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Miroslav K. Černý


(b Prague, May 2, 1817; d Prague, July 22, 1868). Czech choirmaster, teacher, composer and critic. He was the son of the distinguished Prague choirmaster František Xaver Kolešovský (b Prague, 1781; d Prague, 12 June 1839), a pupil of J.A. Kozeluch. He studied the violin at the Prague Conservatory, theory, organ and singing at the Prague Organ School, and theory and composition with Tomášek and others. He was a member of the Estates Theatre Orchestra in Prague from 1835 until 1839, when he succeeded his father as choirmaster of St Štěpána; here, and later at St Ignác he continued his father's practice of presenting music by earlier Czech masters, especially F.X. Brixi. In the 1850s he was director of the Žofín Academy, an important Prague music institution with choir and school, but gave up the post to found his own school of singing and theory, where his pupils included Fibich. He also taught from ...


Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Moscow, 25 May/June 6, 1851; d Moscow, 9/February 22, 1910). Russian music critic and teacher. He studied physics and mathematics at Moscow University and mining and forestry in St Petersburg, taking a diploma as a civil engineer. He came into contact with The Five, and with Balakirev was one of the organizers of the Free School of Music in St Petersburg. He studied music theory with Rimsky-Korsakov in the 1870s and became involved with Kerzin’s Circle of Music Lovers, publicized the works of The Five and assisted in the production of operas by Cui and Rimsky-Korsakov in Moscow. In 1881 he began teaching music theory and harmony at the P. Shostakovsky School of Music and Drama (from 1883 the School of Music and Drama of the Moscow Philharmonic Society); he was director of the college and professor of composition from 1898 to 1901...


John Trevitt

(b Gray, Haute-Saône, Feb 18, 1874; d Dôle, March 4, 1944). French musicologist and critic. He was a pupil at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1893), gaining the agrégé des lettres (1896) and docteur ès lettres (1904); he also studied at the Schola Cantorum with d’Indy, Bordes and others (1899–1905). He contributed as editor-in-chief (‘without title’, as he said later) to Combarieu’s Revue musicale from 1901, and in 1905 founded, with Jean Marnold, the Mercure musical which Ecorcheville later transformed into the Bulletin français de la S.I.M. He was also co-founder of the short-lived Année musicale (1911–13) and an influential music critic of the Grande revue, the Gazette des beaux-arts and (from 1930) the Revue des deux mondes. In 1906–7 he lectured on music history at the Sorbonne while Romain Rolland was on leave. He served as secretary general of the Paris Opéra from ...


George Leotsakos

(b Corfu, Dec 24, 1875; d Athens, Oct 31, 1945). Greek composer and critic. Introduced to the piano by his mother and to theory and harmony by his father, he enrolled in the faculty of law at Athens University before studying at the S Pietro a Majella Conservatory, Naples (1895–1901). On his return to Greece, long before Kalomiris’s 1908 manifesto of the national school, Lambelet published his essay ‘National Music’, in which he called for composers to draw inspiration from their folk traditions; this nationalist stance was also adopted by his periodical Kritiki, first issued in 1903. For a year he was director of the Piraeus League Conservatory. He also taught music at the Varvakeion Lyceum, Athens, and was editor of the monthly periodical Mousika chronika (1928–9).

Much of Lambelet’s music is lost, but what has survived displays flawless technique and harmonic taste, qualities especially evident in his sensitive approach to the harmonization of Greek folksongs in the collection ...


Alan Walker

(b Rudersdorf, nr Berlin, Jan 30, 1844; d Jena, April 27, 1918). German critic, pianist and composer. Although he was best known as the owner and editor of the influential Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung (1882–1907), Lessmann had earlier studied the piano with Bülow and composition with Friedrich Kiel in Berlin. In 1866 he became a piano teacher at the Stern Conservatory and the following year joined the faculty of the Klavier-Schule Tausig, a position he held until Tausig's death in 1871. From 1872 he was head of the music department of the Kaiserin Augusta Stiftung, in Potsdam, and he also taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. The relationship with Bülow and Tausig was important in bringing him into personal contact with both Liszt and Wagner, and he became a staunch supporter of the New German School.

Lessmann was widely respected as a critic. His prose was judicious and tempered, and it was informed by many years of practical music-making. Generally speaking he championed the new and unusual in music. This made him the polar opposite of his older contemporary Eduard Hanslick, who was seen as representing the more conservative musicians of the time. Lessmann was a regular visitor to Bayreuth and gave generous coverage to the festivals of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, of which Liszt was the lifetime president. Liszt thought well of him as a composer and transcribed his three ‘Tannhäuser’ songs for solo piano. He also wrote a monograph on Liszt (...


Patrick J. Smith

(b Los Gatos, CA, June 7, 1934; d New York, Dec 17, 1994). American music critic and pianist. He studied piano with Lev Shorr, Alexander Libermann and Rosina Lhévinne, attended San Francisco State College (BA 1956) and did graduate work in political science at the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1958); he then taught political science at Berkeley (1957–8). He was appointed to the faculty of the Aspen Music School in 1971 and to that of the Waterloo Music Festival, New Jersey, in 1976; he was named artistic director of the festival in 1985. He became music critic of Commentary in 1976, publisher of the New Criterion in 1982 and in the same year was appointed to the National Council on the Arts. He won the Deems Taylor Award in 1977 and 1980 for criticism and again in 1980 for his collection of essays ...


Paula Morgan

(b New York, NY, Aug 26, 1894; d Cleveland, OH, Jan 4, 1969). American pianist and writer on music, half-brother of frank Loesser . He studied at City College of New York, Columbia University, and the Institute of Musical Art, New York. He made his debut as a pianist in Berlin in 1913 and in New York in 1916, and thereafter toured the United States, Australia, and the Far East. Loesser joined the piano faculty of the Cleveland Institute in 1926; he was head of the piano department there from 1953 until his death. He also wrote program notes for the Cleveland Orchestra (1927–42) and was music critic of the Cleveland Press (1939–56). During World War II Loesser was an intelligence officer with the US Army; after the war he was posted to Japan, where he performed with the Japan SO (1946) and lectured (in Japanese). He was the author of ...


Allan Thomas

( b 1796; d 1866). Scottish dancing-master . He was the most prominent member of a family of dance teachers in Scotland in the early 19th century, whose descendants numbered more than 20 teachers over five generations and who were active in Scotland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for some 200 years. With his brothers John, Robert and James, Lowe was influential in establishing Scottish dance in a modern ballroom form. The brothers taught in different parts of Scotland and together wrote Lowes’ Ball-Conductor and Assembly Guide (Edinburgh, c1830), one of the most extensive 19th-century dance manuals. Joseph Lowe also published many arrangements of Scottish dance-tunes for the piano. From 1851 to 1860 he was dance tutor to the family of Queen Victoria, and his journal of these years gives an insight into his teaching at Windsor and Balmoral. His workbook, which contains step descriptions of dances and some entries by his son Joseph Eager Lowe, who taught in New Zealand and Australia, is in the National Library of New Zealand....


Steve Smith

(Marc )

(b Chicago, Dec 26, 1950). American writer. He learned piano and flute as a child and pursued his formal education at Syracuse University (1970–72), Mills College (1972), and Roosevelt College (1973–5); he also studied boogie-woogie, swing, and blues piano with leading players in Chicago. In 1975 he embarked on his writing career, working for Down Beat (as associate editor, 1978–81), The Wire, Musical America, Tower Pulse!, the Village Voice, the Washington Post, Billboard, the New York Times Book Review, and Jazziz. He contributed scripts for jazz shows on NPR and held editorial positions at Guitar World (1982–3), Ear (1987–92), the JVC Jazz Festival program guide published by Tower Pulse! (from 1994), and Rhythm Music (1996–7). Mandel was a founder of the Jazz Journalists’ Association: in 1992 he became its president and in 1997 editor of its website, ...


[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...


Mosco Carner

revised by Sigrid Wiesmann

(b Graz, May 11, 1882; d Graz, Sept 3, 1964). Austrian composer, teacher and critic. He first studied music with members of his family. After attending courses at Graz University in philosophy, art history and German studies, he took the doctorate in 1909. For a time there was a complete break between the young Marx and his family, who wanted him to read law. He began composing in earnest at the age of 26 and within four years (1908–12) wrote around 120 songs. His name became known in Vienna, where in 1914 he was offered the post of professor of theory at the music academy. In 1922 he succeeded Löwe as director of the academy, and he was rector (1924–7) when the institution was reorganized as a Hochschule für Musik. He then acted as adviser to the Turkish government in laying the foundations of a conservatory in Ankara (...


Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Portland, OR, June 22, 1965). American music critic. After studies at Yale (BA 1986, Classical Civilization), she spent 12 years in Munich, supporting herself as a translator and freelance writer on opera, concert music, visual art, theater, and dance for Opera News, The Wall Street Journal, Opernwelt, and other publications. Upon her return to the United States, she continued to freelance, contributing frequently to Newsday, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Die Welt, ARTnews, and more. She was the first woman to review classical music regularly for the New York Times (2001–7); a selection is included in Da Capo Best Music Writing 2006. In 2008 she became chief classical music critic of the Washington Post, exploring both local and national issues and events while maintaining a blog, “The Classical Beat.” Midgette has lectured or held guest residencies at Bowling Green State University, Florida State University, the Juilliard School, and the NEA Institute for Classical Music Critics. She is coauthor of two books, ...


Jan ten Bokum

( b Rotterdam, Dec 14, 1849; d Amsterdam, March 11, 1929). Dutch teacher, critic and composer . He was an organ pupil of J.A. Klerk and Samuel de Lange (i) and a composition pupil of Bargiel and Willem Nicolaï. In 1871 he was a piano teacher in Middelburg and in 1873 he was an organist in Groningen, where he continued his studies with J. Worp. From 1875 to 1888 he was director of the music school in Gouda, leaving his post to make the acquaintance of Franck and d'Indy in Paris. After returning to the Netherlands in 1890, he settled in Amsterdam, working as a newspaper critic until 1906. In 1894 he edited the Weekblad voor muziek and from 1902 until 1916 the journal Caecilia; he also promoted modern French music. In 1906 he was appointed to the board of the Vereeniging voor Noord Nederlands Muziekgeschiedenis, and in 1913 he became professor of music history at the Amsterdam Conservatory, a post he held until his death. He wrote a study of early Christian church music, ...


Aleksandar Vasić

(b Belgrade, Oct 27, 1884; d Belgrade, June 16, 1946). Serbian composer, musicologist, and music critic. Milojević studied various subjects at the University of Belgrade from 1904 to 1906 including German studies, comparative literature, Serbian language and literature, and philosophy. He concurrently attended Serbian Music School where he studied music theory subjects and composition with Stevan Mokranjac and piano with Cvetko Manojlović. For the next five semesters (1907–10), Milojević continued his studies at the Munich University Philosophy Faculty, where he studied musicology (with A. Sandberger and T. Kroyer), literature, and philosophy. At the same time, he attended Munich Music Academy, studying composition (with F. Klose), piano (R. Meier-Gschray), and conducting with score reading (F. Mottl). He graduated from Munich Music Academy in 1910. In the period between the two World Wars he developed an extraordinarily rich music career as a composer, musicologist, music critic, folklorist, music pedagogue, conductor, and organizer of music affairs. In ...


Rogier Starreveld

revised by Katja Brooijmans

(b Haarlem, May 28, 1896; d Heerlen, May 22, 1977). Dutch composer, organist, critic and teacher. He studied organ with Jos Verheyen in Amsterdam and Louis Robert in Haarlem. He continued his studies with Jean Baptiste de Pauw (piano and organ) and Sem Dresden (composition) at the Amsterdam Conservatory. He received a state grant for study in Paris at the Schola Contorum with Vincent d’Indy and Louis Aubert. He then taught composition and analysis at the Rotterdam Conservatory and the Amsterdam Conservatory (1927–32). Prolifically active as a critic, he was appointed music editor (in 1933) for the De Tijd-Maasbode group and was since 1946 a regular contributor to the new music journal Mens en melodie.

Characteristic of Monnikendam’s working method is his constancy towards a basic idea. This could be a melodic principle such as the Gregorian chant melody in the Sinfonia sacra (1947...


Paula Morgan

revised by Barry Kernfeld


(b Munich, Oct 24, 1929). American writer. He grew up in Vienna, but left in 1938 and spent the next nine years as a refugee in Denmark and Sweden. After moving to the USA in 1947 he studied history at Brandeis University (1953–6). From 1958 to 1961 he was the New York correspondent for Jazz Journal. He then served as editor of Metronome (1961), Jazz (1962–3), and Down Beat (New York editor, 1964–6, editor 1966–73) magazines; during the 1960s he also produced jazz concerts in New York and for television. In the mid-1970s he held appointments as visiting lecturer in jazz at Brooklyn College and the Peabody Institute, and in 1976 he became director of the Institute of Jazz Studies at Rutgers, in which capacity he has worked as an editor of the Journal of Jazz Studies (from 1982 the Annual Review of Jazz Studies...


Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b the fortress of Novo-Georgiyevsk [now Modlin], Poland, 8/April 20, 1881; d Moscow, Aug 8, 1950). Russian composer, critic and teacher. He received his first piano lessons as a child at home, but following in the family tradition (his father was a military engineer and subsequently a professor of the Military and Engineering Academy in St Petersburg) he studied at the cadet corps at Nizhniy-Novgorod (1893–5) and St Petersburg (1895–9), and then finally at the St Petersburg Military and Engineering College (1899–1902). During these years he sang in the choir of the cadet corps, took lessons on the piano and the violin, and played in an amateur orchestra. His first attempts at composition were made at the age of 15 and consist of a group of piano preludes (all written over the period 1896–8). After completing his military studies, he began his service in a Moscow sappers' battalion. On the recommendation of Taneyev he took lessons in harmony from Glier (January–May 1903), and after his transfer to St Petersburg in the autumn of ...


[Němeček, František Xaver (Petr)]

( b Sadska, Bohemia, July 24, 1766; d Vienna, March 19, 1849). Czech teacher and music critic . Born into a large and musical family, he attended the Gymnasium in Prague (1776–82) and studied philosophy at the university. He taught poetry at the gymnasiums in Plzeň (1787–92) and in the Malá Strana district of Prague, meanwhile developing his music publishing activities. In 1800 he was awarded the doctorate, and in 1802 appointed professor of philosophy at Prague University, where he also lectured on logic, ethics and pedagogy; among his pupils was the composer Voříšek. He also served as book censor and as director of the institute for the deaf and dumb. In 1819 he sided with the dean of the philosophical faculty, who was charged with having an undesirable influence on the students; and in 1820 he was formally transferred to Vienna and there prematurely retired at his own request. His estate, which included a rich correspondence with the Mozart family, was formerly in the possession of A. Richter of Portschach, Lower Austria, but is now lost....


Teresa Chylińska

(b Saposzyn, nr Lemberg [now L'viv], Nov 4, 1859; d Lwów [now L'viv], Aug 15, 1936). Polish composer, teacher and critic. He studied with Mikuli in Lemberg, with Krenn in Vienna (1882–5), with Paderewski (1885) and with Jadassohn in Leipzig. In 1886–7 he managed the Lemberg Opera, and from 1887 until 1914 he was professor of history, harmony, counterpoint and the piano at the conservatory; he contributed music criticism to periodicals in the city from 1885. During World War I he stayed in Vienna where he organized a music school for Polish refugees. In 1918 he returned to Lemberg as manager of the opera and editor of the Gazeta muzyczna. He was appointed professor at the Warsaw Conservatory in 1919. In 1924 he was founder-chairman of the Polish Society of Music Writers and Critics, and he was first chairman of the Section of Modern Polish Composers founded in ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Bucharest, Romania, Oct 1, 1890; d Bucharest, Jan 19, 1951). Romanian composer, conductor, music critic, teacher, and violinist. Along with Alfred Alessandrescu and Ion Nonna Otescu, Nottara was among the first disciples of the renowned composition professor Alfonso Castaldi from the Bucharest Conservatory. First under the influence of French impressionism, then of Italian verismo, Nottara’s work then gradually integrated with the tendency of forming a Romanian national style in the first half of the 20th century.

He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1900–07) with D.G. Kiriac (music theory and solfège), Alfonso Castaldi (composition), and Robert Klenck (violin); he continued his studies under George Enescu and Berthelier (violin) in Paris (1907–9), and under Klinger (violin) and Schatzenholz (composition) at the Königliche Akademie der Künste, Berlin, (1909–13). His career as a violinist included orchestral playing in the Bucharest PO (1905–7, 1918–20), leading a string quartet (...