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Dave Laing

American record label, one of the most important sources of early rock and roll music. It was established in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1953 by Sam Phillips, a former disc jockey who had set up the first permanent recording studio in the city in 1950. There he recorded blues and country singers for such companies as RPM in Los Angeles and Chess in Chicago. Among his early recordings was Rocket 88 by Jackie Brenston, which is sometimes cited as the first rock and roll record.

The label's first big hit came from the Prisonaires, a vocal group formed by five convicts, but its success story began after Phillips signed Elvis Presley to a recording contract in 1954. Presley's mixture of black and white music, often known as rockabilly, soon drew enthusiastic audiences, and after he had made five hits for Sun his contract was sold to the much larger RCA Victor company in ...


Graham Melville-Mason and Nigel Simeone

Czech record company and music publisher. As a record company it was formed in 1946 through the nationalization of the Esta and Ultraphon companies as Gramofonové Závody-Supraphon (Supraphon Gramophone Works) under the direction of the composer Jan Seidel, who had previously been artistic adviser to Esta. The first studios and pressing plant were at Rokoska, but the growth of the industry by 1948 led to a move to a new pressing plant at Loděnice, starting production in 1951 and still in use in 2000. The Domovina studio came into use in the early 1940s, and in 1949 the fine acoustical properties of the Dvořák Hall in the Rudolfinum were recognized, so beginning its long-standing status as the company’s principal recording studio for serious music.

The biggest leap forward in both artistic and international terms came with the appointment of Jaroslav Šeda as director of Supraphon in 1953. He widened the availability of records at home with the setting up of 150 Supraphon shops and developed international awareness through the national export–import company Artia, and created the journal ...


Kristine Forney


(b c1510–1515, Soest, nr Dortmund; d ?Sweden, 1570 or later). Music publisher, composer and instrumentalist, active in the southern Netherlands. His birthdate is based on a document of 1565 which states he was about 50 years old (‘out omtrent L jaren’). His place of birth, also suggested to be Soestdijk, near Utrecht, is clearly in the environs of Cologne (probably Soest in Westphalia): he refers to himself as ‘Tilemannus Susato Agrippinus’ (the Roman name for Cologne) in two publications, he is described in 1561 as ‘Thielman Suzato, geboeren van Coelen’ and in 1563 as one born outside the lands of the Emperor. Further, he was granted a subsidy in 1542 by the city of Antwerp for bringing a new trade from outside. Documentation confirms that he was the son of another Tylman (Thielmanssone); his father may have been the blind musician ‘Tielman dem blynden’ mentioned in a 1508...


Alan Pope

Italian firm of music publishers. Originally part of a theatrical company of the same name, it was founded in Milan in 1907, and owes its development to Paolo Giordani, who was company director from 1930 until his death in 1948. He aimed to build up a collection of Italian compositions and make them internationally known, but his efforts were interrupted by World War II. He was joined in 1935 by the Hungarian Ladislao Sugar, who was head of the firm until his death when his son Piero Sugar took over. Sugar brought Hungarian composers into the firm’s catalogue, so that it now includes many compositions by Sándor Veress, Dorati, Seiber and others. He also negotiated an agency agreement with Editio Musica Budapest and important reciprocal agency agreements with Schott and other firms. Suvini Zerboni publishes works by Spanish and contemporary Japanese composers as well as editions of Italian classical music (including the series Orpheus Italicus); it is also known for its guitar publications. By far the greater part of its catalogue (which numbered about 4000 items in ...


Mark Berresford

(Coleman )

(b Brunswick, MO, Feb 7, 1882; d New York, NY, March 9, 1961). American clarinetist, bandleader, composer, and music publisher. His first professional engagement (c1897–8) was with a “pickaninny” band led by Nathaniel Clark Smith. In 1902 he was assistant leader of P.G. Lowery’s band with Forepaugh and Sells Circus and later that year joined Mahara’s Minstrels band under the leadership of W.C. Handy. In 1903 he formed his own band in Minneapolis, where he made the first recordings by an African American band. Sweatman moved to Chicago in 1908, where he led trios at the Grand and Monogram theaters. In 1911 he made his first vaudeville appearance, and in late 1916 made the first records recognizable as jazz performances. In 1918 Sweatman’s band was signed to an exclusive recording contract with Columbia, their records rivalling those by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. He continued to work through the 1920s and early 1930s in vaudeville, and in ...


(b Liebenthal [now Lubomierz], nr Jelenia Góra; d Kraków, between 21 March and June 15, 1547). Polish printer. He established his printing house in Kraków in 1530. Among his music publications are secular and religious partsongs, liturgical books, and music treatises by Jerzy Liban (De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione, c1539) and Jan Spanenberg (Questiones musicae in usum Scholae Northusianae, 1544) which contain numerous musical examples, including some complete compositions. He used exclusively woodblock printing.

His relative Marek Szarfenberg (b Liebenthal; d Kraków, 1545) was a Kraków bookseller who first started printing in about 1543. He mainly published liturgical books with Gothic notation, using movable type in a double-impression technique, as well as woodblock printing.

Marek's grandson Mateusz Siebeneicher [Siebeneich, Sybeneycher, Zybenaicher] (b Liebenthal; d Kraków, 1582) married the widow of Maciej's son Hieronim and thus became the owner of the Szarfenberg printing house in ...


Ilona Mona

[Ferdinánd ]

(b 1831; d 1888). Hungarian music publisher . He was the son of János Mihály Táborszky, for whose benefit Liszt gave a concert in Pest on 8 January 1840. He opened his shop in 1868 as a branch of Rózsavölgyi és Társa, but soon became independent and, with József Parsch, set up as Táborszky & Parsch. As early as 1873 they received a letter of commendation at the Vienna Weltausstellung. Their publications are marked with the letters ‘T & P’ or ‘T és P’ followed by the plate number (usually accurate). Táborszky not only had business relations with Liszt, between 1871 and 1886 publishing more than 18 of his works; he enjoyed the composer’s personal friendship, as Liszt’s correspondence in Hungarian collections shows. The firm ceased in 1895 with the death of József Parsch, after more than 25 years of activity. The legal successor was Kálmán Nádor; since nationalization it has been Editio Musica Budapest....


Charlie Furniss

English record company. It was founded in London in 1990 by Gilles Peterson (b 1965) with the backing of Mercury Records. Peterson was already a well-known club and radio DJ in London and had previously set up a number of other labels, notably Acid Jazz. He aimed to create a recognisable sound in the same way as Motown, 2-Tone, Stiff Records and other specialist labels. With such singles as Galliano’s Power and Glory and Prince of Peace, Incognito’s Always There and Don’t you worry ‘bout a thing, Omar’s There’s nothing like this and the Young Disciples’s Get youself together and Apparently Nothin’, Talkin’ Loud established a style that blended hip hop beats and raps with elements of jazz, funk and latin. Like Acid Jazz, with which the label was often compared, it placed an emphasis on live music at a time when house and techno were popular. However Talkin’ Loud had a more varied and less overtly commercial sound that stretched to include rock, dub and poetry, and with an overall tendency towards hip hop rather than jazz funk and rare groove, it generated a genuinely contemporary style which can be heard on such albums as Galliano’s ...



Anne Schnoebelen

(fl Bologna, 1627–39). Italian publisher. Between 1627 and 1639 he printed four music publications: Costanzo Fabrizio’s Fior novello, libro primo di concerti (1627); Bartolomeo Guerra’s Il diletto del notturno (1634; the publication, however, is without the intended music); two books of Ascanio Trombetti’s Intavolatura di sonate per chitarra (1639). The last-named uses an unusual kind of tablature notation, which, as the author explained in his advice to the reader, incorporates letters of the alphabet and celestial symbols such as the sun to indicate repetitions. The same letter notation but without celestial signs is employed in the Fior novello; in this publication each page is printed half in the normal way and half upside-down so that it may be read by a person facing the first performer. All the pages are enclosed in an ornamental frame and every canzona finishes with an elegant frieze. Tebaldini also published Adriano Banchieri’s ...


Rainer E. Lotz

German record company . It was founded in Berlin in 1903 as the Gesellschaft für Drahtlose Telegraphie and specialized in electro-technical products; Telefunken was the brand name for radio receivers. In 1932 it bought Ultraphon, acquiring its entire stock of about 3000 metal masters recorded over the previous two and a half years. The repertory featured conductors such as Erich Kleiber and included recordings by dance bands, opera singers such as Joseph Schmidt and Michael Bohnen and instrumentalists such as Georg Kulenkampff. From 1933 Telefunken branched out into the production of gramophone records and subsidiaries were founded in Japan, the USA and Sweden. In 1937, after Deutsche Grammophon AG was liquidated, Telefunken and the Deutsche Bank led a consortium which founded a new company, Telefunken-Platte GmbH und Grammophon GmbH; however, Telefunken sold all its shares in the company in 1941. From 1935 to 1939 a cheap, brown-wax label, Telefunken-Musicus, marketed popular music. A special set of Bayreuth recordings was made on location at the Festspielhaus in ...


Ronald W. Rodman

A term for all music that is broadcast on television. It has functioned in several different ways, reflecting the array of genres and modes of broadcasting. In American television, music has been heard as entertainment through the performances of songs and instrumental works by classical, jazz, country, pop, rock, and other performers, in other words, music presented as music. It has also been heard as ‘production music’, to underscore dramatic programmes, enhance mood and narrative structure and meaning (similar to music’s function in films), and as a way to mark transitions within a television programme and between programmes. Music has functioned in these ways in both programmes and in commercials. During the early years of television, these modes of television music were discrete, but from the 1980s the distinctions in the form that music takes have been blurred.

The functions of television music listed above may be generalized in three categories, using terminology for narrative agency. First, it can be ‘extradiegetic’ – used to navigate and transition through the many programmes and advertisements of a broadcasting schedule, often called the ‘flow’ of television: from programme to station break and vice versa, and between station breaks, public service announcements, programme promotions, and commercials. Second, television music can be ‘intradiegetic’, used as background or mood music within narrative programmes, such as situation comedies, dramas, and documentaries. Intradiegetic music is usually ‘acousmatic’, meaning the source of the music is not seen on the screen. Finally, television music can be ‘diegetic’, that is, music whose source appears on screen and is heard as part of the action or the mise-en-scène of a programme. Diegetic music is often performed by musicians shown on the screen in genres such as musical variety shows, late-night talk shows, and music videos, but may also be featured in a narrative programme....


M.K. Duggan

[Theodorus Herbipolensis, Theodorus Francus, Theodorus Franconian, Theodor Franck]

(fl 1480–95). German printer, active in Venice . He is called Theodorus Francus, or Franconian, in the single book he printed, a Grammatica by Franciscus Niger (published by Johann Santritter in 1480). Book 8 contains sections on metre, rhythm and harmony, the last illustrated with six pages of the first printed mensural music. The ...


R. Allen Lott



Richard Crawford

(b Boston, Jan 19, 1749; d Worcester, MA, April 4, 1831). American printer and publisher . He was apprenticed to a printer at the age of seven and worked in print shops in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Charleston, South Carolina, and elsewhere. In 1770 he was in Boston publishing the Massachusetts Spy, a newspaper strongly opposed to the English government. He fought briefly in the War of Independence, then in 1778 settled in Worcester, where he continued to publish the Spy. There he established a business that made him the leading American printer and publisher of his time, with more than 400 titles coming from his press.

Before 1786, when Thomas first expanded his enterprise to include the publication of tune books, American sacred collections were normally printed from engraved copper plates. Thomas imported a fount of movable music type from England and brought out The Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony...


Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

English family of music publishers, printers and string instrument makers . The business was founded in London by Peter Thompson about 1741, when he took over the business of John Young; it was continued after his death (c1757) by his widow Ann and son Charles, sometimes under the imprint Thompson & Son. About 1761 they were joined by a second son, Samuel Thompson (d Aug 1795), to become Thompson & Sons. Ann left the firm in about 1763, and thereafter it was under the direction of various family members whose names appeared on its imprints: it was under the joint management of Charles and Samuel until about 1776, after which Samuel continued alone for a year; he was then joined by another Ann (whose relationship to the preceding Ann is not known), and these two remained with the firm until Samuel’s death, on their own (...


David Johnson

revised by Kirsteen C. McCue

(b Limekilns, Fife, March 4, 1757; dLeith, Feb 18, 1851). Scottish amateur folksong editor and publisher . He spent his childhood in Banff, northern Scotland, and then at the age of 17 settled in Edinburgh. In 1780 he took a clerical post with the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Art and Manufactures in Scotland for whom he worked until his retirement in 1839. Financially secure, he devoted his spare time to music. He attended the concerts of the influential Edinburgh Musical Society from the early 1780s, playing the violin in the orchestra and singing in the choir but never becoming a full member. He also developed a taste for Scots folksongs in ‘classical’ arrangements by hearing foreign singers, notably the castrato Tenducci, perform them at the Edinburgh Musical Society’s weekly concerts. Folksongs in their unadorned state, such as he must have heard in his childhood, do not seem to have appealed to him....


Frank Kidson

revised by David Johnson

(b? Edinburgh, c1684; d ?London, after 1752). Scottish singer and folksong collector . His father was Daniel Thomson, one of the king's trumpeters for Scotland. He sang solos as a boy at a Musical Society concert in Edinburgh on St Cecilia's Day 1695. By 1722 he had settled in London, where he gave a benefit concert in February that year, including (according to Burney) a Scottish folksong as an encore.

Thomson published Orpheus Caledonius, a Collection of the Best Scotch Songs set to Musick (London, 1725), a lavishly produced volume dedicated to the Princess of Wales, with a subscription list of 300 notable people. It contains 50 Scottish folksongs, most of them taken from Allan Ramsay's Tea-table Miscellany (Edinburgh, 1723); the melodic ornaments and the figured bass accompaniments are Thomson's own. Hawkins described Thomson as ‘a tradesman’ and the collection as ‘injudicious and very incorrect’; it is true that some of the song texts are in crude, oral versions and that the figured basses have grammatical mistakes. In ...


Hans Radke

(b Amsterdam, 13–21 Aug 1621; d Leiden, bur. Oct 8, 1653). Dutch lawyer . His father was Anthony Thijs, a merchant in Amsterdam. Thysius enrolled at the University of Leiden on 13 August 1635 and read philology and law. Between 1646 and 1648 he travelled in France and England to further his studies. Returning to Leiden he registered again on 27 August 1648 and graduated in law on 21 August 1652.

He owned an important library and founded the Bibliotheca Thysiana. In it is preserved a manuscript lutebook in French seven-line tablature. Though several scholars have suggested more hands, the volume was probably compiled by the Amsterdam minister Adrian Joriszoon Smout (b Rotterdam, c1580; d Rotterdam, Feb 1646), as a reference ‘Johan Thijs wt d' Auctie van Smoutius’ in the manuscript suggests, from his student time in Leiden (1595–1601) into at least the 1620s. With some 452 pieces, mostly for solo lute, it is the richest Dutch collection of lute music and one which shows the international aspect of musical taste in the Netherlands at that time. The manuscript contains intabulations of Dutch, English, French and Italian songs, Reformation psalms, motets and some 164 dances, mainly French, English, Italian and Dutch in origin, as well as six fantasias, including one by Francesco da Milano. Claude Le Jeune, Claude Goudimel, Orlande de Lassus, Peter Philips and Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck may be singled out among the composers of the songs on which the lute intabulations are based, and John Dowland, Robert Jones and Thomas Robinson are among the composers of the dances. A few pieces come from collections by E. Adriaensen published in Antwerp in ...


Jonas Westover

Ticket sales agency. The corporation, Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc., was formed in 1976 in Arizona by four entrepreneurs, Albert Leffler, Peter Gadwa, Gordon Gunn, and Charles H. Hamby Jr. The company handles ticket sales for a wide range of events (from sports events to arena rock concerts) at an enormous array of venues. Its centralized system allows for tickets to be made available to shows across the country in a standardized system with easily comparable prices. In many ways, Ticketmaster is a fairer system in comparison to the opaque, system-less circuit that preceded it, with brokers and scalpers driving prices higher; however, the company, a virtual monopoly, has been criticized for exorbitant processing and service fees on individual tickets. The group Pearl Jam sued the company on such charges, but lost and cancelled their 1994 tour. Ticketmaster has also been a litigant in anti-trust lawsuits. Despite these legal challenges, Ticketmaster continues to flourish in the early 21st century, especially after its landmark merger with ...