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Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa

(b Milan, March 12, 1637; d Milan, June 3, 1709). Italian violin maker. He was the leading representative of a family of Milanese violin makers closely related to the musicians of the same name; his godfather was the composer Michelangelo Grancini. Giovanni's father Andrea was probably active as a violin maker, but there is no historical trace of Paolo Grancino who was formerly thought to have been a pupil of Nicolò Amati in Cremona. It is possible that at the beginning of his career Giovanni worked in association with a brother, Francesco, since instruments exist with the label ‘brothers Francesco and Giovanni Grancini’. However, these instruments reveal a rather different style from that considered typical of the work of Giovanni Grancino, although the craftsmanship is of an equally high standard. Giovanni Grancino was a competent workman, influenced by the Amatis yet bringing a strong personal character to the construction of his instruments. He provided for a less wealthy clientèle than that of his nearby Cremonese competitors, often using inexpensive wood for his backs, sides and scrolls. His tables, however, are usually good-looking, with strong, vigorous grain. The varnish in the earlier instruments is dark red-brown or orange, soft and thick, but after ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa and Duane Rosengard

Italian family of violin makers.

(b Casalbuttano, July 13, 1623; d Cremona, Dec 7, 1698). Son of Bartolomeo Guarneri, he was an apprentice in the house of Nicolò Amati from 1641 to 1646, and thus inherited the Amati principles of violin design and construction. In 1646 he left the Amati household, but returned in 1650 for a further four years. In 1652 he married Anna Maria Orcelli, the sister of a fine violinist. In 1654 Andrea and his wife left Amati’s house to live in the house his wife received as part of her dowry, later to be known (with the next-door house) as the Casa Guarneri. Of their seven children, two of the sons, (2) Pietro Giovanni Guarneri and (3) Giuseppe Giovanni Battista (‘filius Andreae’) Guarneri, were to become violin makers.

Andrea’s distinctive hand is recognizable in a few of Nicolò Amati’s violins. His early complete instruments are usually on the ‘Grand Amati’ pattern, but his work never quite attained the elegance of his master’s. In fact the Guarneri character was apparent from the first: here and there a noticeable lack of symmetry, a little extra scoop at the purfling, and a roughness of finish, especially in the scroll. Often the mitres of the purfling point across the corners instead of into them, a unique feature. Once established on his own, working, according to his labels, ‘sub titulo Sanctae Teresiae’, Andrea Guarneri generally used a compact model of good dimensions. These violins are very highly regarded. Later he relied more and more upon the help of his sons, especially Giuseppe, and the character of the work is variable. Certain violins have a narrow, pinched look, made perhaps in response to the growing popularity of Stainer’s style of making. Andrea made several splendid smaller violas, well ahead of their time, one of which was played by William Primrose. He was also among the first to make a smaller cello, technically more easily managed than the very large instruments of the Amatis....

Article

Harold E. Samuel

[Paulus]

(b Nuremberg, April 11, 1626; d Nuremberg, Aug 6, 1686). German organist, instrumentalist, composer and instrument maker, son of Sebastian Hainlein the younger (see Hainlein family). His early instruction on wind and keyboard instruments and in singing led to his being paid an expectant’s salary by the city of Nuremberg at the age of 17. During the period 1646–7 he was in Munich, where he at least heard – if he did not study with – G.G. Porro. From October 1647 to July 1648 he was in Italy. In five extant letters he said that he was displeased with Italian performers and was practising without the aid of a teacher. He referred to four living Italian composers, G.G. Arrigoni, Cavalli and Rovetta in Venice and Francesco Turini in Brescia, but he apparently did not study with any of them. He took up his first important position in Nuremberg in ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

(b London, 1645/6; d Amsterdam, 1705). Dutch woodwind maker of English birth. He moved to Amsterdam with his parents in or before 1652. His family appear to have retained certain connections with England, though details are obscure. His father, who married in London in 1635, was there named as ‘Thomas Hakay’, while three of Richard’s sisters married Englishmen. He reportedly began to make woodwind instruments in about 1660, although nothing is known of his training as a maker. In 1676 he married Grietje van den Bogaert, stating that he was aged 30. He lived and worked in Kelverstraat until about 1681 when he moved to ‘de Vergulde Basfluyt’ (the gilded bass recorder) on the Spui. Haka retired in 1696, leaving his house, shop and tools in the hands of his nephew Coenraad Rijkel, his partner and former apprentice, later moving into a house he had built on the prestigious Keizersgracht....

Article

Harrass  

Anne Beetem Acker

[Harass, Harras]

German family of harpsichord builders active in Grossbreitenbach, Thuringia. Family members included Johann Heinrich (i) (b 4 May 1665; d ?1714), Johann Mathias (1671–1746), Johann Heinrich (ii) (1707–78), and Johann Nicol (dates unknown). Little is known about the family except that the two Johann Heinrichs were father and son. Two two-manual harpsichords attributed to the workshop of Johann Heinrich (i) are extant: an instrument ascribed to Harrass (c1710, D.SH.m), with a disposition of 8′ + 4′ on the lower manual and 8′ on the upper manual, and a so-called Bach harpsichord (c1700, D.B.im), unsigned but closely resembling in some respects the later instrument. The latter has been altered, but it originally had a three-register disposition (4′ and 16′ on the lower manual; 8′ with buff stop and push coupler on the upper manual), later expanded to four registers. It is said, questionably, to have belonged to Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and possibly to Johann Sebastian Bach. Both instruments have a double-curved bentside and five-octave compass ...

Article

Michael Gillingham

revised by Nicholas Plumley and Stephen Bicknell

English family of organ builders.

(d ?London, c1684). He was apprenticed to the elder Thomas Dallam family, and left with Dallam’s family for Brittany in 1642. He married Katherine Dallam (daughter of Robert) by whom he had six children, including Renatus. He built three organs while in Brittany, at Roscoff (1649–50), Brélevenez (1654–6) and Morlaix, Notre Dame du Mûr (1656–61), and may have helped his father-in-law on others. He returned to England with his family about 1660, after the Restoration. An agreement he made in 1666 with the Dean and Chapter of Worcester described him as living in New Sarum, where he was engaged on the restoration and installation of the pre-Commonwealth organ in the cathedral. By then he had shortened his name from Harrisson to Harriss. This work was followed in the same year by a new organ for Gloucester Cathedral (embodying the old Chair organ, probably made by Robert Dallam in ...

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Lynda Sayce

[Harton, Michielle]

(fl Padua, c1591–c1627). German lute maker. He came from Tieffenbruck in the Bavarian Alps. In 1590 he bought his freedom, and according to E.G. Baron (1727) was apprenticed to Leonardo Tieffenbrucker the younger in Venice. However surviving evidence (including his instrument labels) places him in Padua between at least 1591 and 1627. References cited by Toffolo appear to refer at least in part to another Michael Hartung, whose relationship to the luthier has yet to be established.

Hartung's surviving instruments include three lutes in the Germanisches National Museum, Nuremberg; number MI 56 is a small bass lute from 1599; MI 44 is a large bass from 1602; MIR 899 is undated, and has a later extension added. There are further instruments in Birmingham, Ann Arbor, Washington DC (Folger Shakespeare Library: a lute dated 1598), Bologna (Museo Civico, no.1808, dated 1599) and Füssen (Museum der Stadt, dated ...

Article

Charles Mould

(fl London, 1622; dc1640). English harpsichord maker. He was possibly the father-in-law of the virginal maker Gabriel Townsend. Over the years, a number of researchers have attempted to decipher the inscription in black and yellow paint which appears on the nameboard of the second oldest surviving authenticated English harpsichord (dated 1622) at Knole, Kent. That part of the inscription which is quite clear reads: ‘JOHANNES.A.ARD FECIT LONDINI MDCXXII’. Since 1860, when Rimbault first suggested ‘Asard’ as the surname, others have come forward with ‘Hayward’, ‘Haward’, ‘Iasard’ and ‘Izzard’ as possibilities, of which ‘Haward’ seemed the most likely since the existence of a maker with that name was already confirmed. In 1978, however, Ann and Peter McTaggart demonstrated clearly that the name was ‘Hasard’. It has not been possible to establish anything further about John Hasard other than a fleeting reference to a man with this name (or Hazard) of the parish of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange, and a passage in Ashbee, iv, 207 which reads as follows: ‘Paid to Hazard that keepeth her graces virginalls in tune for his stipend for the qrter ending at xpemas ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

[Hémen, Le Héman]

French family of organ builders. Valéran De Héman (b Hesdin, Pas de Calais, 1584; d Paris, 1641) was a pupil and son-in-law of Crespin Carlier; he was acquainted with Mersenne, Titelouze and Charles Racquet, organist of Notre Dame. He built new organs at St Jean-le-Marché in Troyes (1610–11), at Ste Catherine, Honfleur (1612); Meaux Cathedral (1627); in Paris at St Martin-des-Champs (1618), St Jean-en-Grève (1625), St Honoré and St Thomas-du-Louvre; and at Bordeaux Cathedral (1631–3). He also carried out a large number of repairs, for example in Rouen at St Jean (1607), St Vivien (1608), St Maclou (1610–11) and the cathedral (1614); in Troyes at St Nicolas (1615–19) and St Jacques-aux-Nonnains (1623); in Bordeaux at St Seurin (1630–32); and in Paris at Notre Dame (...

Article

Guy Oldham

revised by Umberto Pineschi

[Guglielmo]

(b Thorn, nr Roermond, March 6, 1601; d Rome, Feb 14, 1683). Dutch organ builder, active mainly in Italy. In October 1631 he entered the Jesuit novitiate at Mechelen as an organ builder and lay brother. His early organs were for the Jesuit establishments at Breda (1632), Mechelen (1633), Ghent (1634), Leuven (1637) and Ypres (1644), and he may have been active in northern France. From 1648 to 1663 he was based at the Jesuit house in Genoa. He built the organ at Como Cathedral (1649–50; C′ to c′′′ short octave, ‘ravelement’ compass, 57 notes), of which only the case survives. On its completion, a booklet was published listing recommended combinations of stops; it was reprinted several times until 1730. From 1657 to 1660 he built the organ at S Maria Assunta in Carignano, Genoa, assisted by Johann Heid and Hans Dietrich. The organ has been rebuilt at least twice within the west gallery case (which is by Georges Heigenmann), but the façade pipes may be original. The organ at SS Andrea ed Ambrogio, Genoa, built at the same time, met a similar fate. Hermans may have made a trip to La Flêche (France) during this period. He worked in Rome (Il Gesù, S Apollinare, and S Agnese in Agone), Palermo (...

Article

Alfred Reichling

(b Munich, June 4, 1618; d Wilten, 28 May or June 5, 1678). Tyrolean organ builder. He settled in Brixen (now Bressanone) in 1646, became court organ builder in Innsbruck in 1656 at the latest and established his workshop in Wilten, near Innsbruck, in 1671. His first known work was the reconstruction of the organ at Klausen (now Chiusa; 1641–3). Among his new organs are: Sillian (1644); the Liebfrauenkirche, Brixen (1648–9; only parts survive); an organ for the Brotherhood of Corpus Christi, in St Michael, Brixen (1650); Brixen Cathedral (positive, 1651–2); Stilfes (also Stilves; 1656); Trens (1656); Tschengls (also Cengles; contract 1657); Latsch (also Laces; 1659); Maria Waldrast (1660); St Martin in Passeier (also S Martino in Passiria; 1660–61); Niederdorf (also Villabassa; contract 1664); Belluno Cathedral (1665); Partenkirchen (before 1671...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(fl Antwerp, c1670–c1700). Belgian violin maker. His elegant instruments with their precise edging and purfling, the long drawn-out corners, the strongly curved centre bouts, and the narrow soundhole wings all point to an unmistakable Amati influence. His outlines, especially the central curves, are unusually rounded; in contrast, the soundholes are set stiffly perpendicular. A soft orange to orange-brown varnish of Italian quality completes the finish. The tone, while not excessively large, is of excellent quality. Hofmans is generally considered to be the best Belgian maker of his time. He belongs to that select group of Netherlandish luthiers, comprising makers such as Hendrik Jacobsz, Cornelius Kleynman and Hendrik Willems, who admirably succeeded in transplanting the Amati ideal yet never lost touch with their own rich heritage. Since only a few examples of Hofman’s work retain their original printed labels it is assumed that much of his best work has passed under the names of better-known Italian makers....

Article

Walter Hüttel

(b Friedericia, c1647; d Mehlis, Thüringer Wald, March 3, 1700). German organ builder of Danish birth. Holbeck established his workshop in Zwickau but worked also in Hamburg, Lübeck, Copenhagen and Stockholm. From 1690 he also held office at the court of the Prince of Gotha-Altenburg. The parochial register of Zwickau describes him as a greatly respected figure and a most distinguished citizen; the account for his organ at Waldenburg refers to him as a famous organ maker. Holbeck’s daughter, Maria Margarethe, married in 1701 the organ builder and clavichord maker Johannes Jacobus Donati, who took over the court appointment and business of his father-in-law.

In the last quarter of the 17th century Holbeck supplied instruments to churches in Saxony, Thuringia and Bavaria, including St Michael in Hof (1679) and St Moritz in Zwickau (1700). In Delitzsch his work was opposed by the examining church musicians, but in general there was no lack of praise and recognition for his achievement as a master craftsman. The comparatively large organ at Schneeberg (St Wolfgang-Kirche, ...

Article

Tula Giannini

[Haulteterre, Hauterre, Hauteterre, Hoteterre, Hoterre, Obterre, etc.]

French family of woodwind instrument makers, instrumentalists and composers. The founder of the family (see family tree ), Loys de Haulteterre (d by 1628) was a ‘tourneur en boys’ in La Couture, Normandy; his sons Louis Hotteterre (i) [père] (d by 1670), (1) Jean Hotteterre (i) and (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i) established three branches of the family. During the 17th century (1) Jean Hotteterre (i) and later various other members of the family moved to Paris, where they gained fame as instrument makers and players, serving royal music-making. They are credited with developing early prototypes of the Baroque oboe, bassoon, musette and flute. Their talents in instrument making, playing, composition and pedagogy converged to form the foundation of the French school of woodwind playing. The Hotteterre family was related by marriage to several other important families of instrument makers including Buffet, Chédeville family...

Article

Frank Kidson

(d ?London, 1683). English instrument maker, music dealer and publisher. He worked in London ‘at the Sign of the Lute’ in St Paul's Churchyard, where his customers included the diarist Samuel Pepys. References to Hunt are found in Pepys's diary between October 1661, when he converted Pepys's lute to a theorbo with double strings, and ...

Article

Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

Article

Charles Beare

(b Amsterdam, 1629; d Amsterdam, 1704). Dutch violin maker. He is reputed by some to have been a pupil of Nicolò Amati, but this seems unlikely; he probably became familiar with good Italian instruments that had been taken to Amsterdam, perhaps also those of the Austrian maker Jacob Stainer. Jacobsz was the most celebrated of the Dutch makers, but instruments made entirely by him are quite rare. His copies of the Amati ‘grand pattern’ achieve the ultimate in visual elegance, the sweeping outlines highlighted by the use of jet-black whalebone for the dark strips of purfling. The varnish is of Italian quality. He spelt his name either Jacobsz or Jacobs on his labels. Through his marriage in 1676 he acquired a stepson, Pieter Rombouts, who eventually took over from him; Rombouts's work is increasingly evident in Jacobsz's later instruments, especially in the broad purfling.

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