of local theaters or halls. Some of these managers were themselves performers; the pianist Strakosch frequently toured with singers, and Maretzek was the conductor for his opera companies. This style of management essentially replicated the modus operandi of itinerant theatrical stars. (...


J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Peter Ward Jones

English music publishers. Eugene Ascherberg (b Dresden, 1843; d London, 28 May 1908) arrived in England after a period in Australia, and set up in London as E. Ascherberg & Co. by 1879, initially as a piano importer. The firm gradually moved over to music publishing and took over Duncan Davison & Co. in 1886. The firm of Hopwood & Crew (founded in 1860) published popular dance music by Charles d’Albert, Charles Coote (father and son), Waldteufel and others, as well as countless music-hall songs, and it absorbed the firms of Howard & Co. (1899) and Orsborn & Co. (1901) who had similar catalogues. An amalgamation in 1906 led to the formation of Ascherberg, Hopwood & Crew, and in the same year the firm of John Blockley was also acquired. Ascherberg, Hopwood & Crew’s substantial catalogue covered music of every description, but was based mainly on light music. Among its successful stage works were the operettas ...



American firm of music publishers, active in New York. It was founded in 1927 by Paul Heinicke, originally as the sole American agency for leading European music publishing houses, including Bote & Bock, Breitkopf & Härtel, Doblinger, Eschig, Schott, Simrock, Union Musical Español and Universal Edition. The firm began publishing in its own right and has built up an important catalogue of American composers, including John Adams, Elliott Carter, Cowell, Dello Joio, John Harbison, Harris, Husa, Ives, Kirchner, Peter Lieberson, Piston, Riegger, Schuller, Surinach, Tower and Wilder. In ...


Sara Velez

revised by Tim Brooks


US-based organization, founded in 1966 to promote the preservation and study of historical recordings in all areas of music and the spoken word. ARSC is unusual among scholarly organizations in that it brings together private collectors and scholars interested in using historical sound materials with professional archivists and libraries charged with preserving those materials. Its membership is drawn about equally from the user and holder groups, represents 23 countries, and numbers approximately 1000. The association has local chapters and holds an annual national conference that provides a forum for presentations and panel discussions in all aspects of recorded sound research. ARSC also publishes a biannual journal which includes major research articles, technical developments, discographies, record and book reviews, and bibliographies; a newsletter which contains information about member activities, meetings and events; and a membership directory, which lists all ARSC members, their collecting interests and research projects. Among its major projects have been ...



Charles Hiroshi Garrett

Record company. David Geffen and partner Elliot Roberts founded Asylum in 1971, signing Jackson Browne as their first artist. With Atlantic handling distribution, Asylum focused on building a roster of singer-songwriters and country-rock artists, which eventually included artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Joni Mitchell, the Eagles, Tom Waits, Warren Zevon, and Bob Dylan. In ...


Bill C. Malone

revised by Barry Mazor

[Chester Burton ]

(b nr Luttrell, TN, June 20, 1924, d Nashville, TN, June 30, 2001). American country-music guitarist and recording company executive. Although the first instrument he played professionally was the fiddle, he became internationally famous as a guitarist. Developed while he was in high school, his guitar style was influenced by Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt, and George Barnes and was characterized by the use of the thumb to establish a rhythm on the lower strings and multiple fingers to play melodic or improvisational passages on the higher strings, sometimes with complex voicings. In the early 1940s Atkins toured with Archie Campbell and Bill Carlisle playing both fiddle and guitar, and appeared with them on WNOX radio in Knoxville. He then toured with the second generation Carter Family as a sideman and in 1946 joined Red Foley. After beginning his association with the “Grand Ole Opry” he settled in Nashville in ...


Barry Kernfeld, Howard Rye and Dave Laing

American record company. It was founded in New York by Herb Abramson and Ahmet Ertegun (1923–2006), both jazz and blues enthusiasts, in 1947, primarily to issue African American music; it achieved considerable commercial success with recordings of musicians whose work encompassed jazz, blues, and rhythm-and-blues. Ertegun’s brother Nesuhi (1917–89) joined the organization in 1955, and supervised artists and repertory for the LP catalogue; around the same time the company established a new label, Atco, which was chiefly devoted to popular music. During the late 1950s and early 1960s the company made significant recordings marking the emergence of the free jazz style, but by the middle of the decade it was primarily known for soul music; in 1966, at the height of the company’s success in this field, it founded the Vortex label for the release of jazz records. During this period Atlantic and its subsidiaries recorded many significant artists: the singers Lavern Baker, Ray Charles, Ben E. King, Esther Phillips, Wilson Pickett and Otis Redding; the vocal groups the Coasters, and the Drifters; and the jazz musicians Lennie Tristano, Lee Konitz, Charles Mingus, the Modern Jazz Quartet, John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman, Keith Jarrett and Chick Corea. It also presented gospel groups and important white popular musicians, including Bobby Darin and Sonny and Cher....



Peter Ward Jones

English music publishers. The firm originated in 1853, when Charles Louis Graue, formerly employed by Ewer & Co., set up as a foreign music importer in London with the assistance of George Augener (b Hessen-Fechenheim, 1830; d London, 25 Aug 1915), who had come to England in 1852 from employment in the firm of André in Offenbach. Graue was succeeded by Gustav Scheuermann in 1854, and in 1857 Augener left to set up on his own. The following year he bought the Scheuermann business at public auction and took over its premises, trading as Augener & Co., and opening a branch in Brighton in 1860. Scheuermann set up briefly elsewhere in 1859 for a couple of years. In November 1898 the firm acquired the trade name and goodwill of Robert Cocks , and the two businesses were fully amalgamated as Augener Ltd in 1904. With George Augener’s retirement in ...


Tracey E.W. Laird


American syndicated music television program. It is the longest-running music performance television program in broadcast history. Recorded at the public station KLRU in Austin, Texas, and housed at the University of Texas, ACL aired its pilot episode, featuring Willie Nelson, in 1975. Nelson’s rise to iconic status during the same era ensured the show’s auspicious beginning. During more than three decades ACL has evolved from its original focus on Austin’s progressive country scene to an eclectic mix of musical genres. In some ways its growing prominence mirrors that of Austin itself, particularly the reputation of its music scene.

The station executive Bill Arhos founded ACL and produced its first few seasons. In its fourth season he turned production over to Terry Lickona, whose musical vision has continued to shape each season. Under the latter’s guidance ACL has maintained an artful balance between local acts and musicians from further afield. High quality musicianship and production values have remained constant threads throughout changing trends in programming, notably mainstream country in the 1980s and Americana in the 1990s. Early seasons included performances by Taj Mahal and Tom Waits. Guests during the 1980s ranged from B.B. King to Bonnie Raitt, and Flaco Jimenez to Queen Ida. Los Lobos and the Dirty Dozen Brass Band appeared in the 1990s, as did Nanci Griffith and John Prine. In the 2010s ACL featured a wide variety of styles, from Coldplay to Damian Marley, the Gourds to Miranda Lambert, the Decemberists to K’Naan....




Justin A. Williams

American record company. Bad Boy Entertainment is a label specializing in hip hop and R&B. It was founded in 1993 in New York City by Sean “Puffy” Combs who had been A&R man for Andre Harrell’s Uptown Records. Once Combs secured a deal with Clive Davis’s Arista Records, he released Craig Mack’s Project: Funk the World and The Notorious B.I.G.’s Ready to Die on 1 September 1994. The massive success of The Notorious B.I.G.’s (aka Biggie Smalls or Biggie) debut brought national attention to Bad Boy and its founder, spearheading a revival in East Coast hip hop at a time when the West Coast had dominated the rap scene for two years (most notably the acts on Dr. Dre and Suge Knight’s Death Row Records). This led to a media-enhanced rivalry between Death Row Records and Bad Boy Entertainment, which some believe fuelled the still-unsolved murders of Death Row’s Tupac Shakur (...


Ernst C. Krohn

American firm of music publishers. Charles Balmer (b Mühlhausen, Sept 21, 1817; d St Louis, Dec 15, 1892) and Carl Heinrich Weber (b Koblenz, March 3, 1819; d Denver, Sept 6, 1892) left Germany for the USA in the 1830s; Balmer became an organist and conductor, Weber a cellist, and their early compositions were published in the eastern USA. In 1848 they entered into partnership and opened a shop in St Louis, publishing a variety of popular marches and various piano pieces including Balmer's own arrangements of popular titles. Charles Balmer was so prolific that he adopted a number of pseudonyms, including Charles Remlab, T. van Berg, Alphonse Leduc, Charles Lange, Henry Werner, August Schumann, T. Mayer and F.B. Ryder. Gradually the firm absorbed most of its competitors including Nathaniel Phillips, James & J.R. Phillips, H.A. Sherburne, H. Pilcher & Sons, W.M. Harlow, Cardella & Co. and Compton & Doan; by the end of the century it had an exceptionally large and flourishing business....


Richard Baum and Dietrich Berke

German firm of music publishers. It was founded in 1924 in Augsburg by Karl Vötterle, a bookshop assistant, then only 21 years old. Vötterle named the firm after the star Alkor (‘Bärenreiter’ or ‘Reiterlein’) in the constellation of the Great Bear. The firm’s beginnings are closely associated with the musical youth movement then current in Germany. Vötterle’s interest in folksong and his collaboration with the folksong researcher and singer Walther Hensel (an alias for Dr Julius Janiczek, 1887–1956), whose Finkensteiner Blätter was the firm’s first publication, formed the basis of much of Bärenreiter’s early work. The first years were characterized by the rapid growth of the Singbewegung, organized into the Finkensteiner Bund and developed by Vötterle; the movement was intended to revive musical interest and provide musical education for amateurs. The publication of folksong editions, beginning with the Finkensteiner Blätter, and later larger anthologies such as the Bruder Singer...