(b Alameda, CA, Jan 7, 1945). American rock journalist, author, and broadcaster. His father, born Fong Kwok Seung, changed his surname to Torres and posed as a Filipino in order to immigrate to the United States and sidestep the Chinese Exclusion Act. The family subsequently adopted the surname Fong-Torres. Ben Fong-Torres studied radio, television and film at San Francisco State University (BA 1966). He worked as a writer and senior editor for Rolling Stone, coming on board in 1969, shortly after the magazine’s inception, and staying until 1981. During his tenure, he conducted interviews with Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, Linda Ronstadt, Marvin Gaye, Jefferson Airplane, Sly and the Family Stone, Paul McCartney, Bonnie Raitt, Steve Martin, and many others. His interview with Ray Charles received the Deems Taylor Award for Magazine Writing in 1974. Fong-Torres was also a DJ for San Francisco rock station KSAN-FM from ...
(b Sparti, 1856; d Athens, Sept 3, 1933). Greek music critic, doctor, and philologist. Along with his philological and medical studies at the Athens University, Foustanos studied at the Athens Conservatory (elementary theory and possibly flute) and participated in the foundation of the short-lived musical club ‘Orpheus’ (1880), an association which organized concerts, in which Foustanos would participate as a flute player. After his three-year postgraduate medical studies in Paris (1882–5)—where he attended, Charcot’s lectures, among others—Foustanos settled in Syros, where he worked as a doctor and medical researcher. He also took part in the direction of the local Opera House, organized and participated in musical concerts, and gave lectures on music history and aesthetics. At the same time, he published opera reviews at the Press, parts of which he gathered in the book Armonia kai Melodia, itoi Mousikai Meletai meta Technokritikis Analyseos diaforon melodramaton...
revised by Frank Howes
(b Norwich, Sept 14, 1859; d Dinton, nr Salisbury, May 2, 1948). English musicologist, critic and editor. He was educated at Wellington College and Balliol College, Oxford (MA, 1882), and studied music for two years at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He became a schoolmaster at Dulwich College (1884–6) and a form master at Wellington (1887–1910), where he succeeded Alan Gray as the music master in 1893, a post he held until 1901, when he was made house master in college. During these years he wrote a Wellington College German Grammar and visited India, which aroused his interest in Indian music. When he left Wellington in 1910 he returned to India for eight months, collecting material for a book which is still a classic on its subject, The Music of Hindostan (1914); he also acted as Rabindranath Tagore's unpaid literary agent, ...
Daphne G. Carr
(b Sussex, England, June 25, 1946). British popular music scholar and critic. Frith is a foundational figure in intellectual inquiry on popular music since his first book, The Sociology of Rock (1978). His scholarly work has influenced the terrain of cultural studies in the study of popular music, beginning with mass culture, media, criticism, consumption, leisure, and youth; moving to questions of “authenticity,” taste, cultural hierarchy, and legitimacy; record production and producers; questions of copyright and public policy; and historical accounts of local scenes and live music. Frith has written a number of influential general texts on popular music, co-edited numerous foundational anthologies, educated several generations of British pop scholars, and served as a prominent public intellectual on popular music as culture. Frith was a founding member of International Association for the Study of Popular Music and a founding editor of the journal Popular Music (...
revised by James Deaville
(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...
(b London, April 7, 1856; d Carnforth, Lancs., March 30, 1936). English critic, editor and musical scholar. Poor health disrupted his early nonconformist education and apart from three terms at Westminster School he was, by necessity, taught privately. His musical education began in 1872 when he took piano lessons with Ernst Pauer. In 1875 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became friends with Stanford and W.B. Squire, whose elder sister he married in 1885, and with whom he participated fully in the flourishing activities of the Cambridge University Musical Society. After graduation in 1882 he studied the piano with Dannreuther and Rockstro; both took a keen interest in early music, but it was Rockstro who introduced him to harpsichord playing. Although he cultivated a reputation as an exponent of the piano and harpsichord, it was in the field of antiquarian studies and musical journalism that he found his true vocation. He was invited by Grove to write articles for his ...
Don C. Gillespie
(b Dallas, Nov 21, 1955). American musicologist, composer and critic. He attended Oberlin Conservatory (BMus 1977) and Northwestern University (MMus 1981, DMus 1983), where he studied composition with Peter Gena, Morton Feldman and Ben Johnston. An early fascination with the music of Ives developed his interest in polyrhythmic music and led to study of the music of the Hopi, Zuni and Pueblo Indians, which in turn informed the rhythmic language of his own compositions (notably in Snake Dances, 1991–5). Further exploration of tempo structures came from his association with Nancarrow, about whom he wrote the first book (1995). Gann composed several canons extending Nancarrow’s techniques. His interest in polytempos, Amerindian music and just intonation (his electronic works employ scales of up to 37 pitches per octave) came together in his electronic opera, Custer and Sitting Bull (1995–8).
In 1986, after writing for several Chicago papers, Gann became contemporary music critic for the ...
(b Rome, Sept 4, 1910; d Pisa, Aug 26, 1998). Italian musicologist and critic. He took a degree in literature and philosophy at the University of Genoa (1931–3) and studied the piano and composition at the Milan Conservatory under Torrefranca, Pizzetti and G.C. Paribeni. He was music critic (from 1932) and editor (1945–9) of the Rivista musicale italiana and was appointed co-editor of the Nuova rivista musicale italiana in 1967. He taught music history at the University of Florence (1957–69) and in 1962 was nominated to the Accademia Nazionale di S Cecilia. In 1949 he became director of chamber music programmes for RAI and in 1966 its director of international programmes organized through the European Broadcasting Union. He was also president of RAI’s auditioning committee and editor of its series of biographies of composers. He wrote studies of the music history of Genoa, and romanticized biographies of various composers (Albinoni, Stradella, Viotti, Vivaldi); he also contributed to Italian and foreign music dictionaries. His elaboration of a fragment supposedly from one of Albinoni’s sonatas has become famous as ‘Albinoni’s ...
Michael C. Heller
(b Brooklyn, NY, March 21, 1948). American jazz and film critic and historian. After studying English at Grinnell College (BA 1972), he returned to New York and began writing on film for the Hollywood Reporter (1972) and on jazz for Down Beat (1972–3). Citing influence from the writers Martin Williams and Dan Morgenstern, he decided to focus his efforts exclusively on jazz and in 1973 was hired as a music critic by the Village Voice. His regular column “Weather Bird” became highly influential during the next three decades. Unlike critics who concentrated primarily on recent performances, Giddins wrote on a range of topics, including the legacies of historical figures, contemporary developments, and issues relating to jazz advocacy and education. From the 1980s he began publishing collections of his essays as well as book-length monographs, including biographies of Charlie Parker (1987), Louis Armstrong (...
(b Bovey Tracey, Devon, Sept 17, 1895; d St Cloud, Dec 10, 1975). English writer on music. He obtained the licence ès lettres at the Sorbonne in 1915 and studied for a year at the Schola Cantorum; he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in the same year. After serving with the army in France and Egypt he returned to Cambridge in 1919 and began lecturing there in 1922. Four years later he was appointed professor of French in the Newcastle division of the University of Durham, now the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. After his retirement in 1960 he lived at St Cloud, France.
Girdlestone’s teaching consistently extolled classical ideals, especially clarity of expression and control of emotion by form. His first book, Dreamer and Striver: The Poetry of Frédéric Mistral (London, 1937), vindicated classical qualities in a 19th-century poet, and his first on music, Mozart et ses concertos pour piano...
revised by James Deaville
(b Riga, Oct 3, 1847; d Riga, April 14, 1915). German writer on music. He was educated in Riga and in Dorpat, where he studied linguistics, classical philology and the history of art. He taught in Pernau (now Pärnu) from 1873 to 1875, when he returned to Riga, where he remained as a teacher of language and literature until 1912. At the age of 16 he had heard Wagner’s works in Riga, and while still a student began assembling material for a biography; the first volume was ready by 1876, and Glasenapp was able to take it to show Wagner at the first Bayreuth Festival. He became a trusted member of the Wagner circle, and was given access by Cosima to much information and material. A dedicated and painstaking enthusiast, he made use of a vast amount of documentary evidence and brought it into systematic order; but his loyalty to the ideal of Wagner as presented to him by Cosima and the inner Wahnfried circle led him to accept an ‘authorized’ view of Wagner and in that interest to suppress and even alter evidence when it was deemed ‘unnecessary’ to the official portrait of Wagner. This unreliability was quickly observed, and Glasenapp was vigorously defended by another partisan, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his own book on Wagner (...
revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen
(fl Rhegium [now Reggio Calabria], c400 BC). Greek writer from the south-west coast of Italy. He was the author of a treatise (now lost) On the Ancient Poets and Musicians, a major source for portions of the Pseudo-Plutarch On Music. The musical writings of the philosopher known as Heraclides Ponticus may have been an intermediary source. Pseudo-Plutarch mentioned the author, title and contents of this treatise in On Music (1132e, 1133f, 1134d–f); at least a portion of the material on Terpander's supposed debt to Homer and Orpheus (1132f) and concerning Clonas and Archilochus (1133a) may also derive from Glaucus.
Glaucus's work apparently showed a practical concern with compositions and composer-poets; the latter he attempted to arrange in a sequence based on the line of succession from master to pupil. His familiarity with technical details recalls the expertise of Damon, his contemporary, and foreshadows that of Aristoxenus. Conjectures that he, like Aristoxenus, came from a family of musicians and was himself a professional have no support except his stress on the prior development of aulos playing and singing to aulos accompaniment. To be sure, this emphasis is strikingly evident. It provides a welcome counterbalance to the usual concentration on the kithara; moreover, it came at a time when the aulos had few champions but many attackers, among them ...
Beatriz Martínez del Fresno
(b Madrid, Dec 20, 1886; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1973). Spanish composer, librarian, critic and musicologist. He studied with his father and Antonio Santamaría, and from 1899 at the Madrid Conservatory with Andrés Monge, Manuel Fernández Grajal, Pedro Fontanilla, Felipe Pedrell and Emilio Serrano. Gómez won first prizes in harmony (1902), piano (1904) and composition (1908). He also studied history at Madrid University, earning a first degree (1907) and a doctorate (1918). After working as an arranger at the Teatro Real (1908–11) he was director of the Toledo Archaeological Museum (1911–13), head of the music section of the National Library (1913–15) and librarian of the Madrid Conservatory (1915–56). Among the subjects he taught was composition, which he taught to the group of composers known as the Generation of ’51.
Backed by Bretón and Bartolomé Pérez Casas at the beginning of his composing career, Gómez composed more than 100 works, some of which won national awards. His music wavers between neo-Romanticism (...
George J. Buelow
(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On 19 March 1714, before he was 15, he entered Königsberg University to study theology and subsequently philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. After earning a master's degree in 1723 he fled his native land under threat of induction into the Prussian army, moving to Leipzig. Two years later he began his university career as a lecturer. In 1727 he headed the local Deutschübenden-poetischen Gesellschaft, which he reorganized as a national society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft. He hoped to model it on the Académie Française and to create a decisive influence for the reform of German as a single national language, but he did not succeed. At this time he founded two weekly journals, ...
(b Kiev, 10/June 23, 1908). Russian musicologist and literary critic. He graduated with a degree in literature from the Institute of People's Education, Kiev, in 1930 having studied with A.I. Beletsky and N.K. Zerov; for his musical education he was indebted to his brother Matvey Akimovich Gozenpud (1903–61), the composer and pianist, who was a pupil at the Kiev Conservatory with G.N. Beklemishev and Blumenfel′d. While working as a music history teacher at institutes for advanced education in Kiev and Sverdlovsk, he took the Kandidat degree at the Kiev Conservatory with the dissertation Shekspir i muzïka in 1939 and the Candidate of Philological Sciences degree at the Shevchenko Institute of Ukranian Literature with the dissertation Dramaturgiya Lyndviga Khol′berga (‘The Drama of Holberg’) in 1941. He headed the academic department for musical theatre at the All-Union Theatrical Society in Moscow and the literary section of the State Academic Malïy Theatre, Moscow (the latter, ...
(b Alūksne, Aug 30, 1926). Latvian musicologist, critic and composer. He studied at the Latvian Conservatory (later the Jāzeps Vītols Latvian Academy of Music) in Riga, graduating from the musicology department in 1952 and from Jānis Ivanov’s composition class in 1960. He was awarded the Kandidat degree (later upgraded to the doctorate) from the Leningrad Conservatory in 1969 for his book on Vītols. From 1961 he taught at the Latvian Conservatory; he was appointed associate professor in 1969 and professor in 1984. He was secretary of the Latvian Composers’ Union from 1959 to 1962 and again from 1968 to 1974. Grāvītis specializes in Latvian music history of the 19th and 20th centuries and has written extensive criticism and numerous essays, reviews, radio and television programmes and lectures. His most important contributions to Latvian musicology are his monographs on Latvian composers, and a volume of biographical studies of Soviet Latvian musicians which he edited (...
(b Split, Croatia, July 17, 1951; d Split, May 14, 2011). Croatian musicologist and music critic. He graduated in music education from the Pedagogical faculty in Split (1972), in music theory at the Music Academy Sarajevo (1974), gained the Master’s degree in musicology there (1983), and took the PhD at the Zadar Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences with Stanislav Tuksar, with a dissertation on musical life in Split from the 18th century to the 20th (1995). He was employed at Radio Sarajevo (1975–87). From 1987 to 1997 he taught at the Faculty for Natural Sciences and Pedagogy in Split, and from 1997 until his death at the Academy of Arts in Split (dean: 2005–9). He was artistic director of several music festivals, including Sarajevo musical evenings (SVEM: 1982–6), Meeting of klapa ensembles in Klis, the Croatian Mandolin Festival ‘Mandolina Imota’ (which he also founded), Festival of the sacral music ‘Cro Patria’, Festival of the klapa singing in Omiš, and Musical Youth Split (...
(b Zadar, 1472; d Zadar, 1538). Croatian cosmographer, mathematician, astrologer and physicist. He is known particularly for his ingenious theory of ebb and flow. In 1507–8 he taught astrology and mathematics at the university of Padua and was later active as a physician in his own town. His ideas on music are contained in two published treatises: Speculum astronomicum terminans intellectum humanum in omni scientia (Venice, 1507), which includes a chapter ‘De musica integritate’, and De modo colegiandi, pronosticandi et curandi febres (Venice, 1528). He was not an original thinker and recapitulated some late-medieval ideas, mostly concerning neo-Pythagorean speculative numerology and the theory of musical ethos as conveyed by Boethius.I. Supičić: ‘Glazba u djelu Federika Grisogona’ [Music in F. Grisogono's writings], Zbornik radova o Federiku Grisogonu, zadarskom učenjaku [Collection of essays on F. Grisogono, the scholar from Zadar] (Zadar, 1974), 143–9 S. Tuksar: ‘Federik Grisogono-Bartolačić (Federicus Chrisogonus): Pythagorean Cosmology and the Mysticism of Numbers’, ...
William J. Gatens
(b Hersham, March 23, 1847; d Brighton, June 23, 1888). English writer on music, philosophy and psychology. His family moved to London while he was an infant. In 1866 he gained a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he did well enough in classical studies to share the Porson prize in 1870 and win a fellowship at his college in 1872. His chief interest, however, was music, and he studied both the violin and the piano, but by 1875 he recognized he would not become a professional instrumentalist. About this time he was also writing on musical subjects, including an essay in 1876 ‘On some disputed points in music’ for the Fortnightly Review, his first published work.
In 1877 Gurney began medical studies, but discontinued them in 1881. This training and a general scientific bent together with his musical studies and an active interest in philosophy, physics, psychology and the physiology of sound gave him the unique combination of insights needed to write his most important work, ...
(b Zofingen, canton of Aargau, Feb 18, 1888; d Zürich, March 5, 1967). Swiss music critic and musicologist. He began his musical studies at the Basle Conservatory and subsequently studied musicology and art history at the universities of Zürich, Berne and Berlin. In 1921 he completed the Habilitation...