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Giles Bryant

(b Balham, London, Oct 12, 1880; d Toronto, Feb 16, 1968). Canadian composer, teacher, organist and choirmaster. Particularly influential as a teacher, he also wrote many choral and organ works that have been frequently performed across North America.

His early education was undertaken privately. At the age of eight he entered St Saviour’s Choir School, Eastbourne, where he studied until 1895. Several positions as organist and choirmaster in and around London culminated in his appointment to St John the Baptist, Holland Road, in 1903. After further studies with W.S. Hoyte, he gained the FRCO in 1899. A close association with Francis Burgess led to membership in the London Gregorian Association in 1910.

In 1913 Willan was appointed head of theory at the Toronto Conservatory and organist of St Paul’s. In the next year he became a lecturer in music at the University of Toronto. He later served as vice-principal of the conservatory (...


Susana Salgado

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 23, 1862; d Buenos Aires, June 17, 1952). Argentine composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. Born into a family of musicians, he began to compose very early. His first piano lessons were with Pedro Beck; he also attended the Colegio S Martin and, from its foundation, the Escuela de Música de la Provincia, where he studied with Luis Bernasconi (piano) and Nicolás Bassi (harmony). While still a pupil at the school he played works by Paer and Liszt at the Teatro Colón; one of his first public performances was in 1879 at a Sociedad del Cuarteto concert organized by Bernasconi. Two years later he published his first work, the mazurka Ensueño de juventud. A scholarship took him in 1882 to the Paris Conservatoire, and there he was a pupil of Georges Mathías (piano), Emile Durand (harmony) and Benjamin Godard (instrumental ensemble), also studying composition with Franck. In Paris the piano works ...


Elaine Keillor


(b Toronto, May 8, 1931). Canadian composer and choral conductor. He studied composition with Godfrey Ridout at the University of Toronto where he earned both the BMus (1952) and the doctorate (1956). Additional study at Tanglewood included lessons with Foss, Copland and Chavez. In 1954 he became actively involved with choral music. He served as the organist and choirmaster at Chalmer United Church, Guelph, Ontario (1954–64), founded and conducted the Guelph Light Opera and Oratorio Company (1955–1974), conducted the Bach-Elgar Choir of Hamilton (1962–74) and was the chorus master of the Canadian Opera Company (1973–81). In 1979 he was appointed to the faculty of music at the University of Guelph where he later became composer-in-residence and the director of the electronic music studio. He retired in 1994. Although his early compositions were primarily instrumental, he produced much vocal music later in his career, including an oratorio, ...


George N. Heller

revised by Debra L. Spurgeon

(b Salina, KS, May 18, 1901; d Carmel, NY, Sept 24, 1968). American music educator, conductor, and composer. He attended Kansas State Agricultural College (BM 1926) and taught music in the Eureka (Kansas) public schools (1926–9) before enrolling at Columbia University Teachers College (MA 1932, EdD 1938). He taught choral music in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York (1932–4), and directed choral organizations at Teachers College (1936–66), where he also served as chairman of the music and music education departments (1958–66). His book entitled Music in the High School (1941) was widely used in teacher education programs during the 1940s and 1950s. He was an active member of Music Educators National Conference and American Choral Directors Association (ACDA). He was a member of the founding ACDA steering committee in 1959, and is attributed with authorship of the final version of the organization’s statement of philosophy called “The Ten Purposes.” Wilson was inducted into the Music Educators Hall of Fame in ...


Warren M. Sherk

(b Chariton, IA, Aug 6, 1876; d New York, NY, Jan 27, 1932). American Composer, conductor, and teacher. At the Chicago Conservatory he studied with composer Frederick G(rant) Gleason, the organist Wilhelm Middelschulte, and the violinist S.E. Jacobson. He spent three years, beginning in 1899, at the Culver Military Academy in Indiana. At the University School of Music in Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1901 he became the leader of the cadet band and violin department. By the time he left in 1908 he was head of the composition department. He spent the next three years teaching privately in Vienna and Leipzig, where he studied with composers Max Reger and Hans Sitt. Back in the United States, he lived in Georgia from 1912 to 1916, directing the Atlanta Philharmonic, conducting light opera, and teaching at Brenau College in Gainesville. After moving to New York, he taught at the Malkin School of Music and contributed music to a National Academy of Music university course. He spent ...


(b Belmont, MA, Jan 19, 1937). American trombonist, educator, and arranger. He first learned piano and later took up trombone, which he studied at the New England Conservatory; while in Boston he played in Herb Pomeroy’s big band (1955–7). After playing trombone and piano with Jimmy Dorsey intermittently from 1956 to 1958, in 1959 he led his own band until being drafted in December of that year. During his military service he briefly continued his studies at the Navy School of Music and played trombone in the North American Air Defense Command Band (1962). Wilson then became a regular soloist with Woody Herman, with whom he was associated from 1962 until 1965. The following year he was appointed to the faculty of the Berklee School of Music, where he became head of the trombone department and taught theory and arrangement; he also renewed his association with Pomeroy. Wilson wrote some arrangements for Buddy Rich (notably ...


James Wierzbicki

revised by Mary L. Frantz


(b Cleveland, May 15, 1941). American composer and pianist. After studying the cello and the piano at the Cleveland Music School Settlement, he was awarded the BA from Harvard (1963), then studied the piano with Wührer in Munich and composition with Moevs (his main Harvard professor) in Rome on a Frank Huntington Beebe Fellowship. He pursued postgraduate study at Rutgers, New Jersey (MA 1966), subsequently joining the music faculty of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, where he was appointed professor in 1976; he was appointed to the Mary Conover Mellon Professorship there in 1988. His works have been performed worldwide; among his many awards are a joint prize in the League of Composers/ISCM Piano Music Competition (1976) as well as the Burge/Eastman Prize (1978) for his virtuoso piano work Eclogue, and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1992–3). He has been commissioned by the San Francisco SO for ...


Michael Tenzer

(b Kutri, nr Singapadu, Bali, 1954). Balinese composer and performer. With Ketut Gdé Asnawa he was the chief innovator and exponent of new Balinese gamelan composition in the 1980s and 90s. Windha studied at the government music high school then at the Indonesian Academy for the Performing Arts in Surakarta, joining its faculty in 1985. At first known as a charismatic and skilled performer on the ugal, he began composing in 1983. His early music extended and enriched the instrumental tabuh kreasi form, which had been codified a generation earlier by his mentor Beratha. With a distinctive melodic gift and the ability to compose complex music extremely fluidly, he enjoyed what for Bali was unprecedented fame as a composer. The performance of many of his works at the annual Festival Gong gamelan competitions gave him a level of exposure that ensured his music was in demand throughout Indonesia and in international gamelan organizations. Windha also composed for dance in the experimental ...


[Johannes ]

(b Oschatz, Saxony; fl 1548–72). German composer, singer, copyist and teacher . In 1548 he was in the choir of the electoral Hofkapelle at Dresden. He attended the St Afra Fürstenschule at Meissen from 1551 to 1554, when on 16 April he entered the University of Wittenberg. In 1557 he is described as Rektor of the school at Borna, Saxony, in 1561 as a Kantor and musician at the Saxon electoral court and in 1563–5 as a copyist in the service of King Maximilian of Bohemia at Breslau. In 1565 he is referred to by the name Testorius, in 1571 as a musician at Oschatz with the name Hymaturgus and in 1572, as Johann Würker, as a singer. He may be the Johann Weber referred to in 1562 as ‘composer from Oschatz’. As a composer he is known by the Missa super ‘Castigans castigavit’ and the wedding motet ...


Stephen Montague

(b Leeds, Oct 11, 1946). English composer and writer on music. He studied at Oxford University (BA 1968), the University of Nottingham (MA 1969) and the University of York (PhD, composition, 1973). Subsequently he remained in York working as a freelance composer, and has lectured at many institutions worldwide, with extended stays in Australia, Canada, USA, Sweden and the Netherlands as well as at British universities. His reputation among contemporaries is that of a radical innovator. His early works involve improvisation with found objects, environmental events, performance and installation art and participatory games and workshops designed to involve audiences in the creative process. In later works he has sought to extend the vocal repertory through the exploration of new vocal sounds (Anticredos and the Vox series) and pioneered the art of composing directly with sound, or ‘sonic art’ (see Electro-acoustic music, §2). This music moves between the pure manipulation of sonority and what he calls ‘cinematographic use of soundscapes’, employing sophisticated signal processing instruments of his own design to control the internal quality and the evolution of sounds themselves. His writings, particularly ...


Friedrich Baser

revised by Rudolf Walter

(b Schwarzenbach am Wald, Upper Franconia, Dec 17, 1854; d Samaden, Grisons, May 8, 1919). German conductor, concert organizer, teacher and composer. He became an elementary teacher at the Altdorf teachers' seminary. In 1875 he was appointed second music teacher at the Bamberg teacher's seminary. He then studied in Munich at the Königliche Musikschule with Rheinberger and Franz Wüllner. Humperdinck was a fellow pupil, and they became lifelong friends. Wolfrum returned to the Bamberg seminary from 1879 to 1884, when he was appointed to teach music at the University of Heidelberg. He became music director at the university in 1885, and in the same year founded and directed the Akademischer Gesangverein and the Bachverein, which made Heidelberg an important musical centre. Wolfrum was made professor of music history in 1898. His pupils included Fritz Stein, Karl Hasse and Hermann Poppen.

Wolfrum was a champion of the works of Liszt, Bruckner, Strauss and Reger. He conducted all of Reger's works composed between ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....


Jewel A. Smith

(b Schkeuditz, nr Leipzig, Sept 27, 1827; d New York, Sept 18, 1863). German pianist, composer, and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium with Julius Knoor (piano) and Moritz Hauptmann (composition). Following his arrival in the United States in 1845, he appeared as pianist on various occasions with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and in other concerts, and attained a distinguished career as a pianist, teacher, and composer. In 1855 he undertook a successful concert tour of Europe. He wrote nearly 100 compositions, chiefly for the piano, including five Morceaux caractéristiques en forme d’Etude, op. 22; Nocturne, op. 29, no. 10; A Bord de l’Arago, valse brilliant, op. 33; Fantasia, “Il Trovatore,” op. 43; Stories of Nocomis, for four hands, op. 48; Star Spangled Banner, paraphrase brilliant, op. 60; and many transcriptions and arrangements. His compositions have been successfully used as teaching pieces, and many of them were also published in Europe....


Pamela Fox

(b Easthampton, MA, April 7, 1857; d Florence, Italy, Dec 20, 1944). American composer, pianist and teacher. She studied the piano with B(enjamin) J(ohnson) Lang in Boston, performed locally in solo and chamber music recitals, and was active in many of Boston's leading musical organizations. Lang encouraged her to compose, and she continued to study the piano and composition in Boston with Arthur Foote, then in New York, with Henry Huss, Albert Parsons and J. H. Cornell. Her songs, chamber works and sacred vocal music display solid craftsmanship and a conservative, refined style. She married A. B. Mason and lived in Florence for many years.

(selective list)


Kevin O’Brien

(b Hartford, CT, Jan 7, 1923; d Charlottesville, VA, March 16, 1994). American composer, keyboard player, conductor, and teacher. He studied piano with Charles King, organ with Ernest White at the Pius X School of Liturgical Music in Manhattanville, New York, composition with Franz Wasner, and chant at Solesmes Abbey in France. In 1944 he enrolled at Catholic University of America as a seminarian; he was ordained a priest in 1947 and received a master’s degree in Romance languages in 1948. He continued composition studies with nicolas Nabokov at the Peabody Conservatory and Nadia Boulanger. Woollen was the youngest charter faculty member of Catholic University’s music department in 1950. Originally in charge of choruses and chant studies, he later taught composition, paleography, history, organ, art song literature, and diction. He attended Harvard University (MA 1954), where he studied composition with walter Piston and musicology with Tillman Merritt. In ...


Adrian Thomas

(b Dunajowce, Podolia, Dec 5, 1899; d Katowice, July 11, 1980). Polish composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with Michałowski at the Chopin High School of Music in Warsaw (1920–4) and immediately embarked on a performing career that took him throughout Europe and to North America. At the same time he studied composition with Szopski and Maliszewski, followed by three years in Boulanger’s class in Paris (1929–32). During World War II the ‘Woytowicz Café’, which he organized in Warsaw, was a vital public focus for Polish music-making as well as being a centre for underground activities of the resistance. After the war, he was appointed to positions at the conservatories in Katowice (from 1945) and in Kraków (from 1963); his pupils included the composers Baird, Kilar and Szalonek.

Woytowicz is at his most inventive in the surviving orchestral works. Poemat żałobny...


Milan Poštolka

revised by Roger Hickman


(b Nová Říše, Moravia, June 13, 1761; d Vienna, Aug 6, 1820). Czech composer, violinist and music teacher active in Vienna, brother of Paul Wranitzky. He attended the grammar school at the Premonstratensian monastery in Nová Říše and later studied philosophy and law at a Jesuit seminary in Brno. His earliest musical training included violin lessons from his brother; he was also known for his beautiful voice. Before December 1783 he became choirmaster to the chapel of the Theresianisch-Savoyische Akademie in Vienna (until the abolition of church music there with the reforms of Joseph II). In Vienna he studied composition with Mozart, Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger, and became renowned as a violin teacher and virtuoso. By 1790 he had entered the services of Prince J.F. Maximilian Lobkowitz as a composer, music teacher, Konzertmeister and (from 1797) Kapellmeister of the prince’s private orchestra; in these duties he was active at Vienna, Prague and the prince’s country seats in Bohemia (at Roudnice, Jezeří and Bílina). After the prince took charge of the Vienna court theatres (...


Jamie C. Kassler

(b Stockton-on-Tees, Sept 18, 1763; d Wycliffe Rectory, nr Barnard Castle, Nov 24, 1829). English musician and inventor . Wright was instructed in music by his father, Robert, by John Garth and, as an articled apprentice, by Thomas Ebdon. On expiration of his articles about 1784, he succeeded Garth as organist at Sedgefield. In 1794 he married Elizabeth Foxton and set to music her operetta, Rusticity. In the ‘Advertisement’ to his Concerto for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (London, c1796), he promoted his invention of a pendulum for keeping musical time as more practicable than the timekeepers of Loulié, Sauveur and others. A model of the invention, owned by Wright’s granddaughter, Miss Edith Wright of Wakefield, was seen by Frank Kidson, when compiling his article for Grove’s Dictionary (3rd edn). In 1797 Wright succeeded his father as organist at Stockton. In 1817 he was organist at Kirkleatham near Redcar; but sometime after he returned to Stockton and remained there as organist, teacher and composer until his death....


Albert R. Rice

(b Paris, 1754; d Paris, July 5, 1786). French clarinettist, composer and teacher. He studied the clarinet with Joseph Beer and made his first public appearance in 1777 at the Concert Spirituel. One of the earliest French solo clarinettists, Yost was admired for the beauty of his sound and the precision of his execution. He performed on 38 different occasions at the Concert Spirituel in 1781 and between 1783 and 1786, often playing his own concertos. Although he had no formal training in composition, he had a facility for finding agreeable melodies and brilliant flourishes, which were edited and scored by his friend J.C. Vogel. At least three of his 14 concertos, his Duos op.10 and all his quartets were signed ‘Michel et Vogel’. Although his writing emphasized a fluent technique it was criticized by Gradenwitz as ‘virtuosoship [which] has degenerated into a series of empty roulades’. However, the melody from one concerto was incorporated into one of Cyrille Rose’s ...


Leah G. Weinberg

(b Exeter, NH, Nov 8, 1961). American Musician, songwriter, record company founder, and author. Zanes was raised near Concord, New Hampshire, and after attending Oberlin College for one year, moved to Boston. There, Zanes, his brother Warren, the bass player Tom Lloyd, and the drummer Steve Morrell formed the Del Fuegos. The roots-rock band produced five albums between 1984 and 1989, with singles “Don’t Run Wild,” “I still want you,” “Name Names,” and “Move with me Sister.” After the Del Fuegos disbanded and Zanes’s solo album Cool Down Time failed to sell, he began to listen to banjo songs, cowboy tunes, and traditional songs that he remembered from childhood. After his daughter Anna was born, Zanes’s dissatisfaction with the American children’s music market led him to form a family-oriented band that merged folk and rock styles and instrumentation. Initially known as the Wonderland String Band, the New York based-group underwent changes in title and personnel, first to the Rocket Ship Revue, and then to Dan Zanes & Friends. The seven-member band has produced nine albums on Zanes’s label, Festival Five Records, which include original songs as well as folk, traditional, and gospel songs from the United States, Jamaica, Africa, and Mexico. ...