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Article

Folke Bohlin

(b Odensvi, Västmanland, Sept 1, 1811; d Södertälje, July 28, 1877). Swedish folk music collector and antiquarian. He studied law at Uppsala University (1831–4) and was then engaged in official duties until 1842. He was a good amateur singer but had no professional training in music. While still a student he made rune stones and the study of folk traditions his main interest in life. In spite of poor health, he travelled throughout Sweden in pursuit of this interest until a few years before his death, working particularly in the province of Dalarna. His work was partly supported by the Vitterhetsakademien and by the State. Most of his findings were published in Dybeck’s journal Runa (1842–50 and 1865–76) or in separate editions of folk music (1846–56). The most important of these was Svenska vallvisor och hornlåtar (Stockholm, 1846), containing unarranged transcriptions of shepherds’ music. Through his publications and his well-attended folk music concerts, Dybeck not only created a wide interest in folk music but also influenced Swedish art music, dominated after ...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...

Article

Nicholas Carolan

[Séamas Ó hAonghusa]

(b Jamestown, Co. Dublin, May 5, 1919; d Naul, Co. Dublin, Oct 5, 1982). Irish traditional musician, singer and collector. Having learnt uilleann piping from his civil-servant father and worked in publishing, Ennis became a music collector for the Irish Folklore Commission in 1942. He made important Irish-language collections on paper, aided by his gifts as a performer. In 1947 he transferred to Radió Éireann, Irish state radio, to work with its new mobile recording unit, and in 1951 to the BBC in London where he was a major contributor as a collector and performer to the highly successful radio series As I Roved out, and to the collecting projects of Brian George and Alan Lomax among others. From 1958 he was a freelance performer and broadcaster. Chiefly known as an outstanding uilleann piper with a distinctive personal style, he was also a whistle player and singer, storyteller and translator from Irish. As a piper and as a founder-member in ...

Article

John Cline

(Aloysius )

(b Takoma Park, MD, Feb 28, 1939; d Salem, OR, Feb 22, 2001). American guitarist, folklorist, and record producer. As a teenager, Fahey’s early interest in country music was expanded to include bluegrass and country-blues due to a friendship with richard Spottswood , later a noted folk and ethnic music scholar. With Spottswood and famed collector Joe Bussard, Fahey sought out pre-war 78 r.p.m. records. After taking up the guitar, Fahey’s made his first recordings for Bussard’s private Fonotone label on 78 r.p.m. shellac discs, some of which Fahey claimed to have slipped into boxes of more “authentic,” vintage records at flea markets. In 1959 Fahey founded Takoma Records to distribute his own recordings, beginning with the LP Blind Joe Death; his liner notes also frequently mock the language of then-contemporary blues scholars, the very people he had hoped to fool with the Fonotone 78s.

Despite his sense of humor Fahey was a serious student of American vernacular music. He travelled long distances to find Bukka White and Skip James in the Mississippi Delta in the early 1960s; he relates these events in the memoir, ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by Robert Ford

(b Canterbury, bap. March 27, 1709; d Canterbury, Jan 5, 1798). English composer and music collector. A son of John Flackton, bricklayer and cathedral contractor, he was a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral under William Raylton from 1716 to 1725. During this time he was also apprenticed to Edward Burgess, bookseller, stationer and cathedral lay clerk. In the Kentish Post (December 1727) he announced his return from London and his setting up as a bookseller. He was joined in this business between 1747 and about 1767 by his brother John, a singer and horn player, in which latter connection John is said to be pictured in the painting reproduced as pl. xlix of Karl Geiringer’s Instruments in the History of Western Music (London, 1943, 3/1978); William Flackton’s song The Chace has a prominent horn part in its instrumental accompaniment. Between 1735 and 1752 Flackton was organist of St Mary of Charity, Faversham, where he presented an anthem of his composition at the installation of a new organ in ...

Article

Anthony Hicks

(b Fontmell Magna, Dorset, July 8, 1879; d Blandford, March 12, 1964). English author, collector and publisher. After training as a writer on various popular journals, Flower joined the publishers Cassell & Co. in 1906 and took over as proprietor in 1927. He was knighted in 1938. His purely literary work includes an edition of the journals of Arnold Bennett.

Flower’s musical interests were amateur. His books are marred by a poor literary style and the absence of scholarly discipline, though the use of previously unknown documentary material gives them some value. His important collection of manuscripts and early printed editions of Handel’s music (including the bulk of the Aylesford Manuscripts, copied for Handel’s friend Charles Jennens) was acquired by the Henry Watson Library, Manchester, in 1965.

Catalogue of a Handel Collection formed by Newman Flower (Sevenoaks, 1921) George Frideric Handel: his Personality and his Times (London, 1923, 2/1947)...

Article

Nancy Groce

(b Canton, CT, Nov 11, 1833; d Brooklyn, NY, May 17, 1896).

American instrument dealer and collector. He was trained as a clock maker in Bristol, CT, and later worked as a machinist in Hartford, CT, before moving to New York in January 1852. The following year he became a clerk at Rohé & Leavitt, a firm of dealers at 31 Maiden Lane; on the partners’ retirement in 1863, Foote bought the company and continued it under his own name. Except for a short-lived partnership with John F. Stratton in 1865, as Stratton & Foote, “importer and manufacturer” of brass band instruments, he was sole manager for the next 30 years, dealing in string, woodwind, and brass instruments and serving as the sole American agent for several French manufacturers, including the firm of Courtois. A Chicago “branch house” of his business, under the management of W.H. Foote, was still in operation at the time of his death. An obituary in the ...

Article

Gordon E. Smith

(Fulton)

(b Lumsden, nr Regina, SK, April 30, 1913; d Toronto, March 28, 1996). Canadian folksong collector. After studying literature and history at Saskatchewan University, she moved to Toronto in 1938 and was spurred to collect English-language folksongs in Ontario in the 1940s by a perceived dearth of recordings and publication of local music. She conducted fieldwork in southern Ontario, discovering a rich heritage of folk music especially in the Ottawa valley and Peterborough regions while also working for CBC radio. The author and editor of numerous books, articles and folksong collections, she was professor of folklore at York University, Toronto (1971–93). Recognized as a dedicated preserver and popularizer of folk traditions, her work lies in the tradition of such Canadian scholars as Marius Barbeau and Helen Creighton.

‘Anglo-Canadian Folksong a Survey’, EthM, 16 (1972), 335–50 ‘Reference List on Canadian Folk Music’, Canadian Folk Music Journal, 1 (1973), 45–56; rev. in vi (1978), 41–56 and xi (1983), 43–60; see also ‘Old Favorites: a Selective Index’, ibid., vii (1979), 29–56...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

revised by Veslemöy Heintz

(b Västerås, May 4, 1879; d Hälsingborg, Aug 25, 1965). Swedish musicologist and collector. He studied Romance languages at Uppsala University, where he took the doctorate in 1907, and was a music pupil of I.E. Hedenblad and L.J. Zetterqvist. Subsequently he taught French in schools in Sundsvall (1910–21) and Hälsingborg (1921–44). He devoted himself to a scrupulous study of the history and etymology of various instruments, but is best known for his unique music collection, the largest private collection of its kind in Sweden, now housed in the Musikmuseet and Statens Musikbibliotek (Stockholm) and the Helsingborg Stadsmuseum. It includes 900 instruments, books, posters and music editions, and 10,000 music manuscripts, autographs and letters. Of special interest are the Marseillaise collection of 3000 items, the correspondence of Fétis and the August Bournonville collection. A catalogue of this collection can be found in Collection Fryklund 1949...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, Feb 16, 1916; d New York, Jan 29, 2008). American collector and writer on music. He received the BA from Harvard College in 1937 and graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1940 and practised law in New York. His interest in first editions led him to an investigation of the various techniques for dating printed music and identifying first editions and he built up a private collection of over 1700 first editions of classical, popular and folk music, which includes Palestrina’s Missa Papae Marcelli (1567), Bach’s Goldberg Variations (1742), Handel’s Messiah (1767) and Gluck’s Orfeo (1764), as well as operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, a large collection of Americana (with works by Gershwin, Berlin and Kern) and popular tunes such as Three Blind Mice (1609). He also collected orginal librettos, programmes, posters and playbills of historical interest and autographs of most major composers after ...

Article

Gordon E. Smith

(Amédée)

(b Rivière-du-Loup-en-haut [now Louiseville], Lower Canada [PQ], Nov 7, 1834; d Quebec City, Sept 15, 1915). Canadian composer, organist, teacher and folksong collector. After completing the classical studies programme at the Collège Joliette, he spent three years studying music in Montreal. In 1853 he was appointed organist at St Jean-Baptiste in Quebec City, and from 1864 to 1876 he was organist of the Quebec City Basilica. During the first of two European trips (1857–8 and 1873) Gagnon studied the piano at the Paris Conservatoire with Alexandre Edouard Goria and Henri Herz, and harmony and counterpoint with Auguste Durand.

An exponent of the Louis Niedermeyer method of plainchant accompaniment, Gagnon published in 1903 a large book of accompaniments for use in Quebec parishes (L'accompagnement d'orgue des chants liturgiques). He also composed some church music, as well as several salon-type pieces for solo piano. He was a founder of one of the first regulatory musical institutions in Canada in ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Dorchester, Dec 25, 1858; d Richmond, Surrey, Dec 30, 1945). English collector of musical instruments and scholar. He was educated at King's School, Sherborne, where James Robert Sterndale Bennett, son of the composer, encouraged his aptitude for music. From 1877 he studied classics at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1882, MA 1885), where he played the clarinet under Stanford in the orchestra of the Cambridge University Musical Society. Ordained in 1883, he was curate of Redenhall with Harleston, Norfolk, for four years, then curate at St Giles-in-the-Fields (1887–91), vicar of Hatfield Broad Oak (formerly Hatfield Regis, 1891–1915), vicar of Witham (1915–21) and rector of Faulkbourn (1921–33). In 1917 he was made a canon of Chelmsford Cathedral. From his university years onwards, Galpin made an outstanding collection of musical instruments, which he made freely available for public exhibitions and lectures and described and illustrated in his book ...

Article

Jack Sage

(b Plasencia, Jan 4, 1912; d Madrid, Aug 26, 1974). Spanish collector of and writer on folk music. He studied the violin, flute, piano and composition with Joaquín Sánchez, the maestro de capilla of Plasencia Cathedral. By the time he was 18 he had founded a choir in his home town, the Masa Coral Placentina, which he conducted; subsequently he reorganized the choir into smaller groups, the Coros Extremeños, better suited to performing his own versions of the increasing number of Extremaduran folksongs he collected. In 1941 he was appointed assistant lecturer in folklore at the Madrid Conservatory and then professor (provisionally 1951, confirmed 1958). He was commissioned by the Instituto Español de Musicología from the year of its inception (1944) to do research on folksong and was the initiator of the first International Congress of Folklore to be held in Spain (Palma, 1952). He was a member of the UNESCO international committee on music and of the executive of the International Folk Music Council....

Article

Dena J. Epstein

(b Philadelphia, Oct 30, 1842; d West Orange, NJ, May 11, 1877). American collector of slave songs. The only practising musician among the collectors of slave songs in the South Carolina Sea Islands during the Civil War, she accompanied her father to this Union enclave in June 1862, remaining only three weeks. Deeply impressed with the songs of the freedmen, she notated them, and on her return north tried unsuccessfully to bring them to public notice.

On 6 December 1865 she married Wendell Phillips Garrison, literary editor of The Nation, who assisted her in gathering the first comprehensive collection of slave songs, in collaboration with William Francis Allen and Charles Pickard Ware. The resulting book, Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), was a seminal work of lasting importance, still the best-known source of slave music. She arranged two slave songs for voice and piano (...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Logroño, May 14, 1898; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1964). Spanish folklorist and composer. He received his early musical education in Burgos, where, influenced by the musicologist Nemesio Otaño, he became deeply interested in traditional folk music. He qualified as a military bandmaster in 1923 and served as bandmaster for the Spanish army until 1960. In 1926 he founded the Conservatory of Music at Badajoz, where he was the director and an instructor for 20 years. As an active collaborator with the Centro de Estudios Extremeños (1926–46) and the Spanish Institute of Musicology (from 1944) he participated in many field trips throughout the provinces of Extremadura (1924–31), La Rioja (1944–5), Granada (1946, 1960), Ciudad Real (1947), Toledo (1949), Cádiz (1957), Badajoz (1958) and Ávila (1959...

Article

Georgina Boyes

(b Manchester, Dec 8, 1863; d Lancaster, July 24, 1954). English musical antiquary and authority on folk music, psalmody and hymnody. Trained at the Royal Academy of Music, she began research in folklore in 1895, when she noted similarities between newly discovered folksongs and the modal tunes of 16th- and 17th-century hymns. Between 1895 and 1910 she collected folklore in south-eastern and northern England; her main interest, however, was historical research and fellow scholars benefited particularly from her expertise in sourcing tunes. She joined the Folk-Song Society in 1905 as part of a new wave of collector-musicians associated with its revitalization and contributed numerous articles and notes to the Journal of the Folk-Song Society and its successor the Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society; from 1906 until her death she also served as a member of the editorial board, where she worked closely with Frank Kidson and Lucy Broadwood. A liberal Presbyterian, her attention to nonconformist religious music was unusual among contemporary folklorists and was reflected in articles for ...

Article

(b Sorochintsï, Poltava province, 19/March 31, 1809; d Moscow, 21 Feb/March 4, 1852). Russian novelist and dramatist. Born into an impoverished gentry family in the Ukraine, where he spent his childhood and youth, he received a rather meagre education. He went to St Petersburg in 1828 and began to make his name with the stories in Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka (1831–2); his introduction to Zhukovsky and Pushkin also broadened his outlook. All his early stories, including Taras Bul′ba (1835), have Ukrainian settings, but with Nevskiy prospekt (1835) and The Diary of a Madman (1835) he began to write about St Petersburg. His satirical comedy The Inspector-General (1836) was not only a landmark in the history of the theatre, but also in the history of Russian social attitudes. The short story The Overcoat...

Article

Malcolm Gillies and David Pear

(Aldridge)

(b Brighton, Victoria, July 8, 1882; d White Plains, NY, Feb 20, 1961). Australian-American composer, pianist and folksong collector. Best known for his settings of British folk music, he was also an innovative composer of original works and ‘free music’, and an accomplished performer.

Grainger spent the first 13 years of his life in Melbourne, where he was educated at home under the guidance of his mother, Rose. She instilled in him a love of the arts and an heroic outlook on life, reinforced by his study of Classical legends and Icelandic sagas. He also received occasional tutorials in languages, art, drama, elocution and the piano (with Louis Pabst, 1892–4). Following his Melbourne début as a pianist in 1894, funds were raised to support further musical training in Frankfurt, where he studied at the Hoch Conservatory (1895–1901) with James Kwast (piano), Iwan Knorr (composition, theory) and others. There he formed lifelong friendships with Cyril Scott, Henry Balfour Gardiner and Roger Quilter, who, with Norman O'Neill, became known as the Frankfurt Group. During these years he was strongly influenced by the writings of Rudyard Kipling (he would compose many Kipling settings, ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Dec 26, 1716; d Cambridge, July 30, 1771). English music collector, poet and amateur musician. He was educated at Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge. After touring Italy with Horace Walpole during the period 1739–41, he divided his time between London, Stoke Poges (where his mother had retired) and Cambridge, where he was first a fellow of Peterhouse and then of Pembroke College. As well as being one of the greatest poets of his time, Gray had a fine connoisseur’s taste in painting, architecture, natural history, and music. While in Italy he began to assemble a remarkable library of Italian music, largely consisting of operatic arias in score. He was especially fond of Pergolesi, but also admired older composers including Palestrina; he had no great love of Handel. He was an accomplished harpsichord player and kept Viscount Fitzwilliam’s instrument in his rooms at Peterhouse; later, perhaps under the influence of his friend ...

Article

Greece  

Katy Romanou, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Alexander Lingas, Nikos Maliaras, Achilleus Chaldaiakis, John Plemmenos, Pyrros Bamichas, Kostas Kardamis, Sofia Kontossi, Myrto Economides, Dafni Tragaki, Ioannis Tsagkarakis, Kostas Chardas, Manolis Seiragakis, Sotirios Chianis and Rudolph M. Brandl

Katy Romanou

Greeks have a history of over three millennia, during which they inhabited large and varied areas mainly in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The greatest expansion of ancient Greek civilization was achieved with Alexander the Great’s conquests and the establishment of states by his successors during the Hellenistic period. Greek language and civilization, globalized at that crucial moment of change for world history, were vehicles of the new religion that would expand to western Europe. In that same period, and in the Greek language, sciences were perfected in the new centres, such as Alexandria; mechanics, acoustics, and philology contributed to the invention and improvement of musical instruments, the scientific justification of Greek musical concepts, and the preservation in critical editions of the corpus of ancient Greek literature in all fields.

In 200–146 bce the Romans completed the conquest of Greek centres, and in 30 bce, with the conquest of Alexandria, the Roman Empire dominated all the Hellenistic states. In 330 ...