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Miriam Miller

(d 1638). English music printer. He was apprenticed to John Windet in 1591 and made free of the Stationers’ Company in 1597. He succeeded to Windet’s business in 1611, and in 1628 he acquired some of the music copyrights of Thomas Snodham. In this way Stansby inherited two of the most important music printing businesses in 17th-century London, yet he made little use of them, printing only nine music volumes in his relatively long career. Stansby’s press was astonishingly variable in the standard of its printing. Whereas Thomas Leighton’s Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrowful Soule, published over Stansby’s imprint in 1614, is an elaborate, almost virtuoso piece of printing, his other publications appear slapdash and untidy. In fact, Stansby was severely taken to task by the Stationers’ Company over the low standard of his work, and his relations with the company deteriorated so badly, over his unruly behaviour as much as his printing, that in ...

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John Edward Hasse

(Stillwell )

(b Shelby Co., KY, April 11, 1841; d St Louis, Nov 20, 1927). American music publisher . He grew up on a farm near Gosport, Indiana, and settled in Missouri in the early 1870s. By 1882 he had moved to Sedalia, Missouri, where he opened a piano and music shop under the name of John Stark & Son. Within a few years he had entered music publishing by buying out a local competitor, J.W. Truxel, including Truxel’s seven music copyrights. It is probable that Stark himself (under the pseudonyms O.B. Ligato and L.C. Wezbrew) composed some of the firm’s earliest publications; others were written by his son E.J. Stark. In 1899 he issued Maple Leaf Rag by a local composer, Scott Joplin; a masterpiece of ragtime, it became the firm’s best-selling item with half a million copies printed by 1909. In 1900 Stark moved his firm to St Louis. From ...

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Zdeněk Culka

revised by Nigel Simeone

(b Pardubice, July 27, 1843; d Prague, Aug 1, 1906). Czech music publisher. In 1867 he founded a lithographic works with Antonín Vítek in Prague, taking sole charge in November 1870. He was on friendly terms with several leading Czech composers and published a number of works by Smetana, Dvořák, Bendl, Fibich, Foerster and others. His collection of male choruses, Hlahol, was important in the development of Czech choral songs. He published Dalibor (1873–5) and Hudební a divadelní věstník (‘Music and theatre bulletin’, 1877–8). After his death his son Emanuel (b Prague, 18 Jan 1874; d Prague, 20 April 1928) took over the firm. In 1908 he reorganized it and introduced engraving and music printing on the Leipzig (Röder) pattern. Apart from choral and solo vocal compositions, he published a number of instrumental works, particularly by Foerster and Ostrčil. After his death his widow, Růžena Stará, née Meruňková, ran the firm until it was nationalized in ...

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Stax  

Rob Bowman

American record company . It was started in 1957 in Memphis as Satellite Records by Jim Stewart, Neil Herbert and Fred Byler. Herbert and Byler soon left, to be replaced by Stewart’s sister, Estelle Axton. It at first concentrated on country, pop and rockabilly music, but switched to rhythm and blues in 1960 with a recording by Rufus and Carla Thomas. This was distributed nationally by Atlantic who retained distribution rights for all future recordings until 1968. When an instrumental record by the Mar-Keys entitled Last Night became a hit, the firm was forced to change its name by a Californian company of the same name and became Stax Records (‘St’ from Stewart, ‘Ax’ from Axton).

In late 1961 a subsidiary label, Volt, was inaugurated and soon Stax developed an identifiable sound through the use of a house band consisting of Booker T. and the MGs (at times augmented by Isaac Hayes after ...

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Theodor Wohnhaas

(b Steinau an der Strasse; d Frankfurt, cJan 20, 1629). German music dealer and music publisher. In 1602 he and the printer Wolfgang Richter founded a printing and publishing association in Frankfurt which existed until 1615 under the name of Typographia Musica; it was one of the leading German music publishing firms before the Thirty Years War, and concentrated on Catholic church music, also publishing numerous collections of dances and lieder. Stein published, among others, works by Giulio Belli, Finetti, Getzmann, Giovannelli, Pacelli, Jacob Regnart, Jacob Reiner, Melchior Schramm, Thomas Simpson, Lodovico Viadana and Zucchini....

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Jonas Westover

(b Brooklyn, NY, 1942). American record executive. Stein landed a job at Billboard magazine when he was only 13 and subsequently helped develop the Billboard Hot 100 chart. He learned the business of running a label while working at King Records in Cincinnati under Syd Nathan. In 1966...

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Hans-Martin Plesske

(b Neustadt an der Orla, Jan 25, 1830; d Leipzig, April 5, 1904). German music publisher. He acquired a reputation as a music teacher and under the pseudonym Gustav Damm published a world-famous piano tutor (1868); subsequently he founded the Steingräber publishing house in Hanover (...

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Geoffrey Norris

(b 1826; d 1875). Russian music publisher. He built up his firm on the basis of Klever’s publishing house, which he acquired about 1850. He also took over the smaller business of Gurskalin, who had been publishing music in St Petersburg from 1838 and who owned Denotkin’s printing press, established in 1844. Stellovsky was particularly known as the publisher of Glinka’s music; in fact it was his editions that first introduced Rimsky-Korsakov to Glinka’s two operas. He also published the works of Balakirev (who, in his early, impecunious years, helped Stellovsky to prepare other composers’ scores for publication), Serov and Dargomïzhsky. After Stellovsky’s death the business was carried on by his widow and then by his sister; in 1886 it was taken over by Gutheil.

B.P. Yurgenson: Ocherk istorii notopechataniya [An outline of the history of music printing] (Moscow, 1928)A.S. Lyapunova: ‘Kratkiy obzor istorii izdaniya proizvedeniy M.I. Glinki’ [A short account of the history of the publication of Glinka’s works], ...

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Theodor Wohnhaas

German family of printers and publishers. The bookbinder Johann Stern (d 1614) set up a printing and publishing business in Lüneburg, where it is still active. His sons Johann (d 1656) and Heinrich (1592–1665) established a branch at Wolfenbüttel which became one of the most important publishing concerns during the Thirty Years War; they received royal privileges and were ennobled in recognition of their achievements. The founder’s grandson Johann (1633–1712) published particularly interesting imprints of H. Rist and his circle, including works by J.W. Franck, Friedrich Funcke, F.E. and J. Praetorius, Thomas Selle and J.J. Weiland.

H. Dumrese and F.C. Schilling: Lüneburg und die Offizin der Sterne (Lüneburg, 1956)J. Benzing: Die Buchdrucker des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts im deutschen Sprachgebiet (Wiesbaden, 1963, 2/1982)H. Walter: Musikgeschichte der Stadt Lüneburg: vom Ende des 16. bis zum Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts (Tutzing, 1967)...

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Don Cusic

[Ragsdale, Harold Ray ]

(b Clarkdale, GA, Jan 24, 1939). American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger, music publisher, television star, and entrepreneur. Harold Ragsdale began his musical career with a high school band that played R&B songs by the Coasters, Drifters, and other R&B groups. In 1955 the family moved to Atlanta, where publisher Bill Lowery signed him as a songwriter and secured his first recording contract with Capitol Records; Capitol’s Head of A&R, Ken Nelson changed Ragsdale’s name to Ray Stevens. After attending Georgia State University, where he studied music, Stevens had his first success with his recording of “Jeremiah Peabody’s Poly Unsaturated Quick Dissolving Fast Acting Pleasant Tasting Green and Purple Pills” (Mercury, 1961). In 1962 he moved to Nashville, supplementing his own recording career with work as a session musician, arranger, and background vocalist. He garnered a number-one pop hit and his first Grammy with his recording of “Everything is beautiful” (Barnaby, ...

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John L. Clark

The term “stock arrangement” was used commonly to describe a wide variety of published orchestrations sold by publishing houses from the first years of the 20th century through the 1950s. While these arrangements were issued for many different ensembles of varying size and musical style (including theater orchestras, military bands, and small combinations such as saxophone quartets), the term today typically refers to those made for dance bands during the period.

In the 1910s the most common instrumentation for stock arrangements of commercial music was two trumpets, trombone, horns in F, clarinet, flute, oboe, bassoon, string quartet, piano, banjo/guitar, bass/tuba, and drums. With the explosion in popularity of saxophones and the first jazz recordings, this basic instrumentation grew to include alto, tenor, and C-melody saxophones by 1920. Typically, these orchestrations were homophonic featuring little counterpoint or variation, with instruments being organized by register rather than family.

By the early 1920s, dance bands had become the principal vehicle for popular music in America. Recordings by Art Hickman, Paul Whiteman, and Fletcher Henderson followed the trend towards larger groups subdivided into definite sections of brass and woodwinds. While orchestrations for theater orchestra were still produced using the larger instrumentation, the “Modern Dance Orchestra” had reduced it to two trumpets, trombone, three saxophones (two altos and a tenor, with each doubling on clarinets, other saxophones, and sometimes flute and oboe). Arrangers such as Arthur Lange, Elmer Schoebel, and Mel Stitzel became well known in the industry for the antiphonal treatment of the sections and incorporation of jazz elements. While many stocks were used by bands on recordings, some (such as those in the Melrose Syncopation Series) were adaptations of popular recordings by jazz musicians such as King Oliver and Jelly Roll Morton....

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Marie Louise Göllner

(b ?Sulzbach, Upper Palatine; d Nuremberg, 1520). German printer. Although Stuchs himself gave Sulzbach as his place of birth in his publications, he may have been the son of the Nuremberg organ builder Friedrich Stuchs. He became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1484 and began printing in the same year. His last publication is dated 1517; after this he was active only as a bookseller, leaving the printing business in the hands of his son, Johann (d ?Nuremberg, after 1546), under whose name publications had been issued as early as 1509.

The elder Stuchs, whose known publications number 132, was famous above all as a printer of liturgical books, particularly missals. He served a large circle of clients from all parts of Europe, including, for example, the bishoprics of Regensburg, Salzburg, Prague, Kraków, Magdeburg and Linköping. In 1491 he introduced musical notes into his liturgical books, using the double-impression technique. Stuchs was known for the superior quality of his type forms, which he frequently sold to other printers, and for the woodcuts, often by prominent artists, with which he decorated his volumes. The younger Stuchs devoted himself in later years to the cause of the Reformation, printing many of the writings of Luther and his followers. His sole contribution to music consists of a reprint of Johannes Cochlaeus's treatise ...

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Denise M. M. Dalphond

A music distribution, artist, and label management company independently owned and operated by Mike Banks in Detroit, Michigan. The history of Submerge began with the establishment of the techno group Underground Resistance (UR) in 1989 by Mike Banks, Robert Hood, and Jeff Mills. UR was founded upon a philosophy of sonic revolution—using music to resist and surmount social inequality and oppression. Submerge was later founded in 1992 by Mike Banks and Christa Weatherspoon. After a brief period of closure, Submerge reopened its doors in 2002 in a newly renovated four-story building at 3000 E. Grand Boulevard in Detroit. This building holds a record store known as Somewhere In Detroit; its ground level offers a regularly updated display of Detroit techno memorabilia, including significant vinyl releases, analog drum machines used by seminal Detroit techno musicians, print publications featuring local musicians, and other items that document the history of UR, Submerge, and Detroit techno. Also housed at Submerge is a record-cutting lathe that originally belonged to Ron Murphy of National Sound Corporation and was used for decades by Murphy to master a vast quantity of electronic music produced by Detroit musicians. Mike Banks and producer/DJ Todd Osborn have restored the lathe and it is now being used again to master Detroit vinyl releases....

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Cliff Eisen

(b Vienna, July 31, 1746; d Vienna, July 9, 1810). Austrian music copyist. Although Weinmann states that Sukowaty's shop may have been founded c1784, payment records show that he was the principal music copyist for the Viennese court theatres from 1778 until 1796 (Edge, 1995). Important copies from his shop include original performance scores for Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni and Così fan tutte (all A-Wn , some with autograph entries by Mozart); signed manuscripts of Sarti's Fra i due litiganti and Salieri's La grotta di Trofonio survive in Budapest ( H-Bn ). Sukowaty copies are typically in several hands; it is difficult to determine how many employees worked for him and at what times, whether they were temporarily subcontracted, and whether they additionally worked for other copy shops or as independent entrepreneurs, all of which bears on the authority of manuscripts deriving from his shop. To date, none of his copyists has been identified by name. Sukowaty also sold manuscripts commercially, including orchestral scores, individual arias and piano scores; he was a regular advertiser in the Viennese press, chiefly the ...

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W. Thomas Marrocco, Mark Jacobs and Leslie A. Troutman

American firm of music publishers. In 1931 John Sengstack acquired the Clayton F. Summy Company, founded in Chicago in 1888. In 1957 Summy took over C.C. Birchard & Co., a Boston firm founded in 1901, and the resulting firm took the name Summy-Birchard Company; at that time it was based in Evanston, Illinois, but it later moved to Princeton, New Jersey, and is now known as Birchtree, Ltd. Clarence Birchard had a particular interest in American music; he commissioned American composers to write for his pioneering school and community songbooks and was an early publisher of Bloch, Copland, Howard Hanson, Ives and Varèse. David Sengstack succeeded his father as president of the firm in 1958. In 1960 Summy-Birchard acquired the Arthur P. Schmidt Company of Boston (established 1876) and in 1969 McLaughlin & Reilly (founded in 1903), a Boston firm devoted primarily to music for the Catholic church. Summy-Birchard now specializes in instructional materials, notably piano series and Suzuki method books. In ...